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Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Suggested Citation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, 2014. Acknowledgments John C. Higgins-Biddle, PhD Carter Consulting Inc. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Daniel W. Hungerford, DrPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Susan D. Baker, MPH Carter Consulting Inc. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Megan R. Reynolds, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Nancy E. Cheal, PhD Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Mary Kate Weber, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Elizabeth P. Dang, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Joseph E. Sniezek, MD, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Contents INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................4
Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: A Critical Clinical Preventive Service ......................................................... 4
Purpose of the Guide ............................................................................................................................................................... 5
The Process ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6
I. LAYING THE GROUNDWORK .................................................................................................................................7
Step 1: Understand the Need for Alcohol SBI ...................................................................................................................... 7
Step 2: Get Organizational Commitment ........................................................................................................................... 10
II. ADAPTING ALCOHOL SBI TO YOUR PRACTICE ......................................................................................................11
Step 3: Plan for Screening ..................................................................................................................................................... 11
Step 4: Plan for Brief Intervention ....................................................................................................................................... 15
Step 5: Establish Referral Procedures .................................................................................................................................. 17
III. IMPLEMENTING ALCOHOL SBI IN YOUR PRACTICE ..............................................................................................18
Step 6: Orientation and Training......................................................................................................................................... 18
Step 7: Plan a Pilot Test ........................................................................................................................................................ 19
Step 8: Support a Strong Start-Up ........................................................................................................................................ 20
IV. REFINING AND PROMOTING ...............................................................................................................................21
Step 9: Monitor and Update Your Plan................................................................................................................................ 21
Step 10: Share Your Success .................................................................................................................................................. 21
V. APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................................................22
Appendix A: Our Alcohol SBI Service ................................................................................................................................ 22
Appendix B: Alcohol SBI Fact Sheet .................................................................................................................................... 26
Appendix C: What’s a Standard Drink? ............................................................................................................................. 28
Appendix D: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders ............................................................................................................... 29
Appendix E: Negative Effects of Risky and Binge Drinking ............................................................................................. 31
Appendix F: Single Question Alcohol Screen .................................................................................................................... 32
Appendix G: AUDIT 1-3 (US) ............................................................................................................................................. 33
Appendix H: AUDIT (US)—Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test ........................................................................ 34
Appendix I: Other Screening Instruments ........................................................................................................................ 36
Appendix J: Screening for Drug Misuse.............................................................................................................................. 37
Appendix K: Orienting Staff to Alcohol SBI ....................................................................................................................... 39
Appendix L: How Do Patients React to Alcohol Screening? The Cutting Back Study ................................................. 41
Appendix M: Training for Screening Staff .......................................................................................................................... 42
Appendix N: Brief Intervention Guidance ......................................................................................................................... 43
Appendix O: Training to Deliver Brief Interventions ....................................................................................................... 45
Appendix P: Follow-Up System ........................................................................................................................................... 47
Appendix Q: Billing ............................................................................................................................................................... 48
Appendix R: Tips for Communicating about Your Alcohol SBI Services ...................................................................... 49
References ............................................................................................................................................................................... 50
4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Introduction Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: A Critical Clinical Preventive Service Like hypertension or tobacco screening, alcohol Risky drinking affects your patients’ health.6 screening and brief intervention (alcohol SBI) is a Risky drinking can have many negative health effects clinical preventive service. It identifies and helps including increasing the risk of hypertension, stroke, patients who may be drinking too much. It involves: type 2 diabetes, cancers (breast, upper gastrointestinal • A validated set of screening questions to identify tract, and colon), cirrhosis of the liver, injury, and patients’ drinking patterns, violence. Risky drinking is also associated with increased body weight and can impair short- and long • A short conversation with patients who are drinking term cognitive function. Binge drinking is associated too much, and for patients with severe risk, a referral with a wide range of other health and social problems, to specialized treatment as warranted. including sexually transmitted diseases, unintended The entire service takes only a few minutes, is pregnancy, and violent crime. See Appendix E, Negative inexpensive, and may be reimbursable. Thirty years Effects of Risky and Binge Drinking. of research has shown that alcohol SBI is effective at reducing the amount of alcohol consumed by those who are drinking too much. Based on this evidence,1,2,3,4 the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force5 and many other organizationsa have recommended that alcohol SBI be implemented for all adults in primary health care settings. a Examples of select professional organizations: American Academy of Family Physicians: The AAFP recommends screening and behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse by adults, including pregnant women, in primary care settings. (2004) American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: At-risk drinking and alcohol dependence: obstetric and gynecologic implications. Committee Opinion No. 496. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:383–8. American Medical Association: American Medical Association. House of Delegates, Policy: H-30.942 Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems. American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy Statement: Substance Use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment for Pediatricians Committee on Substance Abuse Pediatrics 2011; 128:5 e1330-e1340 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Purpose of the Guide This guide is designed to help an individual or small planning team adapt alcohol SBI to the unique operational realities of their primary care practice. It takes them through each of the steps required to plan, implement, and continually improve this preventive service as a routine element of standard practice. Rather than prescribing what the alcohol SBI services should look like, the Guide will help you and your colleagues create the best plan for your unique situation. Implementing alcohol SBI in your practice should be a team effort. 5 6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention I. Laying the Groundwork II. Adapting Alcohol SBI to Your Practice III. Implementing Alcohol SBI in Your Practice IV. Refining and Promoting The Process The Guide consists of 10 steps arranged in four major sections. Although the steps are presented sequentially, you may find that it makes sense to address some of them concurrently. As you consider the decisions you must make to design and implement your program, you can use Appendix A, Our Alcohol SBI Service, to record your decisions. This appendix can serve not only as a historical record of your decisions, but as a framework for making needed refinements over time as your practice gains experience and comfort with alcohol SBI. I. Laying the Groundwork 1. Familiarize the planning team with alcohol SBI— why it is an important medical service and how it works 2. Ensure that practice leaders are committed to implementing alcohol SBI II. Adapting Alcohol SBI to Your Practice 3. Plan screening procedures 4. Plan brief intervention procedures 5. Establish procedures to refer patients with severe problems III.Implementing Alcohol SBI in Your Practice 6. Train staff for their specific roles 7. Pilot test and refine your plan 8. Manage initial full implementation so it succeeds IV. Refining and Promoting 9. Monitor and improve your alcohol SBI plan over time 10. Publicize your efforts so that others can learn from your experience What is the difference between SBI and SBIRT? The acronym SBI originated in the mid-1990s to refer to screening and brief intervention research. Most study protocols called for referral of dependent patients to specialty treatment services. In the fall of 2003 the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) initiated a grant program designed to encourage implementation of SBI. SAMHSA added “and referral to treatment” to the program title, which changed the acronym to SBIRT to emphasize the role of treatment services agencies. When RT is added to the acronym and program title, some people may misinterpret this to mean that all patients who screen positive should be referred to treatment, which is not the case. Therefore, CDC has chosen to use the traditional acronym of SBI. 7 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices I. II. Laying III. IV. Adapting Implementing Refining the Alcohol SBI Alcohol SBI in and to Your Your Practice Promoting Groundwork Practice I. Laying the Groundwork
