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Course Supplement for ENG102 at Eastern Arizona College by Jacob Dee Lauritzen, M.A.
ENG102 Written Composition II Jacob Dee Lauritzen Introduction 4 • Activity 1: Pre-Test 8 • Activity 2: Ice Breaker Discussion 8 Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story 10 • A Brief Introduction to Common Literary Elements in Fiction 11 • Activity 3: Discussing Literary Elements in Fiction 12 • Using the Library 14 • Using Research to Write about Fiction 14 • Sample Paper: Bodies as Language in J. M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians 15 • Activity 4: Literary Analysis on Fiction 21 Chapter 2: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Poem 22 • A Brief Introduction to Common Literary Elements in Poetry 23 • Reading and Using Scholarly Articles to Write about Literature 24 • Activity 5: Discussing Literary Elements in Poetry 26 • Using Research to Write about Poetry 28 • Activity 6: Literary Analysis on Poetry 28 Chapter 3: How to Write a Research Paper Proposal 30 • The Purpose of a Research Paper Proposal and Abstract 31 • Sample: Research Paper Proposal 32 • Finding and Beginning Research on a Topic 34 • Activity 7: Discussing the Academic Research Process 34 • Using Research to Write a Research Paper Proposal 36 • Activity 8: Research Paper Proposal 36 Contents Copyright © 2016 by Jacob Dee Lauritzen No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy- ing, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. All pictures are published with permission using a Creative Commons No Attribution License. Jacob Dee Lauritzen email@example.com Thatcher, AZ 85552 Chapter 4: How to Write an Annotated Bibliography and a Literature Review 38 • The Purpose of an Annotated Bibliography and a Literature Review 39 • Conducting Research: Writing an Annotated Bibliography 40 • Activity 9: Writing and Discussing Your Annotated Bibliography 40 • Using Research to Write a Literature Review 42 • Sample: Research Paper Template 43 • Activity 10: Literature Review 45 Chapter 5: How to Write and Present a Research Paper 46 • Sharing What You Have Learned 47 • Activity 11: Giving and Discussing Your Research Paper Presentations 48 • Completing a Research Paper 49 • Activity 12: Research Paper 49 • Taking Your Post-Test 50 • Activity 13: Post-Test 50 4 ENG102 | Introduction Welcome to ENG102. My name is Jacob Lauritzen and I will be your instructor for this course. If you every have any ques- tions, please email me day or night at jacob. firstname.lastname@example.org. I will do my best to respond to you as quickly as possible. Eastern Arizona College, 2000) and English (B.S. Utah Valley University, 2007), and a Master of Arts degree in English Literature from the University of Akron (2010). Since 2010, I have been teaching high school and college English courses here in the Gila Valley. For the past three years, I have also been working towards completing an Educational Doctorate (Ed.D) in E-Learn- ing from Northcentral University. In other words, my specialty is teaching and learn- ing using technology. Taking an Online Course Online courses are very different from face- to-face courses. In a face-to-face class, you traditionally attend class at a regular time, listen to the teacher give a lesson, and then you do your homework outside of class. In an online course, there is no designated time for class, the teacher doesn’t usually give a lesson, but rather will facilitate you, as the student, in completing assignments Introduction About Your Instructor Let me start by telling you a little about myself. Not that long ago I was a student at Eastern Arizona College. Or at least, it doesn’t feel that long. I have since earned undergraduate degrees in Theatre (A.A. 5 that teach you. In other words, in an online course you learn by doing rather than by listening to a lesson. That’s how this course works. In this course, you will learn by completing read- ing assignments, by participating in the classroom discussion forums, by conduct- ing research, by writing papers and by taking tests. To be successful, you will need to motivate yourself to complete all of your activities correctly and on time. I will be checking into the forums and answering your questions and emails, but this class only works if and when you are willing to buckle down and do the work. On Using WebStudy WebStudy is the website that EAC uses for teaching online and hybrid courses. It is important that you become familiar and comfortable using WebStudy. If you have any questions with how to use the site, please let me know. If you have any tech- nical problems with the site itself, you can contact WebStudy directly at https://cms5. webstudy.com/webcourses/feedback.asp. Once you have logged into WebStudy and entered the course, you will be able to navigate around the site by using the tabs on the left side of the screen. Here you will see tabs for the TIMELINE, FORUMS, ASSIGNMENTS, TESTS, GRADES and NEWS. Use these links to navigate directly to specific areas of the website or use the links provided in the TIMELINE. The TIMELINE is the ideal way to access your lessons. As you click on the “+” icon for each module, it will open up instruc- tions as well as links to all of your forums, assignments, tests, and materials. FORUMS are the closest thing in an online course to a classroom discussion. You are required to participate in a forum each 6 ENG102 | Introduction week by asking questions, reading com- ments, and discussion issues with your classmates. This is a great opportunity for you to connect with your classmates and to get the help you need. In the ASSIGNMENTS tab, you can ac- cess all of the writing assignments for the course. For each writing assignment, you should upload your completed assignment. Saving files with the .doc or .docx file ex- tension works bests. There are only two TESTS for this course— the pre-test and the post-test. You are required to complete both tests, but only the post-test will count towards your final grade. Tests are timed, so make sure that you read all instructions and are prepared before you begin your test. The GRADES tab shows you up-to-date scores for completed assignments and any comments that I may have left for you to read. Make sure that you read and respond to any comments so that you can resubmit or correct assignments as necessary. The NEWS tab is where you can access all of the messages that I have sent to the class. If I need to communicate something im- portant to everyone, I will use this feature to let everyone know. Required Textbooks ENG102 has two required textbooks. • Backpack Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing (5th Edition) by X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia • The Everyday Writer with Exercises (6th Edition) by Andrea A. Lunsford Throughout this course, you will be as- signed to complete reading assignments from each of these textbooks. It is your responsibility to make sure that you have access to these books so that you can com- plete your assignments correctly and on time. Using Technology and Resources Because this class is taught online, it is important that you are both familiar with and comfortable using computers. I can do my best to answer questions relating to the course, but I will not be available to troubleshoot computer problems. If you are having trouble with your own equipment, you are welcome to use the computers in the Writing Lab in the Academic Programs building (Rooms 127 and 128), the Media Center in the library, or the Student Learn- ing Center. All assignments, except for forums, need to be uploaded to WebStudy as a Microsoft Word document with the file extension ".doc" or ".docx". For example: "document. doc" or "document.docx". Any modern word processor has the capability of saving a document under one of these extensions. If you upload your assignments under any other file extension (.wps, .rtf, etc.) it cannot be checked for originality by Tur- nitin.com (see below) and as such is unac- ceptable. Please, pay close attention when you save your work so that you can meet these requirements. If you are using Word Perfect, Open Office, or Google Docs pay especially close attention so that you can avoid this issue. All computers on campus have Microsoft Word on them. Students with Special Needs If you are in need of any special assistance due to disability or other need to complete this course, please let me know. The Col- lege does not inform me of these situations automatically, so it is your responsibility to do so if you would like any accommoda- tions or modifications. I am always willing to help. 7 Attending and Participating in the Course EAC requires that teachers keep track of student attendance and to drop students who are not attending and/or participating in class. Attendance for online courses is measured by how often you log into Web- Study. Participation is measured by wheth- er or not you are participating in discussion forums and submitting your assignments. You need to be doing both to stay enrolled in this course. If you miss more than two cumulative weeks of class, you may be dropped from the course. It is important that you contact me about any extenuating circumstances you may have. I reserve the right to make exceptions on an individual basis. EAC has recently also requested that teach- ers drop any student that does not attend the first day of class. Because attendance is measured by logging in, you should log into this course within the first two days of the course and participate in the "Intro- duce Yourself" forum (see above) as well as the other activities from Lesson 1 to stay enrolled in this course. There will also be other assignments that are required for you to complete to pass this course. During the first week of class, you should complete your pre-test (Activity 1.2) to continue onto the next week's work. This is a firm deadline that I will not budge on. Other such requirements will be identified within the instructions of the assignments them- selves. Plagiarizing Sources Citing sources correctly and giving au- thors appropriate credit for their work is extremely important. In fact, it is the topic of “Lesson 3: Giving Credit for Words and Ideas.” All work submitted through Web- Study is checked for originality by Turnitin. com. This is done in an attempt to discour- age students from plagiarizing another stu- dent or author's work. If you feel that you are having trouble keeping up with your work, please speak to a tutor or to me for help. Policies for plagiarism are available in the student handbook. Turning in Late or Missing Work It is very important that you complete all assignments on time. All assignments, forums, and essays are due through Web- Study by 11:55pm on the assigned date (typically a Thursday). Assignments that are turned in after this deadline may not receive full credit or may not be accepted at all. I reserve the right to extend deadlines on an individual basis. There are a number of required assignments for you to com- plete to receive a passing grade in this class. They are as follows: • Activity 4: Literary Analysis on Fiction • Activity 6: Literary Analysis on Poetry • Activity 8: Research Paper Proposal • Activity 10: Literature Review • Activity 12: Research Paper • Activity 13: Post-Test These assignments account for a total of 75% of your grade, but all are required to pass the course. If you are late in turning in one of these assignments, I would prefer for you to submit it late and give me the opportunity to give you partial credit than for you to not turn it in and fail the course. Naturally, completing these assignments does not automatically mean that you will pass the course. Pre-Test and Introductions Before you continue to the rest of the class, please complete Activity 1: Pre-Test and Activity 2: Ice Breaker Discussion (see TIMELINE). You should complete these assignments as soon as possible within the first two or three days of the course. 