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Summary London gives us a wide range of interesting facts and details about the history, people, buildings and cultural activities of one of the world’s most famous cities. This magazine-style Penguin Reader begins with a general knowledge test. Then we learn about London’s history: the importance of the River Thames and its early development from Roman times to the eleventh century. Later, there is a brief summary of important historical events that have affected London positively or negatively over the last 600 years. We learn about the people of London and how the nature of its population is changing, the importance of its theatres and museums and about some of the famous people who have made London their home. There are also chapters on shopping and famous landmarks. Dotted throughout the book are fascinating pieces of miscellaneous information about London, ranging from facts about the Cockneys to the origins of the London Underground map. This book will be of great interest not only to students of English who are staying in London, but to all visitors to the city, no matter how short the stay. However well you think you already know London, you are sure to find something in this book that will surprise, fascinate or delight you. Background and themes London’s origins: Before 43 ad, there was no London. The River Thames flowed through marshland and mosquitoes were the main inhabitants of the site where London now stands. The Romans built the first bridge across the Thames in 43 ad. This bridge proved a convenient central point for a new network of roads and a trading settlement developed on the north side of the river, which the Romans called Londinium. The first ‘London’ only lasted for 18 years. Boudica, queen of the Iceni tribe, led a rebellion against the Romans and burnt Londinium to the ground. But the city was quickly rebuilt, and the history of London had begun. Historical London Today: In the hundred years after the Romans arrived, London grew. It soon possessed the largest town hall anywhere in Europe west of the Alps. Gracechurch Street, in the City of London, runs through the middle of the old Roman town hall and market place. The first ‘London Bridge’ (43 ad) has only recently been excavated. It was found only yards away from the modern London Bridge. There are buildings and landmarks all over London which survive from its many different periods of history: Roman London: Traces of the original Roman wall (200 ad) can still be seen in a few places. Medieval London (11th – 15th century): Guildhall, the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Westminster Hall (in the Houses of Parliament). Tudor London (15th – early 17th century): Unfortunately, most Tudor buildings were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. Stuart London (17th century): Banqueting Hall (Whitehall), The Monument, St Paul’s Cathedral. Victorian London (19th century): Regent Street, Piccadilly Circus, Trafalgar Square, National Gallery, Houses of Parliament, Victoria and Albert Museum, Science Museum. Modern London (20th century): Harrod’s, South Bank Arts Centre, Dockland, Millennium Dome, Oxo Tower, London Eye. Some important dates in London’s history: 1066: William of Normandy is crowned William I of England in Westminster Abbey 1176: first stone London Bridge 1191: first Mayor of London 1477: William Caxton prints the first book 1599: The Globe Theatre is built in Southwark 1605: The Gunpowder Plot – Guy Fawkes is arrested 1637: Hyde Park opens to the public 1649: King Charles I is executed. England becomes a Republic under Oliver Cromwell until 1660 1665: The Great Plague 1666: The Great Fire 1829: The Metropolitan Police is founded 1834: The Houses of Parliament burn down 1836: first railway in London (London Bridge – Greenwich) 1863: first underground railway (Paddington – Farringdon Road) 1904: first motor bus service 1905: Harrod’s opens in Knightsbridge 1906: first underground electric train 1907: Selfridge’s opens in Oxford Street 1915: first zeppelin bombs fall on London in World War I 1940: a third of the city is destroyed by bombs in World War II 1946: Heathrow Airport opens for commercial flights 1956: the first double-decker London bus (the Routemaster) 1972-82: the Thames Barrier is built across the Thames to control flooding 2005: the Routemaster bus makes its last commercial journey along Oxford Street The people of London: A city is not just about its buildings and historical dates. The character and atmosphere of a city depend on its people. From a population of only 18,000 700 years ago, London now has over 7 million inhabitants. The biggest increase occurred in the nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution, when the population rose from 1 million to over 6 million in a hundred years! Another interesting aspect of London is its rich mix of cultures and nationalities. This is reflected in its many different events and festivals (The Notting Hill Carnival at the end of August, for example) and its heady variety of restaurants and shops (Chinatown, near Leicester Square). There have been several defining moments in the changing nature of London’s population, some of which include: © Pearson Education Limited 2006 Penguin Readers Factsheets Teacher’s Notes London By Vicky Shipton Level 2 – Elementary London Level 2 – Elementary London Pages 8–15 1 Students choose three places from pages 8–15 that they would like to visit. Put students into pairs, and ask them to plan a day out in London together. They must agree on the same three places. 