Implementing any new service in a primary care practice typically requires changes in routines and job duties. Those changes sometimes require tweaking of administrative procedures. Staff will want to know why things need to change. Sharing the rationale for this new intervention before you start to make specific changes in routine will help to foster institutional commitment for alcohol SBI and ensure that procedures are appropriately tailored for your practice. Step 1: Understand the Need for Alcohol SBI It’s about much more than alcohol dependence. What is risky drinking? How much is too much? When Americans discuss drinking too much, alcohol- Here is a simple definition: Risky drinking is any level of related harm, or alcohol problems, they tend to think alcohol consumption that increases the risk of harm to a the conversation is about alcoholism, or in medical person’s health or well-bring or that of others. terms, about alcohol dependence. The screening However, this definition does not provide any instruments used in alcohol SBI will identify both quantitative guide. A more complete answer to the patients who are dependent on alcohol and those question How much is too much? has three elements. who are drinking too much but not dependent. Brief See Table 1 on the following page for the different interventions are designed to help both groups. elements of risky drinking. • The main target population for brief interventions is nondependent, risky drinkers, about 25% of the general population. The goal of the brief intervention is to motivate them to cut back or stop drinking. • Patients who drink too much and are dependent also need help, but there are relatively few of them, fewer than 4% in the general population. For this group the goal is different. Although we would like them to decrease or stop drinking, the brief intervention, by itself, may not be sufficient. The brief intervention can also focus on motivating them to seek further help. 8 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Table 1: The Levels of Risky Drinking A. Risky Drinking Levels For Healthy Adults Any person drinking more than either the daily or weekly levels in the table below is drinking too much. If a person exceeds the weekly levels, a long-term risk for a wide range of chronic conditions can occur. If a person exceeds the single-day levels, 7 he or she risks intoxication, which is associated with a variety of more immediate risks. Healthy men ages 21–65 No more than 4 drinksb on any single day (5 or more drinks consumed within 2 hours is bingec drinking) AND No more than 14 drinks a week All healthy women ages 21 and older No more than 3 drinks on any single day (4 or more drinks consumed within 2 hours is bingec drinking) AND No more than 7 drinks a week Healthy men over age 65 7,8 B. For some people, even less is risky. The levels provided above are just one consideration in defining risky drinking. A variety of health conditions and activities may warrant limiting drinking to even lower levels or not drinking at all. Here are some examples. • Individuals taking prescription or over-the-counter medications that may interact with alcohol and cause harmful reactionsd • Individuals suffering from medical conditions that may be worsened by alcohol, e.g., liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, pancreatitis • Individuals who are driving, planning to drive, or participating in other activities requiring skill, coordination, and alertness C. For some people, any drinking at all is risky. Here are some examples. • Individuals unable to control the amount they dri nk. This group includes people dependent on alcohol.e • Women who are pregnant or might become pregn next page for more information) ant (see Women Who Are Pregnant or Might Become Pregnant on the • Individuals younger than age 21 b In the United States, a standard drink is defined as approximately 0.6 ounces (14 gm) of alcohol, such as 12 oz. of most beer, 5 oz. of most table wine, or one shot (1.5 oz.) of 80 proof spirits. For greater detail, see Appendix C. c Binge drinking is essentially drinking above the single day limit within a two-hour period. It is commonly used because drinking at this level typically brings the average adult’s blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above 0.08 g/dL, the legal threshold for impaired driving.9 d For more information see the list of medicines and potential reactions in NIAAA’s Harmful Interactions: Mixing Alcohol with Medicines, available at http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/medicine/harmful_interactions.pdf and NIAAA’s Alcohol Alert No. 27, Alcohol-Medication Interactions, available at http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa27.htm e Diagnostic procedures for alcohol use disorders (DSM IV,10 DSM 511) do not generally involve an attempt to quantify how much patients are drinking. Instead, they evaluate the extent to which patients have experienced acute and chronic health or social problems that can be attributed to their drinking. Nonetheless, patients with these diagnoses typically drink above the risky drinking guidelines. For example, epidemiologic research has shown that US adults who meet either the single day or weekly risky drinking levels described above are much more likely to have an alcohol use disorder than patients who do not. 9 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Are staff knowledgeable about alcohol use? Members of your planning team may have different levels of knowledge about alcohol issues, so doing some homework together can build a common understanding of alcohol SBI. This will help you adapt it to your practice more quickly. • The Alcohol SBI Fact Sheet in Appendix B briefly describes target population, acute and chronic health outcomes associated with risky drinking, and cost of risky drinking. It also compares the ranking of alcohol SBI with other preventive services. It can be used to inform and engage others in the practice and be personalized for your needs. Alcohol SBI is a medical issue. Risky drinking is not just a “substance abuse” issue: it is a medical issue. It is a causal factor for some health conditions and exacerbates other health conditions.14 (see Appendix B) The connection between risky drinking and adverse health outcomes starts long before individuals become alcoholic. It affects the health of many patients who never become alcoholic. This is why it is important for practitioners to know how much patients are drinking, and this is why risky drinking is a medical issue. Finally, this is why screening should focus on how much patients are drinking. If you just screen for alcoholism, you are intervening too late, when chances of success dwindle and cost of treatment soars. Women Who Are Pregnant
Might Become Pregnant
Any alcohol consumption by a woman who is pregnant or may be pregnant puts her child at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), which include physical, behavioral, and learning problems.12 The average lifetime cost for a single person with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) alone (only one condition along the FASD continuum) is estimated at $2 million.13 There is no known safe amount of alcohol a woman can consume while pregnant. Women who are trying to get pregnant should avoid alcohol since most women won’t know they are pregnant for up to 4 to 6 weeks. Women who are not trying to get pregnant but are sexually active should talk with their health care provider about using contraception (birth control) consistently. If a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy, FASDs are completely preventable. (See Appendix D) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Step 2: Get Organizational Commitment Implementing an effective alcohol SBI plan requires: • A firm commitment from the leaders of your practice. • Communication of that commitment to all relevant staff. Is there organizational commitment? Determining whether your practice is committed and ready to implement alcohol SBI is perhaps the most pivotal step in planning this new service. Share the Alcohol SBI Fact Sheet (Appendix B) with key managers in your practice and meet with them to answer their questions. Strive to reach a common understanding of: • The need for alcohol SBI in your practice, • What alcohol SBI is, • Your goals, and • How you will inform staff members of your decision to implement alcohol SBI. Who should be informed? Ensure that all relevant staff know about your alcohol SBI implementation. The announcement should include why alcohol SBI is being implemented, who will be responsible for planning it, and how others might help. Include the Alcohol SBI Fact Sheet so that everyone has a general overview of alcohol SBI and the health impacts associated with risky drinking. Planning Team If you have a larger practice, creating a planning team could be helpful. Consider those individuals whose day-to-day jobs will be most affected. They may include: • Individuals most likely to perform the alcohol screening (e.g., receptionists, medical assistants, nurses) • Individuals most likely to deliver the brief interventions (e.g., physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, health educators, or other allied health professionals) • Staff who handle medical records and billing for the practice. Implementing alcohol SBI requires planning and involving a range of stakeholders, including physicians, nurses, medical assistants, administrative staff, billing departments, and organizational leaders. An effective (and sustainable) service cannot be created without commitment from each of these groups. A service planned by the people whose work is affected—rather than imposed by someone else—is far more likely to work well and to last. Greater involvement means fewer surprises. 10 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices I. Laying the Groundwork II. Adapting Alcohol SBI to Your Practice III. Implementing Alcohol SBI in Your Practice IV. Refining and Promoting II. Adapting Alcohol SBI to Your Practice It is critical to plan fully all the elements of your alcohol SBI service before you start implementing or training staff to provide it. Step 3: Plan for Screening A complete alcohol SBI screening plan specifies: • Which patients you will screen • How often you will screen patients • Which screening instrument you will use • How and where you will screen • How you will store and share screening results Who will be screened? Ideally, you should screen all of your patients with two possible exceptions: • Children under 9 years of age, who are not likely to drink alcohol.f • Patients who are too ill to answer screening questions at a particular visit. Your final plan should carefully specify which patients will not be screened so that you can calculate the number in your target population. Later, that will allow you to calculate the percentage of the target population that, in practice, gets screened. (See Table 2: Implementation Measures.) f See the following reference to understand why screening should start at such a young age. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth: A Practitioner’s Guide. http://niaaa.nih. gov/youthguide g Levy SJ, Kokotailo PK, Committee on Substance Abuse. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2011; 128:e1330–40. How often should patients be screened? Because drinking patterns change over time, patients should be screened at least annually. If nearly all of your patients receive preventive-care physical examinations annually, the best time to provide alcohol SBI might be that visit. Alternatively, if many of your patients do not have annual physicals, you might want to screen every patient on the first visit of each year. All screening systems require a method to identify which patients have received alcohol screening and which patients have not yet been screened that year. It may be easiest to adapt an existing reminder system you have implemented for other preventive services. Screening for Youth By age 15, more than 50% of teens have had at least one drink and by age 18 more than 70% have.Although they drink less often than adults do, when they do drink, they drink more. If you decide to screen youth, it is recommended that you read and follow either the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)g or NIAAAf guides designed specifically for this population. 