8 ENG102 | Introduction Activity 1: Pre-Test Before starting this pre-test, read Franz Kafka's "Before the Law" (Backpack Literature 321). Because this is a pre-test, just do your very best. The purpose of this test is to give your instructor an idea of where you are in your reading and writing skills. • You will have 50 minutes to complete your test. • There is only one essay question. • Do not navigate away from this screen or it may cause problems. Activity 2: Ice Breaker Discussion After you have completed your pre-test, enter the Ice Breaker Discussion Forum (see below) to introduce yourself to the class. This forum is simple. It's just an opportunity for everyone to get to know you. To get you started, here are a few questions you may want to answer in your introduction. Welcome! • What is your name and major? • What is your reason for taking this as an online class? • What is something unique about you? • Anything else that you want to talk about, within reason. Here is an example: My name is Jacob Lauritzen and I will be your instructor for this course. When I was a student at EAC, I earned an A. A. in Theatre and Cinematic Arts. I have since earned a B. S. in English Creative Writing from Utah Valley University and a M. A. in English Literature from the University of Akron. I currently work full-time as a high school English and Media teacher at Fort Thomas High School. I am also working on an educational doctorate (Ed.D.) in E-Learning from Northcentral University. Something unique about me is that I have 4 toes on my right foot. Just kidding. Something unique about me is that when I was 17 I wrote, directed, and acted in a main-stage play here at EAC. If you have any questions, feel free to email me at any time. I try to respond as quickly as possible. I take Sunday's off, so I won't respond until Monday mornings. Welcome! 9 10 ENG102 | Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story What Will You Learn? The purpose of this chapter is (1) to review and discuss some of the more common ele- ments of fiction that students can address when writing literary analyses, and (2) to teach students simple strategies they can use when reading scholarly articles throughout the semester. This chapter pays particular attention to using research articles on literature. What Will You Do? As part of this chapter’s assignments, you will participate in a discussion with classmates about literary elements in fiction. You will also write a 1,000 word literary analysis on fiction. Chapter 1 How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short story 11 There are many strategies that an author may use to get his or her point across. Some may choose to say it explicitly through a character or others may choose to relate their message more symbolically through the setting or even his or her tone. The possibilities are literally endless. The first half of the Backpack Literature discusses several strategies or elements that authors use to deliver their ideas to readers. Each chapter gives a short explanation of what each element is and then gives sever- al examples of stories that exemplify that element. For example, in Chapter 3 “Character,” the editors include Raymond Carver’s famous short story “Cathedral.” “Cathedral” focus- es on three characters that are connected in a very awkward situation. The narrator comes across as a self-centered man who is skeptical of his wife, Beulah’s relationship with a blind man she used to read to. When the blind man comes to visit, he is forced to socialize with this man. The narrator’s prej- udices are revealed through his thoughts. As the reader, it is easy for us to criticize him. It is socially unacceptable to hate someone for having a disability. The narra- tor becomes less of a character and more of a symbol of problems that we are familiar with in the world. By the end of the story, the narrator has a significant experience that “opens his eyes” to understand the blind man better. He isn’t a new person, but he is changed. Because the character has changed in the way that we likely agree with, we as readers are left satisfied upon finishing the story. By using this character, Carver is able to relate a number of different messages to his reader. It is up to them to decide what A Brief Introduction to Common Literary Elements in Fiction 12 ENG102 | Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story those are. They may feel that Carver wants us to be less prejudice or that we need to recognize that we can learn from those who are disabled. Maybe it’s simply that we don’t need to be jerks. Whatever the case may be, the beauty of literature is that the reader gets to decide. These elements, though subtle at times, are often strategically placed and utilized by authors to achieve a designed effect upon their readers. As you read through these stories, may close attention to the introduc- tions given by the editors. They will help to “open your own eyes” to new understand- ings of these stories. Activity 3: Discussing Literary Elements in Fiction Your participation in this discussion is worth up to 50 points (5% of your final grade). You should start participating early in Week 1 of the course and participate through- out the week. Participating in the Discussion During classroom discussions, you will not be required to “start new threads” or to post a prepared response on a topic. Many students will write their responses and nev- er participate in the discussion. This misses the point of these discussions entirely. Instead, I want this discussion to be your opportunity to focus on asking and answer- ing questions. I have started a few threads to promote discussion on your assigned readings from Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story. I will be checking in on this forum throughout the week to answer your questions and to observe your discussion with each other. Because you will not be graded on whether or not you post a prepared response, I will be grading you based on how involved in the discussion you are. If you log in, don’t read anyone else’s posts, and make one or two comments, you will not get full credit. If you login, read your classmates’ questions and comments, participate in the discussion with your own questions and comments, then you are more likely to benefit from the discussion. You are also more likely to get full credit for this activity. Remember, these discussions are each worth 50 points or 5% of your final grade. Compared to other assignments, these aren’t worth very much. I require your par- ticipation in these discussions because research shows that it helps students to feel connected while taking online courses. Research also shows that students who are re- Complete These Reading Assignments • Read “Writing about Literature” from The Purdue OWL website (http://owl.en- glish.purdue.edu/owl/resource/618/01/) • Read “Writing about Literature: Guide- lines for Literature Papers” from the Reading and Writing Center at Hunter College (http://rwc.hunter.cuny.edu/read- ing-writing/on-line/writing-about-litera- ture.html) • Review Chapters 1-8 of Backpack Liter- ature (Kennedy and Gioia 5-372) 13 quired to participate in discussions tend to have higher final grades. As important as it is to earn high grades, I also want you to learn. Please participate in these discussions. I promise you that as you do, you will get more out of this class than if you don’t. That being said, let’s get started! Respond to the questions and comments in the Fo- rum. Please focus your questions and comments under threads on those topics. If you don’t see a thread that matches your questions, use the “Other Questions and Com- ments” thread at the end of the forum. As always, if you have a question that is private, you can always email me directly at email@example.com. On Literary Elements Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about literary elements and stories in Backpack Literature. Some sample questions might include the following: • What is the difference between plot and theme? • How can character and setting effect the meaning of a story? • Discuss specific stories in Backpack Literature Post your questions and comments in the Forum: On Literary Analysis Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about writing about literature and writing literary analysis papers. Some sample questions might include the following. • What is literary analysis? • How do you write a literary analysis? • How do you read scholarly articles? • How do you use scholarly articles to write about literature? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. Other Questions and Comments? Don’t see a topic that fits what you want to talk about? Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments in the Forum. 14 ENG102 | Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story Using the Library Our library may be small, but it does offer some excellent resources to help you through this semester and in future classes here at Eastern Arizona College. The links below will help you to learn more about the resources that are available to you. These resources will help you with your research throughout the semester. We will discuss how to research in more depth later in the semester. For the time being, spend some time familiarizing yourself with the resources that you have available to you. If you have questions about researching, you can also contact the librarian, Karen Jaggers: • Email: firstname.lastname@example.org • Phone: (928) 428-8308 • Library Hours (http://www.eac.edu/Ac- ademics/Library/hours_Thatcher.shtm) You will need to use the library to find at least one article for Activity 4. Complete These Reading Assignments • Visit the EAC Alumni Library website at http://www.eac.edu/Academics/Li- brary/. • Read the library’s tutorials on how to search for books using the Library Cat- alog (http://www.eac.edu/Academics/ Library/LibraryCatalog.pdf) • Read the library’s tutorial on how to search for Online Resources (http://www. eac.edu/Academics/Library/LibraryOnli- neDatabases.pdf) Using Research to Write about Fiction Throughout this course, you will learn how to use research to write about a topic. This is also true for literature papers. In the Timeline is a link for a paper I wrote and presented at a conference while I was in graduate school. This is an example of an idea at the beginning of the academic pro- cess. We will discuss this in greater detail during Chapter 3. For now, I want you to read the paper and see how I use academic research to back up my interpretation of J. M. Coetzee’s novel, Waiting for the Barbarians. 