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To the parents of Kelvin,
I am your son's genetic counselor, and I have concluded from the karyotyping of his blood cells that he has Down Syndrome. Down syndrome is (usually) caused by an error in cell division called "nondisjunction." Nondisjunction is the failure of chromosomes to separate and segregate into daughter cells at division. Nondisjunction results in an embryo with three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two. This type of Down syndrome, which is also the most common among 95% of cases, is called trisomy 21. In the United States, approximately 6,000 babies are born each year with Down Syndrome, or 1 in 691 live births.
Some Physical Symptoms include: Upward slanting eyes, decreased or poor muscle tone, flattened facial profile and nose, and small head ears and mouth. In addition, physical development in children with Down syndrome is usually slower than those without it. Their poor muscle tone would cause them to be slower at learning how to sit, stand, and walk.
Some Intellectual and Developmental Symptoms include: Delayed language and speech development, short attention span, and slow learning. Most children with Down syndrome develop the communication skills they need, but it make take longer than other children.
Though there are treatments to Down syndrome, there is no single, standard treatment. Treatments are based on each individual's intellectual and physical needs, as well as their own person strengths and limitations. So your child will receive a specialized treatment for them specifically. A child with Down syndrome will likely receive care from a team of health professionals. In the treatment, depending on who the person is, someone with Down syndrome will most likely receive: Treatment therapy, drugs and supplements, and assistive Devices.
All of this may still be a shock to you and may seem hard to take care of your child alone, but there are support groups out there to help. Also, if you're still confused on what Down syndrome is, I will list some sites below. Some include:
NDSS(National Down Syndrome Society) at
National Down Syndrome Congress at