2 Put students into small groups to discuss these questions. (a) Does your country have a king/queen or a president? Which is better, do you think? (b) People from many different countries live in London. Do you have any cities in your country like this? What are the good things about having so many different nationalities in one city? What are the problems? (c) The Olympic Games are coming to London in 2012. Are Londoners happy about this? Why/why not? (d) What was the best time to live in London? What was the worst? Why? 3 Put students into small groups. Ask them to plan a street party in London to celebrate different things about their countries. What kind of music will there be? What kind of food / shops / clothes / decorations / games for children etc? Each group gives reasons to the rest of the class why their party would be better than the others. Students from the other groups ask them questions about their plans. Which things are a good idea, which things are not? Pages 16–24 1 Put students into small groups to discuss these questions. (a) What are the biggest shops in your capital city? Do you like shopping there? Why/why not? (b) The Greek people want the British Museum to return the stones from the Parthenon. The British Museum wants to keep them in London. Who is right? Why? (c) Look at the picture of the bus and the taxi on page 20. They are now very old-fashioned. Should they be modernised? Why/why not? (d) Cars have to pay a special tax to drive into London. Is this a good way to solve traffic problems in a city? Can you think of any better ways? 2 Put students into pairs. Ask them to prepare an interview with one of the people on pages 22–23. What questions would you like to ask them? ACTIVITIES AFTER READING THE BOOK 1 Put students into small groups. Ask them to discuss these questions. (a) What would they like about living in London? What would be the worst thing about living in London? (a) How could London be improved for visitors? 2 Put students into pairs. Ask them to plan a postcard of London. They must choose four pictures to put on their postcard. What are they? Why have they chosen those things? Finally, each pair tells the rest of their class about their postcard. Word list It will be useful for your students to know the new words found on page 29 of the Reader. They are practised in the ‘Before you read’ sections at the back of the book. (The definitions are based on those in the Longman Active Study Dictionary.) 1848: As a result of the Irish potato famine, over 100,000 impoverished Irish settled in London. At one time, they made up 20 per cent of London’s population. 1930s: Large numbers of Jews emigrated to London, fleeing persecution in Europe. Most of them settled in the West End. 1946 onwards: There was heavy immigration from countries of the old British Empire, settling, for example, in Notting Hill (Caribbean), Soho (Hong Kong Chinese), Southall (Sikhs) and Finsbury (Cypriots). Entertainment and sports: London is one of the world’s great cultural centres, with many world-famous theatres (The Old Vic, the National, Drury Lane, Haymarket), art galleries (the Tate, the National Gallery, the Tate Modern), museums and concert venues (The Royal Albert Hall, the Barbican, Earl’s Court Arena). There is a great deal of development going on in the field of sports, with a massive new football stadium being built at Wembley, and the prospect of the Olympic Games coming to London in 2012. Communicative activites The following teacher-led activities cover the same sections of text as the exercises at the back of the Reader, and supplement those exercises. For supplementary exercises covering shorter sections of the book, see the photocopiable Student’s Activities pages of this Factsheet. These are primarily for use with class Readers but, with the exception of discussion and pair/group work questions, can also be used by students working alone in a self-access centre. ACTIVITIES BEFORE READING THE BOOK 1 Write the word London on the board. Ask students to write down the first five things they think of when they see that word. Then put students into pairs. Have they thought of the same five things? Discuss the lists with the rest of the class. 