11 12 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Which screening instrument will you use? Screening instruments provide an objective means to determine whether patients’ drinking creates a risk for themselves or others, i.e., which patients are drinking too much. There are many screening instruments readily available (Appendix I), but most do not focus directly on how much patients are drinking. For a very brief screening instrument, we recommend either of the following two instruments. The Single Question Alcohol Screen has the advantage of being very short, quick to administer orally, easy to remember, and simple to score. A limitation, however, is that some patients who do not exceed the single day drinking limits do drink enough to exceed weekly drinking limits. For example, a woman who has 3 drinks every day does not exceed the NIAAA’s single-day limit, but her 21 drinks per week is triple the NIAAA’s recommended maximum weekly limit and exceeds the US Dietary Guidelines daily limits. AUDIT-1–3 (US)h is the first three questions of the AUDIT (see below). It identifies patients who consume more than the recommended limits both on one occasion (or day) and weekly. It can also be administered in about a minute, but is best administered on paper or computer. It can be used as part of a longer health questionnaire. To provide an appropriate intervention, you need more information. Once you know which patients are drinking too much, you need two more pieces of information before you can provide them with appropriate help. The full AUDIT (US) will provide that information. Single Question Alcohol Screen “How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?” where X is 5 for men, 4 for women For description, full instrument, and scoring, see Appendix F. 1. Which patients have already experienced problems from their drinking? When medical staff can connect patients’ drinking to a medical concern or to something patients report as problematic in their lives, that connection may strengthen the effectiveness of the intervention. 2. Which patients are likely dependent on alcohol? Although the AUDIT (US) does not yield a formal diagnosis of alcohol dependence, high scores indicate a likelihood of dependence. For those patients who rely heavily on alcohol, the brief intervention may assist them in accepting more extensive help. The full, 10-question AUDIT (US) (Appendix H) is the global “gold standard” of alcohol screening instruments. The first three questions measure alcohol consumption, and the next seven questions measure alcohol-related harm and symptoms of dependence. The full AUDIT can be answered in 2–3 minutes using paper or computer. Administration orally requires training and is likely to produce less accurate results, but is an option for patients with literacy or vision issues. You can use either of the shorter instruments as your screener—the single question or the AUDIT 1–3 (US). To obtain the additional information you need to provide an appropriate intervention to patients with positive screening results, follow with the full AUDIT (US). See the following Figure 1 for an example flow chart for using the Single Question or AUDIT 1–3 (US) initally followed by the AUDIT (US) as indicated. AUDIT 1–3 (US) 1. How often do you have a drink containing alcohol? 2. How many drinks containing alcohol do you have on a typical day when you are drinking? 3. How often do you have X or more drinks on one occasion? where X is 5 for men, 4 for women For description, full instrument, and scoring, see Appendix G. h The AUDIT 1–3 (US) screening instrument provided in this guide has been modified to provide greater precision in measuring U.S. drink sizes. 13 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices or AUDIT 1–3 (US) assess alcohol con screen negative screen positive AUDIT (US) not likely sumption dependent likely dependent Figure 1: Alcohol SBI Patient Flow – Single Question or AUDIT 1-3 (US) Patient population to be screened Single Question Conversation and/or brochure on drinking limits Brief intervention only Brief intervention and referral assess harm and dependence 14 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention For some patients, ANY alcohol use will be considered a positive screening result, regardless of the score on the screener: ➤ Women who are pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or at risk of becoming pregnant (See Appendix D for more information on FAS and FASDs) ➤ Anyone taking medications with harmful interactions with alcohol ➤ Patients with other health conditions for which drinking alcohol is contraindicated. How will the screening be performed and where? If you typically screen for other conditions via computer before the patient arrives, you can include either the AUDIT 1–3 (US) or Single Question instrument in your plan with an automatic scoring system that leads patients who screen positive to the AUDIT (US). If you normally obtain such information via a questionnaire completed by patients in the reception room, you can amend that questionnaire to include the single question or the AUDIT 1–3 (US) questions. Screening for Drug Misuse Although less research has been done on
SBI for illicit and prescription drug misuse
than for alcohol, drug use is common and poses
significant health risks. If your practice decides
to implement SBI for both alcohol and drugs,
several screening options are presented in
Screening for Drug Misuse (Appendix J).
How will screening forms be scored and the results be shared and stored? Having a system in place is essential to doing the job efficiently and accurately day in and day out. The following questions will help you and your team to focus on important system issues. 1. Who will score the screening instruments? 2. How will screening results be shared with staff who will provide brief interventions? 3. How will screening results be recorded in the patient’s chart? 4. Where will screening forms (if used) be stored and managed? 5. How will patients who screen positive be followed during future visits? If a patient screens positive, you will need to follow up appropriately as you would with any other risk factor. Providers in your practice can use the alcohol consumption information from the screening results when they are prescribing any medication that has possible interactions with alcohol. Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Step 4: Plan for Brief Intervention Patients who screen positive for risky drinking need a brief intervention. The goal is to help them decide to lower their risk for alcohol-related problems. Tailoring the plan for alcohol brief interventions to your practice requires decisions about two main issues: • Who will deliver the interventions? • What basic elements will you use in your brief interventions? Who will deliver interventions? Factors to consider: 1. Time availability. • The same person who delivers interventions may not have to be involved in the screening. • Interventions can be delivered in the course of providing other services. 2. Knowledge and experience. Research suggests that most medical staff can perform the necessary functions if they have some training. Background in alcohol treatment is not required. 3. Interpersonal skills. This is a key factor. Alcohol SBI requires relating to patients about drinking behavior and alcohol-related health consequences. A non-judgmental, open, confident demeanor sets patients at ease and makes them comfortable talking about their lives. More important than content expertise, the abilities to listen well and get people talking are perhaps the most important skills contributing to alcohol SBI success. 4. Willingness. Important factors in choosing the right person are their interest in implementing a new service to discuss alcohol use and a willingness to adjust to competing time requirements from their other responsibilities. One of the most common challenges with alcohol SBI services is failing to deliver an intervention to patients who screen positive. What will the basic elements of your intervention system be? 1. When will interventions be delivered? It is best to deliver the brief intervention during the same visit as the screening; the patient is available and the screening questions are fresh in her or his mind. It also saves the trouble and expense of another visit. However, if this is not possible, it is better to schedule a follow-up visit as soon as possible rather than to ignore the patient’s risk by not delivering an intervention. 2. How will you introduce the intervention for patients who screen positive? Patients tend to be more comfortable and honest if you first introduce yourself and your goal. Draft a short statement of just a few sentences for this purpose. For example, you might say, “To provide the best quality health care, our practice discusses with all our patients various issues that may affect their health, like smoking, exercise, diet, and alcohol use. Is it all right if we take just a few minutes for that now?” 3. What elements will you include in the intervention? Because brief intervention protocols from clinical trials vary, it remains unclear which active ingredient in the brief intervention helps people decide to change their drinking. Evidence does suggest that enhancing patients’ motivation to change may be central to success.15 It would be helpful to include the following elements in your brief intervention: • Provide feedback about screening results. To ensure that patients understand why you are initiating this conversation, compare their drinking to risky drinking levels as defined in Table 1. Your plan may also call for collecting further information at this point, e.g., evaluating drug or tobacco use, or reviewing the patient’s medical condition for subsequent reminders that alcohol use may affect existing conditions. 15 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention • Ask patients what they like and what they don’t like about their drinking (in that order). Listen carefully so you can mirror back to them what they don’t like and, perhaps, probe for more information about that. This step allows them to identify problems with their drinking. This does not set you up to argue with them but to explore their own thinking and experience. • Ask if they would like your medical advice. If they do, provide them with your reasons that their drinking may be harming their health, valued relationships, or their work. Follow the method suggested under “If You Give Advice” in Appendix N. • Listen for change talk. Summarize what the patient says and reflect back to them. Ask if they are interested in change. Continue with reflection and summary of their own words. • Provide options the patient can choose from. If the patient is interested in making a change (e.g., reducing amounts, reducing the number of drinking days, stopping for a time or permanently), help establish a goal and develop an action plan. • Seek agreement for a follow-up visit within four to six weeks to reassess, as appropriate. • Thank all patients for being willing to discuss their drinking, even if they are not willing to make changes. 4. How long will interventions typically take? As little as five to fifteen minutes of simple advice from a health care professional has been shown to help many patients reduce their drinking.4 5. How will you intervene with patients who are likely to be dependent on alcohol? Although some patients who are dependent on alcohol may respond favorably to a brief intervention and decide to stop drinking for a time or permanently, most require more assistance than a typical brief intervention. If your screening process indicates the likelihood of dependence, there are two options. One is to offer the patient a referral to further treatment. (See step 5.) A second option is for a qualified clinician in your practice to manage dependent patients. Offering medications for alcohol dependence gives primary care practitioners a valuable opportunity to care for their patients, particularly if they refuse to go to traditional alcohol treatment. For guidance on how to prescribe medications for alcohol dependence, see p. 13–22 of NIAAA’s Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much: A Clinician’s Guide (http:// pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Practitioner/ CliniciansGuide2005/guide.pdf). 