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Bio 101 Exam II Review Session 13 February 28, 2017
SI Leader: Janet Van De Stroet
Cell #1 has a 1 unit of volume for every 6 units of surface area. Cell #2 has 2 units of volume for every 14 units of surface area. Which cells has the advantage of faster nutrient transfer?
I don’t know
Discuss with the people around you 3 ways to overcome surface area to volume limitations
Which of the following statements concerning DNA is correct? 1. DNA contains instructions for the proteins your body makes. 2. DNA does not leave the nucleus. 3. The central dogma of molecular biology states RNA>DNA>Protein
1 and 2
2 and 3
1,2 and 3
I don’t know
The Central Dogma
Describe the central dogma and label where each step takes place
Which of the following structures would be found in both plant and animal cells?
All of these are found in both types of cells.
Consider a protein that is destined to be secreted out of the cell. This protein must first be assembled in the ________ and then transported to the ________ for processing and sorting.
smooth ER; rough ER
mitochondria; Golgi apparatus
Rough ER; transport vesicle
rough ER; Golgi apparatus
lysosome; smooth ER
Eukaryotic cells are more efficient than prokaryotes because their internal compartmentalization
makes each compartment nutritionally independent of all others.
allows for specialization through the subdivision of particular tasks.
permits the unregulated flow of materials around the cell.
eliminates the need for communication with the external environment.
reduces overall cell size.
Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is FALSE?
The Golgi apparatus works closely with the endoplasmic reticulum
The Golgi apparatus serves as a molecular warehouse and finishing factory.
The Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production.
The Golgi apparatus modifies products received from the endoplasmic reticulum.
According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes,
proteins are rigidly fixed in the phospholipid bilayer.
the most common types of molecules in the membrane are proteins.
basic membrane structure results from the ways in which proteins interact with water.
the membrane is a highly mobile mixture of phospholipids and other biomolecules.
the unique properties of cell types are determined by their phospholipids.
All of the following are able to easily pass though the lipid bilayer except
Listeria is a single celled, prokaryote. Which of the following structures would you expect to find in a Listeria?
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Which of the following organelles are thought to have arisen from primitive prokaryotes?
ER and nucleus
Golgi apparatus and lysosomes
Chloroplasts and mitochondria
Vacuoles and transport vesicles
Where in a plant will the most chloroplast be found?
Flower petal cells
Which of the following statements about prokaryotes is false?
Just like eukaryotes, prokaryotes have a plasma membrane.
The substance known as "cytosol" is found within the bacterial nucleus.
Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than most eukaryotic cells.
Ancient prokaryotes may have given rise to some eukaryotic organelles.
___________ is more efficient, while ________ creates more genetic diversity.
Binary fission, mitosis
Binary fission, meiosis
Describe the difference between
1. Chromatin vs chromatid
2. haploid vs. diploid
3. Somatic cells vs. sex cells
4. Autosomes vs. sex chromosomes
This is a somatic cell. What is it’s haploid number?
The end products of ______ are _______ cells.
Mitosis , diploid
Both a & b are correct
Both c & d are correct
When examining the rapidly dividing cells of the onion root tip, you see a cell whose replicated chromosomes are visible and are arranged in approximately the same size and shape as the nucleus, but there is no nuclear envelope. What stage of mitosis is this cell in?
Two chromosomes in nucleus that carry genes controlling the same inherited characteristics are
The cell below is 2n=8 what stage of division is the cell in?
Either A or C
The cell below is n=4 what stage of division is the cell in?
The cell below is 2n=4 what stage of division is the cell in?
A sunburn causes skin cells to be replaced as they are lost from the surface of the skin. This replacement process represents an example of
meiosis I and II.
none of the above
In a cell where 2n=2. How many pairs of homologous chromosomes would be present in a cell undergoing metaphase II?
What major event occurs during anaphase of mitosis?
Chromosomes replicate, so each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids
Chromosomes condense and the nuclear envelope disappears
Chromosomes end up at opposite poles of the cell and two nuclear envelopes form
Sister chromatids separate, forming independent chromosomes, moving toward the poles
Chromosomes line up in the middle
Consider a cell that begins meiosis with 30 total chromosomes. How many chromosomes will be present in each resulting daughter cell by the time the division process reaches metaphase II?
Cells undergo mitosis for many reasons. Which is not a valid cause
During the first meiotic division (Meiosis I) what happens?
Homologous chromosomes separate.
The chromosome number becomes haploid.
Crossing over between homologous pairs occurs.
All of the above occur
An animal whose 2n=32 is always more complex than an animal whose 2n= 16
What are the two parts of the cell cycle?
In what step does a cell spend most of its life?
What is G0?
Describe the relationship of positive and negative growth regulators in regards to controlling cell growth and division.
Describe the three main steps of cancer development
What are the steps
What is happening in the steps
When is the tumor benign and when is it malignant
Which of the following would not lead to increased risk of cancer?
Mutations that increase the activity of proto-oncogenes
Mutations that decrease the activity of tumor suppressor genes
Loss of p53 activity
All of the above increase cancer risk
Why is it more common for a person beyond middle age to have an increased risk for cancer?
Older cells have a harder time producing new cells.
Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes will have a longer time to accumulate mutations.
Genes can no longer repair themselves and will fall to mutations.
Hereditary mutations will occur after this age to cause cancer.
Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes reduce the number of mutations.
Which of the following statements regarding genes is false
Genes are located on chromosomes.
Genes consist of a long sequence of DNA.
Genes contain information for the production of a single protein.
In sexually reproducing species, each cell contains a single copy of every gene.
A pea plant that is heterozygous for the flower color gene makes gametes. What is the probability that a specific gamete contains the recessive allele for flower color for this plant?
The observable traits of an organism are its ________.
Albinism is caused by a recessive autosomal allele. A woman and man, both normally pigmented, have an albino child together. For this trait, what is the genotype of the parents?
It depends on the sex of the child
It is unknown because not enough information provided.
Both Homozygous recessive
A true breeding purple flower plant is crossed with a true breeding white flowered plant, you would expect to see (purple is dominant to white) ____________.
offspring with all white flowers
offspring with all purple flowers
Mixed offspring 50% purple and 50% white
Mixed offspring, with about 3 purple plants to 1 white plant
The genotypic ratio of offspring of a monohybrid cross is ______________.
75% LI 25% ll
50% Ll and 50 % ll
25% LL, 50% Ll, 25 % ll
List the phenotypic and genotypic ratios for the following scenarios
1. A purple heterozygote is crossed with a true breeding purple plant.
Assume Mendelian inheritance
Hybrid organisms that are produced from a cross between two true breeding organisms belong to which generation?
If a specific gene follows Mendelian inheritance, what percentage of the offspring will have the recessive phenotype when two heterozygous individuals mate?
100l sister chromatids
In sexually reproducing species, each cell contains a single copy o