15 Bodies as Language in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians There is a language in the way that J.M. Coetzee’s Magistrate and barbarian girl interact in his novel Waiting for the Barbarians. They speak to each other through physical contact; writing with their actions as their muscles move and contract. This improvised language relates a subplot of communication between the two as they touch. In addition to the more prominent stories of the novel, their physical contact offers another narrative, one of writing, reading, and their multi- plicity. Since its publication in 1980, Waiting for the Barbarians has been discussed in many ways. Derek Attridge and Rebecca Saunders have teased out arguments on allegory. Brian May has read Waiting in terms of post-colonialism. Topics such as apartheid, torture, the body, and language have also been discussed productively. Though scholars such as Susan Van Zanten Gallagher, Lance Olsen, Barbara Eckstein and Jennifer Wenzel have investigated a post- structuralist read- ing of the text, they haven’t gone as far as to recognize the language of physicality between its two primary characters or the treatise it presents on the difficulty of language. This paper will identify the improvised physical language that the Magistrate creates as he tries to understand his feelings towards the barbarian girl, and the linguistic disconnect that follows these attempts. Coetzee’s Magistrate uses the barbarian girl’s body to read her and himself, but he is ultimately unsuccessful because he ignores the basics of the tactile language he is creating and because of the multiple readings her body offers. The result is that he is left decentered in Coetzee’s ambiguous world. Viewing this world as textualized all images, sounds, tastes, smells, and tactile stimulations become text mete for reading and writing. Though physical presence can prevent disconnect be- tween writer and reader to a degree, one must still submit to the other without coercion to present the most successful environment for communication. Even so, misinterpretation as disconnect still occurs. Any system of communication will operate through a system of signs (symbols and sig- nifiers) and their signified. Whether the language is communicated orally, visually, physically or otherwise the language will act as metaphor with one thing representing another. Roland Barthes offers a useful definition: “We shall therefore take language, discourse, speech, etc., to mean any significant unit or synthesis ... even objects will become speech, if they mean something” (My- thologies 15). If a meaning can be attached to a sign, it becomes language. Though this paper will skim the surface of the issues referenced previously, it will narrow in more specifically on the relationship between writer and reader as they work to communicate, using Coetzee’s Magistrate and barbarian girl as examples. For the purposes of this paper, when discussing communication the one speaking is the writer and the one listening is the reader. In addition, disconnect references a break in communication or misinterpretation between writer and reader. 16 ENG102 | Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story In “Imagination of the Sign,” Barthes presents three relations that a sign may have with its signified. These relations act to focus or distort the meaning of a sign as they contextualize it. These three relations are the symbolic, paradigmatic, and the syntagmatic. Barthes describes the symbolic as an “interior relation” in that it carries its associated signifier without any outside or exterior support. The symbolic is the most commonly held or understood meaning of a word. The paradigmatic is an exterior relationship. When two signs are compared to each other a paradigm is created. In these terms, one sign can be categorized underneath or in association to another as it creates a context (“Imagination” 211). Last, is the syntagmatic relation. As the name suggests, it “unites the sign to other signs in the discourse preceding or succeeding it” (211). It acts as a sort of grammar connecting signs to each other. A language works by incorporating semantics (the symbolic), pragmatics (the paradigmatic), and grammar (the syntagmatic) to unite a sign to its signified. The problem the Magistrate faces as he attempts to use his body to communicate with and to interpret the barbarian girl is the lack of precedent for his experiment. In failing to utilize a previously established tradition or by not otherwise communicating to her what he is attempting, the Magistrate is ignoring the first of these relations and the barbarian girl is left without context sufficient to read him. Since it is ultimately through the senses that one receives information, it follows that any sense may act as medium of communication. Unlike oral or visual language, a physical language will not utilize words but rather action and inaction as a sign to signify meaning. Though the oral or visual perception of an act will influence this language, to identify it as its own system it must be rooted in tactile stimulation. As such the language must be perceived as blind, deaf, and dumb. Without touching, writer and reader cannot communicate. Disconnect becomes very easy in such circumstances. The act of one stepping away from the other can complicate or even eliminate the possibility of communicating this way. What makes a physical language especially troubling is that it is prone to subjectivity. With tactile stimulation being its primary mode of delivery, a feel- ing becomes the intended signified. In Walter J. Ong, S.J.’s essay “The Writer’s Audience is Always a Fiction,” he writes “Words are never fully determined in their abstract signification but have meanings only with relation to man’s body and to its interaction with its surroundings” (Ong 57). With feelings, like person- al experience, being specific to each reader dependent upon an impossible number of variables, understanding how to write to a reader and how to read an author becomes almost impossible. In “The Death of the Author,” Barthes writes “Linguistically, the author is never more than the instance writing” (“Death” 148). In a written correspondence between two parties the reader and writer are not present at the same time. The writer exists during the creation of the text only. The reader then uses symbol, paradigm, and syntagm to determine the meaning of the text. In a physical communication, the author of a sign will remain present, but cannot control what mes- 17 sage the reader will take from the action. They can only act to respond with additional writings in an attempt to focus what has already been delivered. In each case, the interpretation is still in the hands of the reader. Authoring a communication requires one to be at the mercy of another. Even an attempt to force a reader to understand can prove futile. The idea of communication and physical interaction is first figured in chapter one of Coetzee’s text as the Magistrate and Colonel Joll discuss interrogation tactics. Here the narrator references the concept of truth, its validity, and how to find it. Joll suggests that “A certain tone enters the voice of a man who is telling the truth. Training and experience teach us to recognize that tone” (5). This sort of forced communication is hardly objective as this “truth” can only be recognized by a “trained” reader. This is important as the Magistrate will try to understand what truth the barbarian girl has to offer. Barthes complicates the possibility of finding truth in a text as he writes, “We know now that a text is not a line of words releasing a single ‘theological’ meaning (the ‘message’ of the Author-God) but a multi-dimensional space in which a variety of writings, none of them original, blend and clash” (“Death” 149). With multiple readers and readings possi- ble, a text becomes pluralized. There is then no single truth, but readings and interpretations of it. In the first several encounters between the Magistrate and the barbarian girl, he attempts to exert his ranking superiority over her. He tells her to go indoors, has men bring her to him, and offers her a job in what amounts to be a sexual contract. She refuses him. Jennifer Wenzel writes, “The object around which his frustrations with language revolve is a broken human body, tortured into silence under an imperial regime” (Wenzel 61). At this juncture, the girl has been victimized from Joll’s interrogations. As such, the Magistrate as a man and symbol of authority is already at a loss because she cannot trust him. That he does not recognize this shows either stu- pidity or his propensity to misread his audience. Still, she interests him. Recognizing his use of power echoing Joll, he attempts to write himself otherwise by washing the girl’s battered feet. As he does so “her legs remain tense; then they relax” (28). Her relenting to his actions is the first clear physical response she offers to his touch. Unconscious to what he has started, through their physical interaction the Magistrate has written to the girl and she has written back. He continues, “I lose myself in the rhythm of what I am doing. I lose awareness of the girl herself. There is a space of time which is blank to me: per- haps I am not even present” (28). This is where the Magistrate first experiences what will become his experimental language. Speaking more to himself than the girl, his actions are signs invoked to elicit the intended signified; the feeling he wishes to experience through her. This first experi- ence with this tactile language is also its first example of disconnect. The Magistrate loses track of whom he is touching and even passes out. This is the sort of response that Coetzee’s ambiguous setting enables. In a world of undefined variables (an Empire without clear borders, characters without names, a fort on an unspecified frontier), the language remains ungrounded. 