6. How will you follow patients who receive an intervention? Some patients who receive a brief intervention will reduce their drinking to moderate levels; others may not. Research suggests that many patients—particularly young patients and patients with more severe use patterns—benefit from a follow-up visit.2 To provide the best care, therefore, establish a follow-up system to monitor patients’ drinking, provide encouragement and support, and, if necessary, refer them to more specialized help. 7. How will the intervention be documented? Written or electronic documentation will assure that relevant staff can determine whether a brief intervention was provided and, if appropriate, support the intervention as part of their treatment regimen. Consistent and uniform documentation will also allow you to 1) calculate the proportion of patients who screen positive and receive an intervention, 2) measure the number of interventions conducted, and 3) ultimately facilitate reimbursement for this service. Documentation of the intervention in the patient record is essential. Subsequent visits require follow up and reinforcement of the message. The message to all women who are pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or at risk of becoming pregnant should be: abstain from drinking alcohol. 16 17 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Step 5: Establish Referral Procedures Although screening does not yield a diagnosis of alcohol dependence, the screening results and information collected during the brief intervention will indicate that a small percentage of patients are likely to be dependent. (See Appendix H.) These patients are less likely to change their drinking patterns in response to a single brief intervention than those who are not dependent. Patients who are likely to be dependent on alcohol should be referred for further assessment and possible specialty treatment. Remember that many patients with dependence and some without it will refuse help, at least for now, but success in motivating a patient to accept additional help now or later is an accomplishment worth celebrating. If a patient is open to additional services, three resources are available: • The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) supports alcohol treatment services. Its website is designed to help you or your patient find a service that might help. The service is available at: http://findtreatment. samhsa.gov/TreatmentLocator/faces/quickSearch. jspx • Your practice should also establish contacts with local psychologists, counselors, and hospitals that provide services that would benefit your patients who need additional help. • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is listed in nearly all local telephone directories in the country. AA’s website also provides a way to find local meetings: http://www.aa.org/pages/en_US/find-aa-resources Centers for Disease Control and Prevention I. Laying the Groundwork II. Adapting Alcohol SBI to Your Practice III. Implementing Alcohol SBI in Your Practice IV. Refining and Promoting III. Implementing Alcohol SBI in Your Practice Now that you have tailored alcohol SBI to your practice setting, you are ready to implement it. Careful implementation is as important as devising the plan. The steps in this section increase your odds of success by 1) orienting and training all staff, 2) planning and evaluating a pilot test, and 3) managing startup of full implementation. Step 6: Orientation and Training Determine who needs training Since every primary care practice is different and the alcohol SBI system you have designed is unique, only you can determine who will need orientation or training and how best to provide it. Orient All Staff about Risky Alcohol Use and Alcohol SBI. Ideally, everyone working in your primary care practice needs to understand what alcohol SBI is, why it is necessary, how it will be implemented in your practice, and the benefits to your practice and patients. Appendix K contains suggestions that you or another member of your practice can adapt for your own orientation. Help staff become comfortable discussing alcohol use. Some staff will not be comfortable with their own alcohol use and consequently may conclude that patients will be equally uncomfortable talking about theirs. To address this, you might consider sharing findings from the Cutting Back Study (Appendix L), which shows that patients are comfortable answering questions about tobacco, alcohol, exercise, and diet. The study also found that patients believe this information is important to their health care providers. Training for Alcohol SBI Specialized Functions. The next level of skills training is more complicated. Each staff person must have instruction and practice in the specific functions he or she will perform. Specialized training is required for staff who will 1) conduct the screening, 2) provide brief interventions and referrals, and 3) manage medical records or billing. Appendices M, O, and Q will help you develop those training sessions. Adapt these training materials to meet the needs of your program. In medical practice, training by itself seldom produces change! Training may be the culmination of planning, but for most trainees, it is only the first step of implementation. Gaining experience by doing the work creates the biggest change. 18 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Step 7: Plan a Pilot Test Evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the alcohol
SBI plan you have prepared by pilot testing it under
“real world” conditions to monitor, measure, and
evaluate each element. A pilot time period also allows
you to address procedural issues when implementing
alcohol SBI, such as evaluating the ease with which
the practice is able to utilize their medical records or
electronic health record (EHR) to include alcohol SBI.
What will you measure?
The primary purpose of the pilot is to determine which
aspects of your plan for alcohol SBI implementation
work well and which need improving. To gather data,
you might consider:
• Asking staff to time themselves to see how long each function takes. • Using a simple questionnaire to gather staff feedback on their experience and satisfaction (including medical records and billing). During the pilot phase you should measure the following five SBI elements to ensure a good start-up and continued high quality performance. Table 2: Implementation Measures Pilot testing has multiple advantages ➤ Makes clear that you expect glitches to occur and be corrected. ➤ Announces that staff should suggest improvements. ➤ Identifies precisely what works and what doesn’t. ➤ Suggests fixes to problems and general improvements. ➤ Garners attention of all staff to the issue and the new alcohol SBI intervention. SBI Element Description 1. Number of patients in target population 2. Percentage screened 3. Number and percentage who screen positive 4. Percentage of positives receiving an intervention 5. Percentage referred to treatment This is the number of people who, according to your plan, should have been screened. The number of patients who are actually screened divided by the number in the target population is the percentage of patients screened. This is a good measure of the effectiveness (coverage) of your screening system. Set a realistic goal to start, perhaps 80%, and work toward it. The percentage of screened patients deemed positive (i.e., the number positive divided by the number screened) is important in communicating to staff and administrators about the size of the problem and the number of patients needing help. The number of patients who received interventions divided by the number who screen positive will measure your effectiveness in actually getting help to those who need it. Again, set a performance goal to start, see how you do, and later raise it as high as is realistically achievable. The number referred divided by the number who should have been referred (those screened using AUDIT (US) as likely to have alcohol dependence) will provide another measure of effectiveness. 19 Why should you measure? or memo to all staff might be a great way to kick off These measures will allow you to keep staff and regular program operations. If, however, your pilot supervisors informed of how well they are doing. You reveals serious issues with your program design or staff may want to measure other aspects of your program as performance, meetings with staff can solicit solutions, well; costs, billing, and revenue are important to any improvements, mutual encouragement, and enhanced medical program. morale. It is far better to do a second round of pilot testing than to launch a program that may contain How will you respond to results of your pilot test? serious flaws. Be prepared to continue in “pilot test” Consider how you will review the results of pilot testing mode until you are comfortable with the program and act on them. If everything operates smoothly or design and staff performance. with only minor, easily correctible problems, a meeting Step 8: Support a Strong Start-Up When the pilot testing has demonstrated that all the • Address unforeseen issues quickly. Even the best elements and staff performance are functioning to the plans may not work in real time. Call on your team desired level, it is time to launch the new program as an to help staff assess problems and work together to official and permanent part of the practice’s standard create alternative procedures. services. A few considerations may help your official • Offer feedback, encouragement, and thanks. start-up. Primary care staff is generally well aware of the • Communicate. After the pilot, provide results impact their jobs can have on their patients’ lives. of what worked and what changes were made to Sharing feedback as quickly as possible about how improve operations. the patients benefit will give staff an incentive to make the new program work. • Provide hands-on help. In the first week of implementation, you and your team should be available to observe and assist staff whose jobs have changed. Communicating the importance of quality Ongoing and providing measures efforts to improve of performance is a way to quality can help assess maintain adherence to your plan. If performance, adjust performance results do not come processes as needed, and close to goals, your plan may be provide data to share with deficient. Quality improvement interested persons in should be continuous. your organization. 