2 Before the lesson, write these words on a small card or piece of paper (half the phrase on each card): Piccadilly Circus, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, Leicester Square, The River Thames, St Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, Downing Street, The Houses of Parliament, The Tower of London, Waterloo Station, Hyde Park, Hampton Court. (If you have more students, add more words of your own : Queen Elizabeth, Covent Garden, Portobello Road, Wembley Stadium, Heathrow Airport etc.) Give each student one card/piece of paper. Ask students to stand up and walk around the class until they have found their ‘partner’. ACTIVITIES AFTER READING A SECTION Pages 1–7 1 Put students into pairs and ask them to make a five- question test similar to the one on page 1. They should use different information from pages 2–7. While they are making their tests, they should check that their questions make sense and correct any mistakes. When everyone is finished, they swap tests with another pair. After doing the test, they return their answers to the other pair for correction. The two pairs can discuss questions and answers afterwards. 2 Put students into pairs. Ask them to have this imaginary conversation. Student A: You are Queen Boudica. You think that the Romans should leave London. Say why. Student B: You are a Roman officer. You think that the Romans should stay in London. Say why. Penguin Readers Factsheets Teacher’s Notes © Pearson Education Limited 2006 Published and distributed by Pearson Education Factsheet written by Chris Rice Factsheet series developed by Louise James Penguin Readers Factsheets Student’s Activities London By Vicky Shipton Level 2 – Elementary London Photocopiable These activities can be done alone or with one or more other students. ACTIVITIES BEFORE READING THE BOOK 1 Read the Introduction. Then answer these questions. Write the answers in words. (a) How many people in London were not born there? (b) How many languages can you hear on the streets of London? (c) How many people live in London? 2 Look at the Word list at the back of the book. Then look at the pictures in the book. In which pictures can you see … (a) a queen. (b) an abbey. (c) a palace. (d) shops in a war. (e) a tower. (f) a museum. ACTIVITIES WHILE READING THE BOOK Pages 1–7 1 When did these things happen? Number them 1–8 and write the year. (a) Tower Bridge (b) Julius Caesar arrived in Britain. (c) Shakespeare was born. (d) London Bridge fell down. (e) thick city walls (f) The Mousetrap started in the West End. (g) The Romans left Britain. (h) the first Westminster Abbey 2 Change these words into the Past. Put them in the right places. build destroy fall fight give say see stand take write (a) Caesar ‘Veni, vidi, vici’. (b) The first London bridge for 622 years. (c) The Romans the new town the name Londinium. (d) Boudica the Romans. (e) A great fire most of Londinium. (f) The Vikings London in 1013. (g) The Vikings into the river. (h) Edward I the first Westminster Abbey. (i) Andrew Lloyd Webber the music for Cats. (j) Londoners Shakespeare’s plays at the Globe Theatre. Pages 8–15 1 Are these sentences right (✓) or wrong (✗)? (a) Henry VIII lived in Buckingham Palace. (b) There are more people in London now than 100 years ago. (c) Kensington is a rich area of London. (d) Guy Fawkes wanted James I to be King of England. (e) In 1650, England had no king or queen. (f) Christopher Wren built St Paul’s Cathedral after the Great Fire. (g) Victoria was the first British Queen. (h) Canada Tower is taller than the London Eye. (i) You can eat at the top of the Telecom Tower. (j) Big Ben is the name of a bell. 2 Which part of London are these sentences about? Write East (E) or West (W) or South-West (SW). (a) You can see Henry VIII’s old palace there. (b) Many rich people live there. (c) In the 1880s poor people lived there. (d) The government built tall buildings there after World War II. (e) Cockneys are born there. (f) People from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh live there. (g) You can see a big street party there every August. 3 Where … (a) can you find the treasures of many kings and queens? (b) did Henry VIII send Thomas Wolsey? (c) could Londoners go for the first time in the 1600s? (d) does Elizabeth II live? (e) was Queen Victoria born? (f) is the most expensive house in London? (g) is Chinatown? (h) did more than 6 million people visit in 1851? (i) is there a red light for aeroplanes? (j) can you see a lot of birds? © Pearson Education Limited 2006 Penguin Readers Factsheets Student’s Activities Level 2 – Elementary London Photocopiable © Pearson Education Limited 2006 Published and distributed by Pearson Education Factsheet written by Chris Rice Factsheet series developed by Louise James Pages 16–24 1 What is the right answer? (a) Liberty is famous for its … (1) fruit and vegetables (2) televisions and radios (3) clothes (b) You can watch street theatre in … (1) Portobello Road (2) Covent Garden (3) Knightsbridge (c) The … Museum was the first museum in the world. (1) Victoria and Albert (2) British (3) London (d) Henry Beck was a … (1) writer (2) sportsman (3) map-maker (e) There are no cars or buses on … Bridge (1) the Millennium (2) Tower (3) London (f) J M Barrie wrote … (1) Mary Poppins (2) White Teeth (3) Peter Pan (g) Students come to London every year to watch fast … (1) cars (2) horses (3) boats 2 Look at these answers. What are the questions? (a) 40,000 (b) 11,000 (c) 6 million (d) five (e) 21,000 (f) 2.5 million (g) 1949 (h) 1,700 ACTIVITIES AFTER READING THE BOOK 1 Put students into pairs. Ask them to have this conversation. Student A: You are a businessman. You want to build a big hotel in the middle of Hyde Park. Say why this is a good idea for London. Student B: You do not think a hotel in Hyde Park is a good idea. Say why. 2 You are a Londoner in 1941. Write about your day. 3 Write about the capital city of your country for a student magazine. Write about: famous buildings, shops, theatres and museums, famous people and travelling in the city. Answers to Book Activities 1–2 Open answers 12– 3 (a) 8 (b) 8 (c) 8 (d) 8 (e) 8 (f) 4 (g) 8 (h) 8 (i) 4 (j) 4 12– 4 (a) 34 (b) 55 bc (c) 410 ad (d) She was angry with the Romans. (e) King Henry III (f) James Burbage 5–6 Open answers 12– 7 (a) Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard (b) Thomas Wolsey (c) Queen Elizabeth II (d) Queen Victoria (e) Cockneys (f) Guy Fawkes and his friends (g) Christopher Wren (h) Prince Albert (i) Napoleon 8–9 Open answers 12–10 (a) a famous shop (b) underground trains (c) a famous writer (d) a children’s book (e) a famous place to play tennis (f) a football club 12–11 (a) 1707 (b) 1905 (c) 1759 (d) 1984 (e) 1897 (f) 1863 (g) 1817 (h) 1891 12–19 Open answers Answers to Factsheet Activities Communicative Activities 1 Open answers 2 Piccadilly Circus, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, Leicester Square, The River Thames, St Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, Downing Street, The Houses of Parliament, The Tower of London, Waterloo Station, Hyde Park, Hampton Court Student’s Activities ACTIVITIES BEFORE READING THE BOOK 1 (a) more than twenty-five per cent (b) two hundred and fifty (c) more than seven million 2 (a) pages 4, 9 (b) page 6 (c) page 9 (d) page 13 (e) pages 6, 15, 19 (f) page 19 ACTIVITIES WHILE READING THE BOOK Pages 1–7 1 (a) 7 – 1894 (b) 1 – 55 bc (c) 6 – 1564 (d) 4 – 1013 (e) 2 – 200 ad (f) 8 – 1952 (g) 3 – 410 ad (h) 5 – 1050 2 (a) said (b) stood (c) gave (d) fought (e) destroyed (f) took (g) fell (h) built (i) wrote (j) saw Pages 8–15 1 (a) 8 (b) 8 (c) 4 (d) 8 (e) 4 (f) 4 (g) 8 (h) 4 (i) 8 (j) 4 2 (a) SW (b) W (c) E (d) E (e) E (f) E (g) W Penguin Readers Answer Key London Level 2 – Elementary London © Pearson Education Limited 2006 Published and distributed by Pearson Education Factsheet written by Chris Rice Factsheet series developed by Louise James 3 (a) the Tower of London (b) to prison (c) Hyde Park and St James’s Park (d) Buckingham Palace (e) Kensington Palace (f) near Kensington (g) the Soho area (h) the great show at Crystal Palace (i) Canada Tower (j) Trafalgar Square Pages 16–24 1 (a) clothes (b) Covent Garden (c) British (d) map-maker (e) the Millennium (f) Peter Pan (g) boats 2 (a) How many shops are (there) in London? (b) How many eating places are (there) in London? (c) How many visitors/people go to the British Museum every year? OR How many visitors/people does the British Museum have every year? (d) How many airports does London have? (e) How many black-taxi drivers are there? (f) How many people use the Underground every day? (g) When was Martin Amis born? (h) How many parks are (there) in London? ACTIVITIES AFTER READING THE BOOK 1–3 Open answers 3) Knightsbridge (c) The … Museum was the first museum in the world. (1) Victoria and Albert (2) British (3) London (d) Henry Beck was a … (1) writer (2) sportsman (3) map-maker (e) There are no cars or buses on … Bridge (1) the Millennium (2) Tower (3) London (f) J M Barrie wrote … (1) Mary Poppins (2) White Teeth (3) Peter Pan (g) Students come to London every year to watch fast … (1) cars (2) horses (3) boats 2 Look at these answers. What are the questions? (a) 40,000 (b) 11,000 (c) 6 million (d) five (e) 21,000 (f) 2.5 million (g) 1949 (h) 1,700 ACTIVITIES AFTER READING THE BOOK 1 Put students into pairs. Ask them to have this conversation. Student A: You are a businessman. You want to build a big hotel in the middle of Hyde Park. Say why this is a good idea for London. Student B: You do not think a hotel in Hyde Park is a good idea. Say why. 2 You are a Londoner in 1941. Write about your day. 3 Write about the capital city of your country for a student magazine. Write about: famous buildings, shops, theatres and museums, famous people and travelling in the city. Answers to Book Activities 1–2 Open answers 12– 3 (a) 8 (b) 8 (c) 8 (d) 8 (e) 8 (f) 4 (g) 8 (h) 8 (i) 4 (j) 4 12– 4 (a) 34 (b) 55 bc (c) 410 ad (d) She was angry with the Romans. (e) King Henry III (f) James Burbage 5–6 Open answers 12– 7 (a) Ann