18 ENG102 | Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story As the Magistrate gets lost in the rhythm of his actions, there is an unavoidable sexual connotation. He continues his washing, saying, “My eyes close. It becomes an intense pleasure to keep them closed, to savour the blissful giddiness” (28). The use of “bliss” by Coetzee’s narrator opens progression to Barthes’ The Pleasure of the Text. In Pleasure, Barthes identifies two types of emotive responses to a text, “pleasure” and “bliss.” He defines a text of pleasure as “the text that contents” and a text of bliss as “the text that imposes a state of loss, the text that discomforts, ... brings to a crisis his relation with language” (Pleasure 14). As the Magistrate writes to and reads the girl’s body his loss of consciousness figures a text of bliss. As one who is trying something new, he does not fully understand what might be signified by the language he is both writing and reading. There is no precedent and as such no symbolic relation to ground it. In choosing to focus on the physical, the Magistrate is leaving the safety and stability of verbal and visual language. He comes to “a state of loss” as he is lost, even overwhelmed, by the signals and impulses he’s receiv- ing. In describing her, he says, “Her ankles are large, puffy, shapeless” (29). Her body being shape- less is important in that it makes this medium of communication—the body—vague and free from physical context or variable. It is like the ambiguous world, capable of meaning anything and yet reflecting meaning. Her body is then a multi-dimensional plain splitting text into multiple readings. The Magistrate describes his involvement in several physical acts throughout the course of the novel. He hunts, digs in the ruins, takes walks, etc. To escape from the stress and fatigue of both Joll and the barbarian girl’s presence, he goes to his prostitute, “The Star” (46). It is his nature to turn to physical activities for comfort. When this symbol of otherness, the barbarian girl, refus- es his sexual advances, his interest is stirred. He pursues her, his text of bliss, but upon realizing that he isn’t aroused he in unable to proceed. She is not reading as he anticipates. This confusion then invites further investigation, and curious, the Magistrate continues these physical communi- cations in an attempt to understand not only her, but also himself. His attempts to contextualize her lend themselves to an act of revision: if she does not read the way he wishes, perhaps he can manipulate her into doing so. During the next washing, the barbarian girl is naked. As he touches her he attempts to incorporate a paradigmatic relation to her body. These are actions he is familiar with, signs he understands, and he incorporates them in an attempt to give her body a familiar context. He at- tempts a paradigmatic relation because he knows nothing of her symbolic significance. As he rubs her body with oil, he says, “I close my eyes and lose myself in the rhythm of the rubbing, while the fire, piled high, roars in the grate” (30). It would appear he has succeeded in contextualizing the girl to his arousal, but continues, “I feel no desire to enter this stocky little body” (30). They go a week without speaking orally, but he continues to investigate noting that “she yields to everything” (30). He writes, “It has been growing more and more clear to me that until 19 the marks on this girl’s body are deciphered and understood I cannot let go of her” (31). Despite his many attempts, he is not making ground as he wishes. He still does not know her. His musings then turn inward as he tries to read himself in relation to the girl. “These bodies of hers and mine are diffuse, gaseous, centreless .... I know what to do with her no more than one cloud in the sky knows what to do with another” (34). The medium of their bodies are becoming more complicated to him. They are “diffuse, gaseous, centreless.” He is experiencing with greater frequency a “state of loss” but can no longer enjoy it. In a fit of frustration, the Magistrate begins to see his prostitute again. The barbarian girl sensing the change in him acts to secure his approval. He has never tried to explain to her, physi- cally or otherwise, the purpose of the washings. As he caresses her, she moves his hand encourag- ing sexual advance. He writes, “I experience no excitement during this the most collaborative act we have yet undertaken” (44). He expects sexual arousal and finds none, even after his language is finally answered by his reader. In confusion, he questions himself, “How can I believe that a bed is anything but a bed, a woman’s body anything but a site of joy?” (44). His objectification of women as sexualized is restated. He understands women to be the means to satisfaction and for this same reason he his baffled that he finds none in the girl. If it is a conversation that he wants, he cannot continue as he has seeking personal satisfaction. His writing must account for his audience. In terms of language, he has tried to put her in a context he understands, but every time her body has resisted meaning. Even when she begins to write back to him, it is because she thinks it is what he wants. When it doesn’t stir him as he wishes, he rejects her leaving her wanting as a reader. Returning to Ong we learn, “If the writer succeeds in writing, it is generally because he can fictionalize in his imagination an audience he has learned to know” (59-60). A successful writer then understands the history of their audience. The Magistrate has been unable to learn her history and as such cannot focus his writing to incorporate the barbarian girl. The culmination of their intimacy arrives during their trip to find the barbarians. As they sleep, she initiates contact and he submits. He does not know, even now after having achieved his sexual desires, the purpose of his physical communications to her. He thinks, “The words grow more and more opaque before me; soon they have lost all meaning” (65). As he attempts to focus the meaning of the event, the pressure causes the sign to slip and he is lost in ambiguity. He seeks a truth in it, but finds himself instead in a multi-dimensional plain refusing his attempts to be focused. As they finally reach the barbarians, he asks her to stay with him: “She is going. She is almost gone.... I touch her cheek, .... When I tighten my grip on her hand there is no answer” (73). Despite his request, she leaves him. She slips away in appropriate fashion—like all the world around him. Upon returning from the mountains the Magistrate is taken into custody where he suffers a series of horrific physical deprivations and abuses. Here the Magistrate loses his connec- 20 ENG102 | Chapter 1: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Short Story tion with reality. Without physical interaction to give him bearing he begins to deteriorate. On one occasion he escapes his makeshift cell to his prostitute’s bedroom only to hear her with an- other man. He has lost all contact with the barbarian girl and at the novel’s end has no foreseeable chance of seeing her again. Reality as he knows it has become like his failed language. Its symbolic markers no longer carry their previous meanings, paradigms have moved, and their connecting syntagms with it. Coetzee’s ambiguous world has enveloped him completely. He expected a simple answer that his language could not provide. It is too complex, too multi-dimensional to accept a coerced reading—his reading. The decentered Magistrate exemplifies the multiplicity of language. Coetzee’s textualized world and characters cannot make meaning of each other despite their numerous attempts. There are too many possibilities. A manipulation of the text would attempt to force a meaning from it, a meaning that would be nothing more than a lie. It would deny the multi-dimensionality of language and in torturous fashion attempt a fascists control of meaning. Such a thing prevents and pushes out the reader. And as Barthes makes clear it is vain to force the reader into anything. There needs to be a cooperation or else the writer dies. The reader cannot respond giving new life to the writer. The Magistrate cannot escape the “diffuse, gaseous, centreless” world he is in. He has ignored what could ground him and as a result he is lost in language. Works Cited Barthes, Roland. “The Death of the Author.” Modern Criticism and Theory. 2nd Ed. David Lodge, Ed. London: Longman, 2000. 145-50. - - - . “The Imagination of the Sign.” A Barthes Reader. Ed. Susan Sontag. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982. 211-17. - - - . The Pleasure of the Text. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang, 1975. Coetzee J.M. Waiting for the Barbarians. New York: Penguin, 1982. Ong, Walter J., S.J. “The Writer’s Audience Is Always a Fiction.” Cross-Talk in Comp Theory: A Reader. 2nd Ed. Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana: NCTE, 2003. 55-76. Wenzel, Jennifer. “Keys to the Labyrinth: Writing, Torture, and Coetzee’s Barbarian Girl.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 15.1 (Spring 1996): 61-71. 21 Activity 4: Literary Analysis on Fiction Use what you have learned from your reading assignments and from your participa- tion in the classroom discussion to write a 1,000 word literary analysis on one of the short stories from Backpack Literature that meets each of the following requirements: • Write about one or more literary elements discussed in Backpack Literature chap- ters 1-8. • Include a clear and well thought out thesis on your paper topic. • Find one or more scholarly articles using the library’s online databases to support your thesis statement. • Use direct quotes, paraphrases, and summaries from your textbook, and at least one scholarly article (see above) to support your thesis statement. • Follow MLA formatting and style, including in-text citations and a Works Cited page. • Upload your file as a Microsoft Word .doc or .docx file. 22 ENG102 | Chapter 2: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Poem What Will You Learn? The purpose of this chapter is (1) to review and discuss some of the more common ele- ments of poetry that students can address when writing literary analyses, and (2) to teach more advanced strategies they can use when reading scholarly articles throughout the semester. This chapter will pay greater detail to using research articles on literature. What Will You Do? As part of this chapter’s assignments, you will participate in a discussion with classmates about literary elements in poetry. You will also write a 1,000 word literary analysis on poetry. Chapter 2 How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Poem 23 A Brief Introduction to Common Literary Elements in Poetry Differences Between Fiction and Poetry There are many similarities between fiction and poetry. Both can tell a story. Both may have characters, theme, and setting. Both may use figurative language, but they are different. Defining poetry can be difficult, especially because so many poets have tried to test the definition of what poetry is. Typically, we think of poetry as lines that rhyme with a set meter. They are usually about love or nature and we only read it when we have to, right? That may be true, but poetry is more than this. I remember going to a poetry reading in college. The author Scott Poole was very creative. His poems didn't rhyme like you would ex- pect. My favorite was a poem called, "Love Story at Marvin Gardens." As you would expect, this poem told a story and it was about love. What was unique was that it brought to life a game of Monopoly. This is characteristic of Scott Poole. He likes to have something unusual happen, but give a moral at the end. As you learned from your reading in the previous section, there are many different forms of poetry. There are the forms we al- ways hear about like sonnets, limericks, or haikus. Some rhyme and some don't. Some use alliteration and cacophony. Because of these differences, the scholarship on poetry is also different than that written on fiction. Activity 6 requires you to find a scholarly article to use in your paper. As you conduct your research, pay close attention to how these articles are different than those you read last week. These will show you how you can take a different approach to your own Poetry Papers. 