20 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 21 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices I. Laying the Groundwork II. Adapting Alcohol SBI to Your Practice III. Implementing Alcohol SBI in Your Practice IV. Refining and Promoting IV. Refining and Promoting Even after you have planned and implemented alcohol SBI, a few concerns may remain. The following steps suggest ways for you to monitor quality improvement within your own practice, to stay current with developments in other alcohol SBI programs, and to publicize your achievements. Step 9: Monitor and Update Your Plan Step 10: Share Your Success The most effective leaders in medicine continually seek As you plan, develop, and refine your alcohol SBI ways to improve their practices. As with all medical service, you may want to let others know about the services, ideas for improving alcohol SBI come both new service you are implementing, how you have from research and practical experience. integrated it into your everyday routine, and how it is accepted by your staff and patients. (See Appendix R Four approaches to consider are: for further communications tips.) Consider addressing • Seek front-line feedback—listen to your staff. these audiences: • Set specific time intervals to evaluate your • Your organization’s leaders should know of your program. Eventually alcohol SBI should become work and the opportunity alcohol SBI presents to part of your practice’s overall system so it needs its improve patient health. They may want to notify the own quality improvement goals. As it becomes a board of directors, payers, and customers of this new permanent part of your practice, consider asking service. This is particularly important if you are part supervisors to make appropriate administrative of a large healthcare system. Colleagues and other changes, e.g., job descriptions, qualifications, staff within your organization should know what and training. is happening. Remind them why their support is • Keep up on research. Many journals publish alcohol important. This will facilitate and enhance continued and other SBI research. One way to keep current communications about alcohol SBI in the future. is to subscribe to a free service that reviews this • Local community leaders, organizations, and literature. Boston University provides one such citizens want to hear about state-of-the-art, service (http://www.bu.edu/aodhealth/index.html). evidence-based innovations in healthcare that • Learn from others. Although no two primary care benefit the community. This may be especially practices are the same, finding out what works well true of risky drinking, which carries so many in other practices can help you improve consequences for traffic accidents, crime, and family your program. and social problems. • Members of regional and national organizations committed to quality medical services and advancing alcohol SBI (including CDC) will benefit from lessons you’ve learned, how well your service is being implemented, and successes and challenges you have experienced. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention V. Appendices Appendix A: Our Alcohol SBI Service I. The Planning Team (Step 2) Who is on the Planning Team? Name Position How will the planning team work together? How and why was the planning process established? Who does each team member represent and how will their input and feedback be elicited? What specific tasks should the planning process accomplish? What is the timeline? What are each person’s responsibilities? How will decisions be made? The Screening Plan (Step 3) Who will be screened? When will screening take place? How often will screening occur? Who will perform the screening and where? What screening instruments will we use? 22 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Where will screening forms be stored and who will manage them? How will screening results be recorded in the patient’s chart? How will screening results be shared with staff who provide brief interventions? II. Brief Intervention Plan (Step 4) Who will deliver the interventions? When will interventions be delivered? How will we introduce the intervention for patients who screen positive? What elements will we include? How will intervention personnel obtain necessary information that a patient needs an intervention, and the materials for conducting and documenting the intervention? How will we intervene with patients who are likely to have alcohol dependence? How will we follow patients who receive an intervention? How will the intervention be documented? III. Referral Plan (Step 5) ❏ We have in-house social workers who handle referrals. ❏ We have a readily available list of local alcohol treatment service providers, including local hospitals. ❏ We have a contact at the state agency responsible for alcohol treatment services. ❏ We have a list of local psychiatrists, psychologists, and counselors who work with patients who have alcohol dependence. ❏ We have the phone numbers of local AA meetings. 23 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention IV. Implementation Plan (Steps 6, 7 and 8) What training will be provided? Training Who When/Where General orientation to alcohol SBI How to conduct screening in our program How to conduct brief interventions Specialized training: For supervisors For quality improvement For billing Other How will we pilot test our program? When will the pilot test begin? Where will the pilot test be implemented? Which clinic? System wide? How will the pilot test be announced? What reminders and aids will be used to support staff? What data will be collected, how, and by whom? How and by whom will collected data be analyzed, summarized, and shared with staff? When will the planning team meet to review results and revise program plans? When will results of the pilot test be shared with key staff? 24 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices What additional steps will we take to ensure a strong start-up? V. Plan for Refining and Promoting (Steps 9 and 10) How will we evaluate our program? What quality improvement measures will we track? How will we share our successes? 25 26 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Appendix B: Alcohol SBI Fact Sheet Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for Risky Alcohol Use Risky Drinking: A Significant Public Health Problem • Almost four percent of adults are alcohol dependent (alcoholic). Another 25% are not dependent but drink in ways that put themselves and others at risk of harm.a,b • Everyone who engages in risky drinking is drinking too much, even if they have not yet begun to experience harm. For some people, any drinking at all is risky.c • One common type of risky drinking is binge drinking—when women consume 4 or more drinks or men consume 5 or more drinks on a single occasion. More than 38 million American adults binge drink an average of 4 times a month. Moreover, on average they drink 8 drinks per occasion.d • Risky drinking causes more than 80,000 deaths each year.d Drinker’s Pyramida,b Types of Drinkers Prevalence in U.S. (2004) Risky Dependent <4% Risky Nondependent 25% Moderate and Abstaining 71% What are the health and social effects of risky drinking? Drinking too much on a single occasion can result in intoxication and the immediate risks listed below. Drinking too much over a longer period of time injures cells in tissues throughout the body and can result in the long-term risks listed below. Further, risky drinking affects more than the drinker; it is associated with intimate partner violence, child abuse, crime, and is the largest single cause of lost productivity in the workplace. IMMEDIATE RISKS ➤ motor vehicle crashes ➤ pedestrian injuries ➤ drowning ➤ falls ➤ intimate partner violence ➤ depressed mood ➤ homicide & suicide ➤ unintended firearm injuries ➤ alcohol poisoning ➤ unprotected sex (leading to sexually transmitted diseases and unintended pregnancy) ➤ assaults and sexual assaults ➤ child abuse and neglect ➤ property crimes ➤ fires LONG-TERM RISKS
➤ gastric distress ➤ hypertension ➤ cardiovascular disease ➤ permanent liver damage ➤ cancer ➤ pancreatitis ➤ diabetes ➤ alcoholism ➤ chronic depression ➤ neurologic damage ➤ fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (which include physical, behavioral, and learning disabilities) a Grant BF, et al. The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991–1992 and
2001–2002. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004 Jun 10;74:223-234.
b Dawson DA, et al. Toward the attainment of low-risk drinking goals: a 10-year progress report. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004
National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Rethinking drinking: Alcohol and your health, 2010. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/RethinkingDrinking/Rethinking_Drinking.pdf d Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports. Vital signs: Binge drinking prevalence, frequency, and intensity among adults— United States, 2010. 2012;61:14–19. c Costs of Risky Drinkinge (nearest million) $2,577,000,000 Fire and Property Damage $4,961,000,000 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome $13,718,000,000 Motor Vehicle Crashes $20,973,000,000 Criminal Justice $22,018,000,000 Health Care $159,232,000,000 Lost Productivity Rankings of Preventive Services for the U.S. Populationf Rank Clinical Preventive Services CPB CE Total Score 1 Discuss daily aspirin use—men 40+, women 50+ 5 5 2 Childhood immunizations 5 5 10 3 Smoking cessation advice and help to quit—adults 5 5 4 Alcohol screening and brief counseling—adults 4 5 9 5 6 7 8 Colorectal cancer screening—adults 50+ Hypertension screening and treatment—adults 18+ Influenza immunization—adults 50+ Vision screening—adults 65+ 4 5 4 3 4 3 4 5 8 CPB (clinically preventable burden): disease, injury and premature death prevented if delivered to full target population CE (cost effectiveness): a standard measure for comparing services’ return on investment 9 10 11 12 Cervical cancer screening—women Cholesterol screening and treatment—men 35+, women 45+ Pneumococcal immunizations—adults 65+ Breast cancer screening—women 40+ 4 5 3 4 3 2 4 2 7 6 Services with the same total score tied in the rankings: 10 = highest impact, most cost effective among these evidence- based preventive services 2 = lowest impact, least cost effective among these evidence- based preventive services What is the cost of risky drinking? Each year, risky drinking in the U.S. costs $223.5 billion. That’s more than smoking ($193 billion) or physical inactivity ($150 billion). The costs of risky drinking cut across many aspects of the U.S. economy. Alcohol SBI: A Critical Clinical Preventive Service Although many primary care practices ask patients something about alcohol use, alcohol SBI begins with a validated set of screening questions to identify patients’ drinking patterns. The brief intervention is a short conversation with patients who are drinking too much. This approach takes little time and may be reimbursable. Thirty years of research has shown that alcohol SBI is effective at reducing risky drinking. Based on this evidence, in 2004 and 2013 the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended that alcohol SBI be implemented for all adults in primary care settings.g e Bouchery EE, et al. Economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in the U.S., 2006. Am J Prev Med 2011 Nov;41(5):516–24. f Rankings for all 25 available at http://www.prevent.org/National-Commission-on-Prevention-Priorities/Rankings-of Preventive-Services-for-the-US-Population.aspx g Screening and Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care to Reduce Alcohol Misuse, topic Page. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsdrin.htm Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices 27 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 12 oz. 8.5 oz 5 oz. 3.5 oz. 2.5 oz. 1.5 oz. 1.5 oz. 12 oz. 8-9 oz. 5 oz. 3-4 oz. 2-3 oz. 1.5 oz. 1.5 oz. of beer of malt of table of fortified of cordial, of brandy of spirits or cooler liquor 8.5 oz. shown wine wine such as liqueur, or aperitif a single jigger a single jigger of 80-proof in a 12-oz. sherry or port 2.5 oz. shown gin, vodka, glass that, if full, would hold 3.5 oz. shown whiskey, etc. Shown straight and in a about 1.5 standard highball glass with ice drinks of to show malt liquor level before adding mixer* For beer the approximate number of standard drinks in 12 oz. = 1
16 oz. = 1.3
22 oz. = 2
40 oz. = 3.3
For malt liquor the approximate number of standard drinks in 12 oz. = 1.5
16 oz. = 2
22 oz. = 2.5
40 oz. = 4.5
For table wine the approximate number of standard drinks in a standard 750 mL (25 oz.) bottle = 5 For 80-proof spirits or “hard liquor” the approximate number of standard drinks in a mixed drink = 1 or more* a pint (16 oz.) = 11 a fifth (25 oz.) = 17 1.75 L (59 oz.) = 39 Appendix C: What’s a Standard Drink?a A standard drink in the United States is any drink that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol (about 0.6 fluid ounces or 1.2 tablespoons). Below are U.S. standard drink equivalents. These are approximate, since different brands and types of beverages vary in their actual alcohol content. Many people don’t know what counts as a standard drink and so they don’t realize how many standard drinks are in the containers in which these drinks are often sold. Some examples: *Note: It can be difficult to estimate the number of standard drinks in a single mixed drink made with hard liquor. Depending on factors such as the type of spirits and the recipe, a mixed drink can contain from one to three or more standard drinks. a National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much: A Clinician’s Guide, 2007. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Practitioner/CliniciansGuide2005/clinicians_guide13_p_mats.htm 28 29 Appendix D: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) can cause serious disabilities that last a lifetime. They can affect how a person looks, grows, learns, and acts. But, FASDs are completely preventable —if a woman does not drink alcohol while she is pregnant.a • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol while pregnant. These effects can include physical and intellectual disabilities, as well as problems with behavior and learning. Often, a person has a mix of these problems. • People with FASDs often have problems with learning, memory, attention span, problem solving, speech, and hearing. They are at very high risk for trouble in school, trouble with the law, alcohol and drug abuse, and mental health disorders. • FASDs include fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which causes growth problems, abnormal facial features, and central nervous system problems. Children who do not have all of the symptoms of FAS can have another condition along the FASD continuum. These children can have problems that are just as severe as those of children with FAS. • The exact number of children living with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is difficult to determine. The rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) alone in the United States is estimated to be as high as 2 per 1,000 live births or 8,000 cases per year. The prevalence of FASDs in the United States is estimated to be as high as 10 per 1,000 births. This means approximately 40,000 babies may be born with FASDs in the United States each year.b There is no known safe level of alcohol use during pregnancy. There is no time during pregnancy when it is safe to drink.c • All drinks with alcohol can hurt a developing baby. A 12-ounce can of beer has as much alcohol as a 5-ounce glass of wine or a 1.5-ounce shot of liquor. Some drinks, like malt beverages, wine coolers, and mixed drinks, have more alcohol than a 12-ounce can of beer. • A woman should not drink any alcohol if she is pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and FASDs. • It is not safe to drink at any time during pregnancy. This includes the earliest stage of pregnancy before a woman may know that she is pregnant. Without meaning to expose the developing baby to alcohol, a woman’s drinking can cause damage during the first few weeks of pregnancy (weeks 3 to 8) when many body parts and organs are forming. a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Alcohol Use in Pregnancy. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/alcohol-use.html b American Academy of Pediatrics, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Toolkit, Frequently Asked Questions. http://www.aap.org/ en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-toolkit/Pages/Frequently-Asked-Questions. aspx c Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC Feature: Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why Take the Risk? http://www.cdc.gov/features/alcoholpregnancy/ Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Centers for Disease Control and Prevention • Negative effects can also occur if a woman drinks later in her pregnancy. The baby’s brain is developing throughout pregnancy and can be damaged at any time. • If a woman drinks alcohol and does not use contraception (birth control) when she has sex, she might become pregnant and expose her baby to alcohol before knowing she is pregnant. • Nearly half of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. And many women do not know they are pregnant right away. So, if a woman is not trying to get pregnant, but is still having sex, her provider should talk to her about using contraception consistently. • FASDs last a lifetime—there is no cure. However, identifying children with these conditions as early as possible can help them to reach their full potential. FASDs are completely preventable— if a woman does not drink alcohol while she is pregnant. 30 31 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Appendix E: Negative Effects of Risky and Binge Drinkinga Depression
Risk of fetal alcohol
physical, behavioral and
Failure to fulfill
at work, school,
Stroke Hypertension Heart failure Premature aging Frequent colds Reduced resistance to infection Increased risk of pneumonia Cancer of the throat and mouth Breast cancer Inflammation of the pancreas Stomach inflammation Diarrhea Malnutrition Painful nerves Numb, tingling toes Impaired sensation leading to falls Type 2 Diabetes Liver damage Men: Erectile dysfunction Women: Unintended pregnancy Sexually Transmitted Diseases Injury Violence Violent crime Legal problems a Adapted from WHO AUDIT Manual. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/who_msd_msb_01.6a.pdf and SBIRT Oregon Reference Sheet. http://www.sbirtoregon.org/resources/SBIRT-reference-sheet.pdf 32 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Appendix F: Single Question Alcohol Screen Description Advantages A single screening question about whether a patient This is a simple, quick, and easy method of screening to has recently consumed more than 5 drinks in one day identify most (but not all) of those likely to benefit from (more than 4 drinks for females) has been found to be brief alcohol counseling. effective in identifying at-risk drinking among primary Instrument care patients. “How many times in the past year have you had X or Use more drinks in a day?” where X is 5 for men and 4 for The question can be included on an intake questionnaire women. or asked orally while collecting vital signs. If it is asked Source in the context of collecting other patient information, Smith PC, Schmidt SM, Allensworth-Davies D, Saitz efforts should be made to assure it is asked of all R. Primary care validation of a single-question alcohol patients. Patients who score positive should then receive screening test. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Jul; 24(7):783-8. the full AUDIT (US) to determine their level of risk and any signs of dependence. The Single Question Alcohol Screen can be used for Cutoff Scores clinical purposes without permission or cost. Patients who report having exceeded the defined number of drinks 1 or more times within the past year are considered positive. Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices QUESTIONS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Score 1. How often do Never Less than
Monthly Weekly 2–3 times 4–6 times Daily you have a drink Monthly
a week a week containing alcohol? 2. How many drinks 1 drink 2 drinks
3 drinks 4 drinks 5–6 7–9 10 or containing alcohol drinks drinks more do you have on a drinks typical day you are drinking? 3. How often do you Never Less than
Monthly Weekly 2–3 times 4–6 times Daily have X (5 for men; monthly
a week a week 4 for women & men over age 65) or more drinks on one occasion? Total Appendix G: AUDIT 1-3 (US) Description A short, easy-to-administer screening process using the first three questions of the AUDIT modified for the US standard drink (14 grams, rather than the 10 grams standard used in the international version of the AUDIT). It was developed for and used in the Cutting Back Study to measure patients’ weekly consumption and occasions of excessive drinking. Use Can be included in an intake or health behavior questionnaire to provide a quick screen to identify excessive drinking. Best administered on paper or electronically, where the patient must choose one of the response alternatives. Patients who score positive should then receive the full AUDIT (US) to determine their level of risk and any signs of dependence. How to Score Each response is scored using the numbers at the top of each response column. Write the appropriate number associated with each answer in the column at the right. Then add all numbers in that column to obtain the total score. Cutoff Scores A total of 7 or more for women and men over age 65, and 8 or more for younger males is positive. Advantages Identifies both excessive regular drinking and excessive occasional drinking in only three questions. Instrument Instructions: Alcohol can affect your health, medications, and treatments, so we ask patients the following questions. Your answers will remain confidential. Place an x in one box to answer. Think about your drinking in the past year. A drink means one beer, one small glass of wine (5 oz.), or one mixed drink containing one shot (1.5 oz.) of spirits. The AUDIT 1–3 (US) can be used for clinical purposes without permission or cost. Source Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle J, Dauser D, Burleson JA, Zarkin GA, Bray J. Brief Interventions for at-risk drinking: patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness in managed care organizations. Alcohol Alcohol 2006 Nov–Dec; 41(6): 624–31. 33 34 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Appendix H: AUDIT (US)—Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test
Description • A Score of 0–7 suggests abstinence or drinking This 10-item screening instrument was developed below low-risk guidelines. These patients should through international testing by the World Health receive information that defines risky drinking levels Organization. The AUDIT asks questions about alcohol and when any alcohol consumption is unhealthy. consumption during the past year, symptoms of alcohol • A Score of 8–15 suggests drinking in excess dependence, and alcohol-related problems or harm. It of screening guidelines, which merits a brief identifies 4 different groups of people—those unlikely intervention. to be at risk, those at risk because they drink excessively, • A score of 16–19 suggests not only drinking above those who have already experienced problems related to guidelines but also the experience of alcohol-related their drinking, and those who are likely to have alcohol harm, which merits a brief intervention and follow dependence. up. Use • A score of 20 or more suggests but does not diagnose The AUDIT (US) questions can be answered in alcohol dependence syndrome, which may require a 2–3 minutes by patients using paper or a computer. referral to specialized treatment. Administration by an oral interview requires training and is likely to produce less accurate results. Advantages AUDIT (US) is sensitive to a broad spectrum of How to Score drinking problems, from early excessive use to severe Each response is scored using the numbers at the top of dependence. It has been extensively validated and each response column. Write the appropriate number performs well with a wide variety of ethnic and associated with each answer in the column at the right. cultural groups. It is available in Spanish and many Then add all numbers in that column to obtain the total other languages. It provides information about the score. three major domains used in screening for alcohol Cutoff Scores problems—alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm, We recommend that the AUDIT (US) not be used as and dependence symptoms, all of which are valuable in an initial screening instrument, but be used with all conducting an intervention. patients who have already screened positive on either the Single Question Alcohol Screen or the AUDIT 1–3 (US). In this case the AUDIT (US) provides guidance for the intervention. The higher the score, the more severe the patient’s drinking-related risk is likely to be. At the time of the AUDIT manual publication (2001) research led the WHO authors to suggest the following services for patients with different ranges of scores. Clinical judgment may be used in deviating from these guidelines. Instrument is available for clinical use without permission or cost. Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Instrument AUDIT (US) Instructions: Alcohol can affe ct your health, medications, and treatments, so we ask patients the following questions. Your answers will remain confid ential. Place an X in one box to answer. Thi nk about your drinking in the past year. A drink means one beer, one small glass of wine (5 oz.), or one mixed drink containing one shot (1.5 oz.) of spirits. QUESTIONS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Score 1. How often do you have a drink containing alcohol? Never Less than Monthly Monthly Weekly 2-3 times a week 4-6 times a week Daily 2. How many drinks containing alcohol do you have on a typical day you are drinking? 1 drink 2 drinks 3 drinks 4 drinks 5-6 drinks 7-9 drinks 10 or more drinks 3. How often do you have X (5 for men; 4 for women & men over age 65) or more drinks on one occasion? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly 2-3 times a week 4-6 times a week Daily 4. How often during the last year have you found that you were not able to stop drinking once you had started? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily 5. How often during the past year have you failed to do what was expected of you because of drinking? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily 6. How often during the past year have you needed a drink first thing in the morning to get yourself going after a heavy drinking session? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily 7. How often during the past year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily 8. How often during the past year have you been unable to remember what happened the night before because you had been drinking?? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily 9. Have you or someone else been injured because of your drinking? No Yes, but not in the past year Yes, during the past year 10. Has a relative, friend, doctor, or other health care worker been concerned about your drinking and suggested you cut down? No Yes, but not in the past year Yes, during the past year Total 35 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Name # questions Validated setting Validated Populations Time to administer/score CAGEa 4 Primary care Adults, adolescents 1 min (over 16 yrs.) RAPS4b 4 ED Adults 1 min T-ACEc 4 Ob/Gyn settings, primary care Adults, pregnant women 1 min TWEAKd 5 Ob/Gyn settings, primary care, Adults— assessing risk <2 min/1min ED during pregnancy Appendix I: Other Screening Instruments This list of instruments is provided because they are well-known and validated, but typically for use in screening for alcohol use disorders, that is, the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and dependence. They do not directly measure alcohol consumption, and therefore do not provide—by themselves—a full picture of patients’ alcohol use, one of the main goals of screening and brief intervention. If providers choose to use one of these instruments, it should be paired with another instrument that measures alcohol consumption. However, this is likely to be less reliable than the system recommended here and will make scoring more cumbersome. a Ewing JA. Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire. JAMA: 1984 Oct 12;252(14):1905–7. b Cherpitel CJ. A brief screening instrument for problem drinking in the emergency room: the RAPS4. Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen. J Stud Alcohol. 2000 May;61(3):447–9. c Sokol R, et.al. The T-ACE questions: practical prenatal detection of risk drinking. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989:150:868–70. d Chang G, Wilkins-Haug L, Berman S, Goetz MA. The TWEAK: application in a prenatal setting. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60:306– 309. 36 37 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Appendix J: Screening for Drug Misuse Single-Question Drug Screen ASSIST Description Description Like the single alcohol screening question, this The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement instrument allows easy screening for illicit drugs and Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed for the World the misuse of prescription medications. Health Organization (WHO) by an international group of substance abuse researchers to detect and manage Use substance use and related problems in primary and The single question can be added to the initial alcohol general medical care settings. screen (either the single-question screen or the AUDIT 1–3 (US)) or it can be added to the AUDIT (US) or Use asked during interventions with patients who screen Although too long for an initial screening instrument, positive for alcohol. ASSIST is useful in providing a full picture of a patient’s full substance use—alcohol, tobacco, illicit and Cutoff Scores prescription drugs. ASSIST can be used in place of the A response of one or more use is positive. AUDIT (US) as a full screen or just for patients who Advantages respond positively to the single question drug screen. This is a simple, quick, and easy method of screening to Cutoff Scores identify those likely to benefit from brief counseling for Varies by substance; see instrument and manual. drug misuse. Advantages Instrument Like the AUDIT (US), which deals only with alcohol, How many times in the past year have you used an ASSIST offers not only a measure of whether the illegal drug or used a prescription medication for non- patient’s use presents risk, but also provides a measure medical reasons? of severity. Source Instrument Smith PC, Schmidt SM, Allensworth-Davies D, Saitz R. ASSIST (various languages) and supporting materials A single-question screening test for drug use in primary can be obtained from the WHO website: care. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jul 12; 170 (13) 1155–60. http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/activities/assist/ en/index.html Source WHO ASSIST Working Group. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): development, reliability and feasibility. Addiction. 2002 Sep; 97 (9): 1183–94. 38 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention DAST–10 Description The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST)-10 was designed to provide a brief instrument for clinical screening and treatment evaluation of drug use. Use This 10 question instrument has been condensed from the 28-question DAST and can be used for adults and older youth to determine extent of drug use. Cutoff Scores Anything greater than 0 is deemed risky and requires some type of intervention. Advantages Short, self-administered, yes/no screening instrument. It provides a quantitative index to the extent of problems related to drug abuse, allowing you to obtain a reliable estimate of the degree of problem severity. Instrument http://www.buppractice.com/node/1521 Source Skinner, HA. The drug abuse screening test. Addict Behav.1982; 7(4): 363–71. CRAFFT Description The tool recommended by both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism for screening adolescents for risky substance use (both alcohol and drugs) is the CRAFFT instrument. Use This tool asks about problem behaviors related to the use of alcohol and other drugs in adolescents. It can easily be administered orally during the course of an exam or be self-administered. Cutoff Scores “Yes” to two of the questions signals a problem needing further evaluation and a score of 4 or more should raise a suspicion of substance dependence. Advantages Quick and easy to administer, identifies problems that can be discussed during motivational interviewing. Allows for screening both alcohol and drug use at the same time. Instrument The CRAFFT (various languages) can be obtained from the following website: http://www.ceasar-boston.org/ CRAFFT/screenCRAFFT.php CRAFFT is a mnemonic acronym of first letters of key words in the six screening questions. The questions should be asked exactly as written. Have you ever ridden in a CAR driven by someone C (including yourself) who was “high” or had been using alcohol or drugs? R Do you ever use alcohol or drugs to RELAX, feel better about yourself, or fit in? A Do you ever use alcohol/drugs while you are by yourself, ALONE? F Do you ever FORGET things you did while using alcohol or drugs? F Do your family or FRIENDS ever tell you that you should cut down on your drinking or drug use? T Have you gotten into TROUBLE while you were using alcohol or drugs? Source Knight JR, Sherritt L, Shrier LA, Harris S, Chang G. Validity of the CRAFFT substance abuse screening test among adolescent clinic patients. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Jun;156(6):607–14. Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Appendix K: Orienting Staff to Alcohol SBI Orientation will help staff understand why this new service is being implemented in your practice, how it will help patients, and what different staff members will do to make it work. Providing this orientation has been shown16 to change not only staff knowledge but also their actions and support. The following annotated outline provides a picture of how you can develop your own orientation program. Title and Introduction A good place to begin is your practice’s decision to authorize and plan the alcohol SBI program, with the names and titles of all those involved. This is also an opportunity to recognize and thank those who worked hard to design the program and who are leading its implementation. An introduction to talking about alcohol issues Many people find it awkward or uncomfortable to talk about their own drinking or that of others. Some think of drinking as a private matter, and not something medical practice should deal with. Others have had painful experiences with a loved one with severe drinking problems. They may mistakenly leap to the conclusion that alcohol SBI is intended to “cure alcoholism” and will dismiss it outright or argue that if it will not help alcoholics it is not worth doing. Although your orientation will address all of these issues, at the outset it is best to acknowledge the difficulties many Americans have in discussing alcohol. Allow everyone to share experiences, and ask for suspension of judgment about the new program until the end of the training, after dissemination of all the material. Promise to come back to the issue at the end of the orientation and be sure to do so. Refer to studies (e.g. the Cutting Back Study) that show patients are comfortable talking about alcohol with their healthcare providers and that they think it is important that their providers know this information. Discussion of the full spectrum of unhealthy alcohol use It is important to begin the training with facts about the consequences of excessive alcohol use in our society. When the subject of alcohol is raised, most Americans think first about alcoholism, that is, alcohol dependence. Unless the orientation makes it clear that this program is designed to identify and help people across a broad spectrum of unhealthy alcohol use—from hazardous use to dependence—many will not understand. You can copy the Drinker’s Pyramid (Appendix B) here for use in this discussion. Grasping this new perspective should be among the first orientation topics. One aspect of describing this new perspective should be the recognition that this new program will not “cure alcoholics” in just a few minutes! Because most people will know someone who occasionally drinks too much, but who does not have alcohol dependence, learning the concept of nondependent, risky drinking should not be difficult. Review of screening instruments and scoring Staff should know that the instruments your planning team has selected have been validated by research. These instruments are used widely in medical settings and do a credible job of identifying patients who drink to excess. You might distribute the instruments and also ask one of the people who will be conducting the screening process to demonstrate exactly how it will work. (See instructions for designing training for screeners in Appendix M.) Describe and demonstrate a brief intervention Many medical staff may find brief interventions a novel concept, even though they are now widely used in primary care counseling for hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and tobacco use. It may be useful to refer to the To avoid overwhelming and confusing your staff, include in your orientation only information that is relevant to your clinic setting. Adding information about other screening instruments and components you have decided not to include will only confuse people. 