24 ENG102 | Chapter 2: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Poem Complete This Reading Assignment • Read Chapter 15 "Doing Research" from The Everyday Writer (154-167). • Read Chapter 9-20 of Backpack Literature. Reading and Using Scholarly Articles to Write about Literature During this lesson, I will walk you through how to read and use a scholarly article on literature to write your own literary analy- ses. • Go to http://eac.edu/Academics/Li- brary/default.shtm. • Click on the search tab for “EAC-y Search” and type “The Fall of the House of Usher”. • Look for “Poe and the Apocalyptic Sub- lime” by Jonathan A. Cook. You will be using this article as an example of a scholarly article on research for the following tutorial. If you are unable to find this exact article, continue to read the tuto- rial. It should still be helpful in explaining the process for using a scholarly article to research a story or poem and to them write about it. If you have trouble, this link will (hopeful- ly) take you straight to the article: http:// crawl.prod.proquest.com.s3.amazonaws. com/fpcache/698da22ba0a3aa18b- 67c7a4eb0790088.pdf?AWSAccessKey- Id=AKIAJF7V7KNV2KKY2NUQ&Ex- pires=1466707541&Signature=F1ih7w2IR- ZGbhsKvJ%2Fra5aY%2Bs5Y%3D) Reading Scholarly Articles on Literature Now that you have downloaded a scholar- ly article, let’s talk about how to read one. Reading academic research is incredibly difficult. During graduate school, I had to read articles like this one all the time. It put me to sleep! Sometimes I had to stand up and pace around my apartment just to stay awake. So, why would I make you do this? Well, there is a reason why academic re- search can be difficult to read. It is because it often uses a high frequency of subject specific vocabulary. What does that mean? It means that to be efficient and specific, authors will often use “big words” that are usually only used when discussing their field of expertise. • Look at the first page of “Poe and the Apocalyptic Sublime: ‘The Fall of the House of Usher.” • Read the first paragraph and see how many terms there are that you are unfa- miliar with or seem specific to this field of study. You may have come up with a list some- thing like this: • Sublime • Apocalyptic sublime • Aesthetic • Catastrophic • Pervasive • Contemporary You may have come up with a similar list. Your list may have had more or less than 25 this did. That doesn’t matter. Regardless, these are terms that most people don’t use in casual conversation. They are typically used in an appropriate context, such as an academic paper. This article does something unique in that it begins by defining the history of the term “apocalyptic sublime.” Cook does this because he recognizes that he is using the term in a unique way. This is common in academic research. To make sure that your reader understands you clearly, the author may begin by defining how they will use words. In essence, he or she may ignore how others have used the word and use their own definition. This is confusing and helpful. It is confusing because they may be using the word in a way that you are not familiar with. It is helpful, because they are doing what they can to help you under- stand the context that they will be using the word in. Depending on how old you are, the word “Sublime” may not mean anything to you. It may be the name of a band. It too is a word that we don’t normally use, but it shows up frequently in texts from and relating to the 1800s, like when Edgar Alan Poe wrote his short story “The Fall of the House of Usher.” This adds another level of complexity to what may already be a difficult task. If you are reading an academic article, you already have to deal with a higher level of vocabulary. If you are reading an article that is discussing anoth- er language or even another time period, these situations may also introduce new terms. In graduate school, I studied this time period or else I wouldn’t have known what sublime means in this context. What does that mean for you? Well, it means that researching a new topic takes time. You should always give yourself enough time to read enough and to under- stand what you read. This will be incredibly important through this semester. • Go to page 4 (the second page of your PDF file) and read paragraph 2. This opening sentence is a good example of a topic sentence, maybe even a thesis statement. Pay attention to sentences like these. Like an abstract, clear statements such as this can help you to quickly figure out what an author’s main points are, to find short quotes that you can use in your own research, and to weed through all the other details that may be confusing. How to Use a Scholarly Article to Write an Academic Paper We have discussed some strategies you can use to understand and more effectively use a scholarly article to help you write your own papers. Now let’s talk a little more about how to choose the best quotes to write a paper. Let’s continue using Cook’s article as an example. On page 4, he writes: The main character of the story, Roderick Usher, attempts to transcend morality in an idealized realm given over to the creation and enjoyment of art; yet death reappears in the form of Usher’s prema- turely buried ‘twin’ sister, whose advent catalyzes the collapse of the Usher man- sion and line. (Cook 4) As a student it is often a temptation to find long quotes to fill up space. Do not use long quotes unless your reader absolutely needs to read the whole thing! The quote above is only one sentence long, but I don’t have to use the whole quote to make a point. I could write something like this: Cook argues that Usher “attempts to transcend morality in an idealized realm” (Cook 4). You can find short phrases that have a lot of meaning, quote them, and then explain how that idea supports your thesis. This is 26 ENG102 | Chapter 2: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Poem an important strategy. Many students forget to explain anything about quotes they use. They assume that the reader understands why the quoted it and how it supports their argument. Don’t! Quoting anything is a three-step process, just like spiking a ball in volleyball. Bump! Set! Spike! You bump when you give attribution for the author. For instance, when I wrote, “Cook argues” I was identifying who the author was. If this is the first you are quoting a source, you should be more specific and even include the name of the article or book that you are quoting. For instance: Jonathan A. Cook in “Poe and the Apoc- alyptic Sublime: ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’” argues that Usher “attempts to transcend morality in an idealized realm” (Cook 4). When writing academic research, it is extremely important to identify where you information is coming from. It helps to increase your ethos, and it helps readers to have sufficient context for their own analy- ses of your work. After you finish a quote, you should explain what the quote means and then relate that to your thesis. If you are using a quote to show an opposing viewpoint, you should follow up by responding and refuting the author’s claim. You should never quote a source and not explain it. This looks like you are simply trying to fill space and it will probably get you docked for points. • Go to pages 42 and 43 to look at Cook’s Works Cited page. One of the greatest resources in any schol- arly article is its Works Cited page. Why? A Works Cited page is extremely useful be- cause you can use it to find other sources. As you will find out in a few weeks, a schol- arly article will often begin by summarizing the major scholarship that has been done on the paper’s topic. This helps the read- er to gain a foundation so that they can understand what the paper is adding to the research that has already been published. For this reason, you can often find the most important articles and books on a topic by reading through a Works Cited page. Activity 5: Discussing Literary Elements in Poetry Your participation in this discussion is worth up to 50 points (5% of your final grade). You should start participating early in Week 2 and participate throughout the week. Participating in the Discussion During classroom discussions, you will not be required to "start new threads" or to post a prepared response on a topic. Many students will write their responses and never participate in the discussion. This misses the point of these discussions entirely. Instead, I want this discussion to be your opportunity to focus on asking and answer- ing questions. I have started a few threads to promote discussion on your assigned readings from Chapter 2: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Poem. I will be checking in on this forum throughout the week to answer your questions and to observe your discussion with each other. 27 Because you will not be graded on whether or not post a prepared response, I will be grading you based on how involved in the discussion you are. If you log in, don't read anyone else's posts, and make one or two comments, you will not get full credit. If you login, read your classmates' questions and comments, participate in the discussion with your own questions and comments, then you are more likely to benefit from the discussion. You are also more likely to get full credit for this activity. Remember, these discussions are each worth 50 points or 5% of your final grade. Compared to other assignments, these aren't worth very much. I require your par- ticipation in these discussions because research shows that it helps students to feel connected while taking online courses. Research also shows that students who are re- quired to participate in discussions tend to have higher final grades. As important as it is to earn high grades, I also want you to learn. Please participate in these discussions. I promise you that as you do, you will get more out of this class than if you don't. That being said, let's get started! Respond to the questions and comments in the Fo- rum. Please focus your questions and comments under threads on those topics. If you don't see a thread that matches your questions, use the "Other Questions and Com- ments" thread at the end of the forum. As always, if you have a question that is private, you can always email me directly at email@example.com. On Poetic Elements Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about literary elements and poems in Backpack Literature. Some sample questions might include the following: • What is the difference a closed form and open form poems? • How can rhyme and meter affect the meaning of a poem? • Discuss specific poems in Backpack Literature. Post your questions and comments in the Forum. On Researching Scholarly Articles Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about reading and writing papers using scholarly articles. Some sample questions might include the following: • What makes an article a scholarly article? • How do you read a scholarly article? • How do you understand a scholarly article? • How do you find scholarly articles on your topic? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. 28 ENG102 | Chapter 2: How to Write a Literary Analysis Paper on a Poem Using Research to Write about Poetry Writing about poems is different than writ- ing about short stories. Poetry has a lot of specific vocabulary. Use what you learned from your reading to narrow your paper to talk about elements that are specific to poetry. Activity 6: Literary Analysis on Poetry Write a 1,000 word literary analysis paper discussing one or more literary elements in a poem. Use at least one scholarly article to support your analysis. Write a literary analysis at least 1,000 words long that meets each of the following requirements: • Choose one or more poems from Backpack Literature. • Argue a clear and original thesis discussing one or more of the elements of poetry listed in Backpack Literature. You may explain choose to explain how the author uses these elements in his or her poem(s). You may also want to explain how the author’s use of these elements affects the poem(s). • Use direct quotes, summaries, and paraphrases from the textbook and from at least one scholarly article to support your thesis. • Follow MLA Documentation and formatting. 29 30 ENG102 | Chapter 3: How to Write a Research Paper Proposal What Will You Learn? The purpose of this chapter is (1) to help you to come up with an idea for your research paper due during Week 5 of this class and (2) for you to see if this idea is worth research- ing. What Will You Do? As part of this chapter’s assignments, you will begin researching your topic, you will par- ticipate in a discussion on these topics with your classmates, and you will write a research paper proposal for your topic idea. Chapter 3 How to Write a RESEARCH PAPER PROPOSAL 31 The Purpose of a Research Paper and Abstract Now that you are in at least your second semester of college (maybe more), you may have already written several research papers for your other classes. The purpose of this class is to focus on this process to help you to learn the process for writing research papers for this and other classes. So, what is the research process? Like any kind of writing it starts with an idea. Re- searchers will begin preliminary research on their idea to see if it is worth research- ing. That is your purpose this week: (1) to come up with an idea and (2) to see if it is worth researching. Once you have come up with an idea that you think is worthwhile, you need to organize your thoughts in a short proposal. This is called a research paper proposal. College professors and professional re- searchers will use these proposals to apply to speak at academic conferences. From there, if other researchers think their ideas have merit, they may write longer papers and eventually books on the topic. Not all ideas make it that far, but many will start with a proposal just like yours. So, how do you get started? Here is a sam- ple research paper proposal that I wrote to give you an idea of what you are trying to accomplish (turn to page 32): 32 ENG102 | Chapter 3: How to Write a Research Paper Proposal Sample Proposal Proposal Elements Some researchers believe that reading scores for K-12 students could be improved by implementing mobile devices into the class- room. This would be an important finding because students across the country consistently score lower than their peers in other coun- tries. At the high school where I teach, I have observed students scoring years below their grade level. This makes reading common high school texts without teacher help almost impossible. Could technology be used to help students improve their reading scores in preparation for graduation and transitioning to college reading? 1. Introduce the topic of your proposal In 2011, Conway and Amberson found that implementing laptops into schools could help students with dyslexia and other reading disorders (Conway and Amberson). Not all students with low read- ing scores have reading disorders, but the same practice could be applied as an accommodation to help them improve their reading inside and outside of the classroom. Later, Clary, Kigotho, and Barros-Torning found many e-learning technologies that teachers could use to improve literacy in their classrooms (Clary, Kigotho, and Barros-Torning). They focused on the use of Web 2.0 technologies such as online forums and learning management systems, but they also reported the need to develop new pedagogies for implementing these tools. These tools could be used to increase student engagement within the classroom and extend it beyond the classroom to create a support system for students after they have left campus. Other researchers have found that e-readers and other mobile de- vices can be effectively used as a tool to promote reading literacy (Biancarosa and Griffiths). 2. Summarize the research on your topic. Use at least 3 sources to show that your topic has grounds to research. Despite K-12 student scores, some students still graduate and matriculate to the college classroom where they have difficulty transitioning because they simply do not read on a high enough level to understand their textbooks or their instructors. 3. Identify the problem that your will research investigate. This paper will research the validity of these researchers claims and investigate whether or not additional research will support the use of e-learning technologies such as e-readers and mobile devices to improve reading literacy in K-12 students. 4. Include a hypothesis for what you think your research will find. 33 Here it is again in paragraph form: Some researchers believe that reading scores for K-12 students could be im- proved by implementing mobile devices into the classroom. This would be an im- portant finding because students across the country consistently score lower than their peers in other countries. At the high school where I teach, I have observed students scoring years below their grade level. This makes reading common high school texts without teacher help almost impossible. Could technology be used to help students improve their reading scores in preparation for graduation and transitioning to college reading? In 2011, Conway and Amberson found that implementing laptops into schools could help students with dyslexia and other reading disorders (Conway and Amberson). Not all students with low reading scores have reading disorders, but the same practice could be applied as an accommodation to help them improve their reading inside and outside of the classroom. Later, Clary, Kigotho, and Barros-Torning found many e-learning technologies that teachers could use to improve literacy in their classrooms (Clary, Kigotho, and Barros-Torning). They focused on the use of Web 2.0 technologies such as online forums and learning management systems, but they also reported the need to develop new pedagogies for implementing these tools. These tools could be used to increase student engagement within the classroom and extend it beyond the classroom to create a support system for students after they have left campus. Other research- ers have found that e-readers and other mobile devices can be effectively used as a tool to promote reading literacy (Bian- carosa & Griffiths). Despite K-12 student scores, some stu- dents still graduate and matriculate to the college classroom where they have difficulty transitioning because they sim- ply do not read on a high enough level to understand their textbooks or their instructors. This paper will research the validity of these researchers’ claims and investigate whether or not additional re- search will support the use of e-learning technologies such as e-readers and mo- bile devices to improve reading literacy in K-12 students. Evaluate how I wrote the proposal. Then, start your own research. Complete This Reading Assignment Use the following reading assignments to help you prepare to write your research paper proposals: • Read Chapter 14 "Preparing for a Re- search Project" from The Everyday Writer (Lunsford 149) • Read Chapter 15 "Doing Research" from The Everyday Writer (Lunsford 154) 34 ENG102 | Chapter 3: How to Write a Research Paper Proposal Finding and Beginning Research on a Topic You have spent a little bit of time think- ing about your paper topic. Use what you have learned by using the library's online resources to start researching your topic. Then, participate in this week's discussion to learn more about the research process and how to write a research paper proposal. Activity 7: Discussing the Academic Research Process Your participation in this discussion is worth up to 50 points (5% of your final grade). You should start participating early in Week 3 and participate through the week. Participating in the Discussion During classroom discussions, you will not be required to “start new threads” or to post a prepared response on a topic. Many students will write their responses and never participate in the discussion. This misses the point of these discussions entirely. Instead, I want this discussion to be your opportunity to focus on asking and answer- ing questions. I have started a few threads to promote discussion on your assigned readings from Chapter 3: How to Write a Research Paper Proposal. I will be checking in on this forum throughout the week to answer your questions and to observe your discussion with each other. Because you will not be graded on whether or not you post a prepared response, I will be grading you based on how involved in the discussion you are. If you log in, don’t read anyone else’s posts, and make one or two comments, you will not get full credit. If you login, read your classmates’ questions and comments, participate in the discus- sion with your own questions and comments, then you are more likely to benefit from the discussion. You are also more likely to get full credit for this activity. Remember, these discussions are each worth 50 points or 5% of your final grade. Compared to other assignments, these aren’t worth very much. I require your par- ticipation in these discussions because research shows that it helps students to feel connected while taking online courses. Research also shows that students who are required to participate in discussions tend to have higher final grades. As important as it is to earn high grades, I also want you to learn. Please participate in these dis- cussions. I promise you that as you do, you will get more out of this class than if you don’t. That being said, let’s get started! Respond to the questions and comments in the Fo- rum. Please focus your questions and comments under threads on those topics. If you 35 don’t see a thread that matches your questions, use the “Other Questions and Com- ments” thread at the end of the forum. As always, if you have a question that is private, you can always email me directly at firstname.lastname@example.org. On Writing Research Paper Proposals Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about writing research paper proposals. Some sample questions might include the following: • What is a research paper proposal? • What information do I include in a research paper proposal? • What does a research paper proposal look like? • How do I start researching my topic to see if there is enough to write about? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. On “The Affect of Technology on Education” Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about your paper topic, “The Affect of Technology on Education.” Some sample questions might include the following: • How do I narrow down this topic to something I am interested in? • What does the word “affect” mean? • I have an idea, what do I do now? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. Other Questions and Comments? Don’t see a topic that fits what you want to talk about? Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments in the Forum. 36 ENG102 | Chapter 3: How to Write a Research Paper Proposal Using Research to Write a Research Paper Proposal Now that you have studied what a research paper proposal is and have discussed it with your classmates in the forum, it is time for you to write your own research paper proposal. Activity 8: Research Paper Proposal Write a 250-word research paper proposal on the topic of “the affect of technology in education” that meets each of the following requirements: • Include an introduction of the topic. • Summarize at least 3 sources as a basis for the research you are going to conduct. • Identify the problem that your research will investigate. • Include a hypothesis for what you think your research will find. • Follow MLA formatting and guidelines, including in-text citations and a Works Cited page for all source entries. • Upload your document as a Microsoft Word document with the .doc or .docx file extension. 37 38 ENG102 | Chapter 4: How to Write an Annotated Bibliography and A Literature Review What Will You Learn? The purpose of this chapter is (1) to help you to use an efficient method for organizing your research by writing an annotated bibliography, and to (2) start writing the literature review portion of your final research paper. What Will You Do? As part of this chapter’s assignments, you will (1) write and discuss your annotated bibli- ography with the class. You will also (2) write and submit a literature review. Chapter 4 How to Write an Annotated Bibliography and a Literature Review 39 The purpose of an annotated bibliography and a literature review Before we begin, let me define what an annotated bibliography and a literature review are. They are similar documents in purpose, but they accomplish different purposes. An annotated bibliography is a document that looks like a Works Cited page, but it has a paragraph describing each entry. These paragraphs are called annotations. As the word suggests it is essentially a "note" on the most important ideas in the paper. An annotated bibliography will often pro- vide a summary of the article and discuss the most important ideas. For example, an article on what students think about tex- ting may argue that texting is good or bad. Your annotation of the article would have to summarize the article and then include notes on the main ideas like the thesis that texting is either good or bad. It should not include your opinions on the subject. Unless you are an expert in the field, it is unnecessary to identify how you feel about the subject. Here is a good explanation of what an an- notated bibliography is: https://owl.english. purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01/ A literature review is a section in a research paper that summarizes the most import- ant research on the subject. This section usually follows the introduction of a paper and is used to lead into a more in depth discussion of the paper's topic. If you create an annotated bibliography as part of your 40 ENG102 | Chapter 4: How to Write an Annotated Bibliography and A Literature Review research process, you can use this as a basis to write the literature review portion of your paper. Make sense? Here is a good explanation of what a liter- ature review is: https://owl.english.purdue. edu/owl/resource/994/04/ Conducting Research: Writing an Annotated Bibliography So, why should you write an annotated bib- liography or a literature review? An anno- tated bibliography is best used as a tool to help you keep yourself organized through- out the research process. It can help you to quickly reference the work you have already completed to see what the field of research says about your topic. It can also be used to help you write your literature review. A literature review is an important section of a research paper. It shows your reader that you have thoroughly researched the topic. It also helps the reader to develop a context and background for what you are about to argue so that they can understand your paper. During this lesson, you will write both an annotated bibliography and a literature review. This is to help you to write a higher quality research paper. Trust me. This will seem like a lot of work, but it will help. Activity 9: Writing and Discussing Your Annotated Bibliographies You should begin participating in the discussion early in Week 4 and continue partici- pating in the discussion throughout the week. Using your textbook and the resources above, write an annotated bibliography that includes at least 10 different sources that you intend to use in your research paper. This can include the three sources from your research paper proposal. Use your best judgment and the guidance of your textbook to determine whether the sources are credible or not. If you are concerned about the reliability of a source, don’t use it. Try to use scholarly articles from EBSCOHost, Google Scholar, or other reliable databases. Once you have finished your annotated bibliography, post it to the forum discussion as a “new thread” and discuss your topic with your classmates. This is an opportunity for each of you to share your research and to help each other improve your research paper. 41 On Writing an Annotated Bibliography Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about writing an annotated bibliography. Some sample questions might include the following: • What is an annotated bibliography? • What is the purpose of an annotated bibliography? • How do I know when I have written enough? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. More Questions about “The Affect of Technology on Education” Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments you may still have about your paper topic, “The Affect of Technology on Education.” Some sample questions might include the following: • How do I narrow down this topic to something I am interested in? • What does the word “affect” mean? • I have an idea, what do I do now? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. Other Questions or Comments? Don’t see a topic that fits what you want to talk about? Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments in the Forum. 42 ENG102 | Chapter 4: How to Write an Annotated Bibliography and A Literature Review Using Research to Write a Literature Review Now that you have found and written annotations for each of your required 10 sources, you can write the literature review section of your research paper. The pur- pose of this assignment is to get you started writing your research paper. For the purposes of this class, your liter- ature review should be copied and pasted from this assignment and be included in its own section after the introduction of your research paper. This does not create extra work. It helps you to more effectively write your research paper. Make sense? Let me know if you have any questions. On the following pages is an example of what your final research paper may look like, including the Literature Review sec- tion. Pay attention to the order, the sec- tions, and how the hypothetical argument develops throughout the sample. This is not a complete paper, just a guide for how to organize yours. 43 [Your Name Goes Here] Mr. Lauritzen ENG102 [Insert the Date Here] [Title] Your title should be capitalized as appropriate, but not put in bold, underlined, or any- thing else. You should also not include extra spaces between the first pages header and the body text. All paragraphs should be indented just like this. Your research paper should begin with (1) an introduction of your topic and (2) a de- scription of what the paper will talk about including your thesis statement. Here is an example: For many years, educators and lawmakers have been trying to reform the public educa- tion system in America. Landmark legislation such as President Bush’s No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and President Obama’s 2009 Race to the Top program (RTTP) have motivated states to make changes to improve and measure student performance on standardized tests for reading and math (Wikipedia; Wikipedia). In an attempt to meet these new requirements, educa- tors have looked to technology as a solution. Some of these attempts have included implementing mobile devices into classrooms. This paragraph above is an example of how to introduce a topic. Note that it presents rel- evant information about the topic, but it doesn’t make any arguments … yet. Use your introduc- tion to give your reader sufficient background and context on your topic to lead into your thesis statement and your statement of methodology (more on that later). Also, note how the second sentence provides an in-text citation for the source of the information being summarized I the sentence. Make sure to include citations for any information that you reference in your paper. This may feel like a lot of work, but it is the appropriate way to write research. Besides, it helps to fill your word count. The following paper will present recent research on how educators are using mobile de- vices in their classrooms to improve reading scores and to meet the demands of federal and state legislation. This author finds that mobile devices can be effectively implemented into English language arts classrooms to increase student engagement and performance during reading-based activities. The first sentence in the above paragraph is called a statement of methodology. A state- ment of methodology explains what your method was as you conducted your research. It will also outline what your paper is and is not about. This helps the reader to understand how specific or broad your research is. The second sentence is a sample thesis statement. It summarizes the conclusions I hypothetically could have made following the research. Make sure that you do not go into your research to prove a point. You can’t. You can only summarize and analyze what other 44 ENG102 | Chapter 4: How to Write an Annotated Bibliography and A Literature Review research has shown. Proving anything in academic research is nearly impossible. Don’t try to prove anything, because it is beyond the scope of your paper. Only try to present your findings as you have researched the topic. Review of the Literature In 2011, Conway and Amberson found that laptops could be implemented in schools to help students with reading disabilities (173). Their study followed the implementation of laptops at several schools in Ireland. Each school chose to implement the use and access to devices differ- ently (176). Some schools chose to allow students to check out devices at the beginning of the day and carry it with them until school let out (176). The author’s labeled this as the “floating” model of implementation (176). Other schools limited access to specific classrooms or allowed students to take them home (176). … For week 4, I have assigned for you to write a literature review. This is intended to be included in your final research paper following your introduction. This paragraph above is an example of the kind of summary I am looking for. A more complete literature review will do two things. It will (1) present a more comprehensive overview of the research on the topic and (2) it will not present a final argument as to the significance of the research. The purpose of a literature review is to provide context to the reader so that they are “caught up” on the topic for the rest of the paper. Your literature review may feel like an introduction and it is. Its difference is that you can go into depth as to what the research findings are on many of your sources. For week 4, this section should be no less than 500 words and should reference many if not all of your sources. Keep reading to see how this works into the rest of the document. Statement of the Problem Despite the efforts of educators and legislators, finding a solution to improving reading scores to meet state requirements is easier said than done. Not all schools or study bodies have ac- cess to the same levels of technology (Fleming). The following paper will present best practices, as outlined by the research, on how educators can go about implementing mobile devices into their classrooms using a “bring your own device” (BYOD) model. If you would like, you can use a section of your paper to explain the problem being re- search. This is called the Statement of the Problem. It is a way to help you to move from your literature review to discuss the significance of your findings. You will notice that this section will use research sources to transition to the research that was conducted for the paper. This section will typically be longer than this sample, but not very long overall. Discussion After researching tens sources on the implementation of mobile devices into classrooms to improve student reading, the findings suggest … The Discussion and Findings section of a research paper is where the author or authors 45 will discuss what the research revealed about this subject topic. It will also be where the author will present his or her analysis on what the findings mean. This will be the most familiar to you as it will feel like an essay like you may have written in ENG101. Remember that in research you are not trying to persuade the reader, only to present ideas and to support them with research. Again, you don’t have to prove anything. You should only attempt to contextualize and explain the signif- icance of the research relating to your topic area. Conclusion In conclusion, this author suggests that additional research be conducted to investigate the best practices for utilizing student-owned devices to complete reading activities to improve their reading levels. … The Conclusion section is where the author or authors will summarize the findings of the research and make suggestions for what future research could investigate. Again, you don’t have to try and prove a point, but you should explain how the research supports your analysis on the topic. Works Cited Conway, Paul F., and Jessica Amberson. “Laptops meet Schools, One-One Draw: M-learn- ing for Secondary Students with Literacy Difficulties.” British Journal of Learning Support 26:4 (2011): 173-81. Web. 22 July 2015. Fleming, Nora. “Digital Divide Strikes College-Admissions Process.” Education Week 32:13 (2012). 14-15. Web. 22 July 2015. “No Child Left Behind Act.” Wikipedia.org. Wikimedia. 20 July 2015. Web. 22 July 2015. “Race to the Top.” Wikipedia.org. Wikimedia. 12 July 2014. Web. 22 July 2015. Activity 10: Literature Review Write a 500-word literature review that meets each of the following requirements: • Summarize and references each of your ten required sources as outlined for your research paper. • Use these sources to give a thorough context for the topic you are going to write about in your research paper. • Use in-text citations each time you quote, summarize, or paraphrase a source. • Follow MLA formatting and guidelines, including in-text citations and a Works Cited page for all source entries. • Upload your document as a Microsoft Word document with the .doc or .docx file extension. 46 ENG102 | Chapter 5: How to Write and Present a Research Paper What Will You Learn? The purpose of this chapter is (1) to give you the opportunity to present your findings as a PowerPoint presentation, (2) to submit your written research paper, and (3) to assess what you have learned with a post-test. What Will You Do? As part of this chapter’s assignments, you will (1) create a PowerPoint presentation of your research and post it to the discussion, (2) write and submit your research paper, and (3) complete your post-test. Chapter 5 How to Write and Present a Research Paper 47 Sharing What You Have Learned Research papers are the culmination of the research process. What began as an idea to solve a gap in research is reported for the benefit of others. The reason why we write research papers is not just to teach us how to research, but also to add more knowledge to what others have researched. In essence, we research topics to share what we learn with others. During this course you have learned how to use library resources to write about fiction, poetry, and "the affect of technolo- gy on education." These skills will help you to write for other classes throughout your college careers. Now that you have found your sources and written your literature review, it is time to finish writing your research paper and to present your work to the rest of the class. Sample Research Paper Outline Introduction • Introduce Your Topic Literature Review • Summarize your sources to provide context and background for your reader. Problem Statement • State the problem that your paper will discuss. This should include your thesis statement. Discussion • Depending on your topic, divide your topic logically by topic to most effectively argue your point. • Use the sources from your literature review to discuss the problem in context. Conclusion • Summarize the findings of your paper. 48 ENG102 | Chapter 5: How to Write and Present a Research Paper Activity 11: Giving and Discussing Your Research Paper Presentations You should begin participating in the discussion early in Week 5 and participate through the rest of the week. For this week’s discussion, you should create a PowerPoint presentation, or some other online presentation, to share with your classmates as a “new thread”. Think of this as the online version of an academic conference where researchers, like you, share their work with their peers. I won’t make rules on the content of your presentations, but I would suggest that you include a title page, an introduction, a summary of your literature review, your main ideas, your findings, and a Works Cited page. If you are finished with your paper, you should be able to just copy and paste quotes from your work for your slides. On Creating a PowerPoint Presentation Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments about creating your Power- Point Presentation. Some sample questions might include the following: • How much information should I put on each slide? • Do I still need to use MLA Style? • Do I need to use images? Do I need to cite those as well? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. On Writing a Research Paper Use this thread to discuss your questions and comments you have about writing your research paper. Some sample questions might include the following: • I ran out of things to say. How do I meet my word count? • How do I write the “Conclusion” section? • How do I write my Works Cited page? Post your questions and comments in the Forum. 49 Completing Your Research Paper The capstone project of ENG102 is your research paper. It is also worth a huger per- centage of your paper. It’s 25% to be exact. Above all else, you should make sure to do your very best work before submitting your research paper. Also, it is necessary to complete this paper to pass the course. Activity 12: Research Paper Write a 2,500 word research paper on the topic of “the affect of technology on education.” This should align with the research paper proposal you submitted during Week 3 and your annotated bibliography and literature review submitted during Week 4. Your paper should correctly cite 10 unique sources, two of which have to be books. Ebooks are acceptable. Follow MLA formatting and citation style, including the use of in-text citations and a Works Cited page. You should include the following sections to your paper: Introduction • Introduce Your Topic Literature Review • Summarize Research on Your Topic Problem Statement • State the problem that your paper will discuss. This should include your thesis statement. Discussion • Depending on your topic, divide your topic logically by topic to most effectively argue your point. Conclusion • Summarize the findings of your paper. As always, email me if you have questions. 50 ENG102 | Chapter 5: How to Write and Present a Research Paper Taking Your Post-Test There is only one thing left to do, take your post-test. This test is worth 10% of your fi- nal exam, so take the time necessary to pre- pare before you begin the test. As always, if you have questions, just ask! Activity 13: Post-Test Before starting this post-test, read Joyce Carol Oates’ “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been” (Backpack Literature 322-337). Because this is a post-test, you should demonstrate what you have learned this semester. The purpose of this test is to show your instructor how much you have grown. • You will have 1 hour and 50 minutes to complete your test. • There is only one essay question. • Do not navigate away from this screen or it may cause problems. • Avoid mere plot summary. • Include within your essay attribution of all sources, whether it be from research or the story itself. • Include an already-typed Works Cited page that shows all the sources you used to research your interpretation; don’t forget the text itself. You may use the following sources during the test: • The story text (Oates’ story), • Two types pages (approximately 500 words single spaced) of notes, to be attached to your paper submission, and • A typed-up Works Cited page of sources. Late submissions will not be accepted. should begin participating in the discussion early in Week 5 and participate through the rest of the week. For this week’s discussion, you should create a PowerPoint presentation, or some other online presentation, to share with your classmates as a “new thread”. Thin