39 40 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Processes to follow if there are questions recommendation17 and evidence.18 Describe the or problems empathic style of conversation with the patient and During the initial period of any new medical routine, the specific steps included in a standard intervention. you can expect problems to surface. If you have a Finally, your follow-up procedures will assure mechanism to correct these problems quickly, the doubters that you are not under the illusion that every corrections can actually strengthen the plan. The intervention will succeed in just a few minutes. orientation should encourage staff to identify and report An explanation of brief interventions is incomplete anything that is not working as planned. Expecting, without a simple demonstration. Whether you use a seeking, and addressing such issues should be part of video drawn from another training program or a live the implementation process and communicated in the demonstration by your intervention team, seeing and orientation. hearing what is involved will help those new to this approach understand and appreciate your service. What to expect in the way of goals and feedback Videos from SBIRT Residency programs in Oregon and Most people will want to learn whether these new North Carolina provide an overview of screening and functions are actually having the desired effects. The end brief intervention in five minutes or less. You can access of the orientation is the ideal time to tell everyone how these videos in Appendix O. you will measure this work and how the results will be Orientation to when and how operations will begin reported back to them. These reports should begin as quickly as possible—within the first week of operations Review the results of your pilot and then set a specific if possible—so that staff learn quickly how well they are time to begin the new intervention—ideally within a doing. few days of the orientation. Your pilot phase should include a description of the review process you will use Thanks to everyone involved to identify anything that is not working well and how Finally, thanking everyone who has initiated and you intend to make adjustments. participated in the planning of your alcohol SBI service is a fitting way to end your orientation. 41 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Figure 2: Patients’ Comfort with Questions Figure 3: Importance that Provider Should Know about Behaviors Appendix L: How Do Patients React to Alcohol Screening? The Cutting Back Study
Some medical personnel believe that when patients are asked about their drinking, many are uncomfortable and resistant. One reason personnel typically give for not asking about alcohol use is that “drinking behavior is private.” This view is not, however, supported by research. The University of Connecticut School of Medicine’s Cutting Back Studya screened primary care patients in five states for smoking, diet/exercise, and alcohol use using a questionnaire. Patients were also asked two questions about their attitudes toward the screening: 1. How comfortable do you feel answering these questions? (Figure 2) 2. How important do you think it is that your health care provider knows about these health behaviors? (Figure 3) Patients were asked to express their views on a five-point scale from “very comfortable” to “very uncomfortable” and “very important” to “very unimportant.” Fewer than 9 percent of patients indicated any discomfort or thought that such information was unimportant to their healthcare givers. Not surprisingly, a high proportion of those who reacted negatively to screening were those who smoked, were overweight, or drank too much. The responses of people whose behavior creates health problems might sometimes be difficult to manage. But no one would refuse to screen for hypertension or diabetes out of fear that such screening might upset a patient. In case someone in your facility raises this issue, you might want to print and share these Cutting Back Study findings. a These data on patient attitudes have not been previously published. For further information of the Cutting Back Study, see “Cutting Back: Managed Care Screening and Brief Intervention for Risking Drinking” at http://www.rwjf.org/en/research publications/find-rwjf-research/2007/04/cutting-back.html 42 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Appendix M: Training for Screening Staff It is probably best to create your own training for staff who will be screening patients. This avoids any confusion from videos and materials from other programs that use instruments and procedures different from those you have chosen. Consider the following learning objectives and training elements as you create training for your screening staff. Learning Objectives Training Elements for Screening Staff 1. Understand the nature and scope of alcohol-related • Describe the purpose of your screening plan so that risks. screeners will understand how their work fits into the overall alcohol SBI plan. 2. Understand the purpose of screening for alcohol use, rather than solely for alcohol problems and • Explain why routine use of validated screening dependence. instruments produces better results than subjective judgments of staff. 3. Understand the screening instruments and be able to follow screening procedures. • Describe the specific steps in your screening procedures. Name the instrument or instruments to 4. Understand how screening fits within the overall be used, and describe how they help identify patients alcohol SBI plan. at risk. • Review each instrument, its function within your overall system, the questions involved, how to introduce it to patients, how to score it, and how to report that score to all who need to know. • Confirm that screeners understand what each score means and what will happen to patients with each score. • Brainstorm what questions patients might ask with trainees, and help them develop appropriate responses. • Discuss the limits of the screener’s role and who will be performing the other alcohol SBI functions. • Ask trainees for their questions about screening and the alcohol SBI plan in general, and discuss answers to those questions so they are both informed and comfortably supportive of their roles. • Have all screening staff practice the functions they will be required to perform. 43 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Appendix N: Brief Intervention Guidance The Brief Intervention Training Notes on the next page is a reference sheet developed from ten, day-long training sessions on alcohol SBI supported by three federal agencies and presented for staff from emergency departments and trauma centers around the United States. Although designed for acute-care clinical settings, it is also applicable in primary care settings. Feedback on Screening Results Options The FLO (Feedback, Listen, Options) mnemonic was In the Options step, you start to conclude the developed to encompass the three major elements of a interaction. If the patient is ready to do that, all you have brief motivational intervention. The feedback element to ask is “Where does this leave you?” They will take it is more important than it might seem at first. Although from there. With other patients, you can just present the you may choose not to use the RANGE mnemonic five choices provided by the MENUS mnemonic. as presented (under the ‘Feedback’ section), each of As a healthcare expert you may be pulled to provide those five elements is important in helping patients advice. If you do that, make sure to use the Ask-Advise- understand their screening results. Moreover, the Ask method outlined in the Options section in the fifth element, ‘Elicit patient’s reaction’ is particularly Training Notes that follow this section. It not only important because it turns responsibility for the reduces resistance but also indicates respect, strengthens discussion over to the patient. rapport, and lets you know whether the patient actually Listen for Change Talk heard your advice. The Listen step is the heart of the brief intervention. Sometimes, people wonder why ‘Continue Usual It may be the most difficult for many in the medical drinking pattern’ is included as an option. No matter professions because they are trained to dispense expert what you might believe, the power to decide, in reality, advice, not to listen, so their first question might be, belongs to the patient. In acknowledging that reality, “Listen for what?” First, listen to how patients feel about you communicate to them clearly that the responsibility getting a screening result that means they are drinking for changing behavior is theirs. No matter which option too much. Then summarize those feelings. The goal is they choose, you understand the difficulty of their to help patients think about the pros and cons of their situation and respect their right to control their own current drinking pattern. By asking for both, you are lives. That will help end the interaction on good terms. not setting up an argument you will lose, that is, an argument where you are on the side of drinking less or stopping, and the patient is on the side of continuing the current behavior. That’s an argument the patient has already practiced. Instead, you set up a balanced approach by setting the patient up to argue with him or herself, both pro and con. Then, you are in a position to listen for “change talk,” the patient’s own words that support change. The important thing is to listen for patients’ specific language, so that you can repeat it back. By using their words, you make it clear that you are not arguing, but are just neutrally pointing out that they have thoughts and feelings on both sides of the issue. 44 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 0 0 0 Brief Intervention Training Notes
Orient the Patient Identify yourself and explain your role on the trauma team.
Get permission, explicit or implicit, from the patient to talk together for a few minutes.
Explain the purpose of this discussion is to
1) give them information about health risks that may be related to their drinking,
2) get their opinions about their drinking, and
3) discuss what, if anything, they want to change about their drinking.
Using Binge QuestionF eedback 0Range: The number of drinks people have on a single occasion varies a great deal, from nothing to more than 10 drinks.
0And we know that having too many drinks at one time can alter judgment and reaction times.
0Normal: Most drinkers in the United States have fewer than 2 (♀) or 3 (♂) drinks on a single occasion.
0Give Binge Questions results. "You drank more than that ___ times last month, increasing your risk for health problems."
0 Elicit the patient’s reaction. "What do you make of that?"
Using AUDIT 0Range: AUDIT scores can range from 0 (non-drinkers) to 40 (probably physically dependent on alcohol).
0AUDIT has been given to thousands of patients in medical settings, so you can compare your score with theirs.
0Normal AUDIT scores are 0–7, which represent low-risk drinking. About half of the U.S. population doesn't drink.
0Give patients their AUDIT score. "Your score of ___ means you are (at risk or high risk), putting you in danger of health problems."
0 0 Elicit the patient’s reaction. "What do you make of that?"
Listen for Change Talk Goals a) Listen for pro-change talk—the patient’s concerns, problem recognition, and downsides of drinking. b) Summarize the patient’s feelings both for and against current drinking behavior. "On the one hand . . . On the other hand . . ." Methods "What role do you think alcohol played in your injury?" Explore pros and cons of drinking. "What do you like about drinking? What do you like less about drinking?" Options "Where does this leave you? Do you want to quit, cut down, or make no change?" You could:
Manage your drinking,
Eliminate drinking from your life,
Never drink and drive,
Continue Usual drinking pattern, or
If appropriate, ask about a plan. "How will you do that? Who will help you? What might get in the way?" Close on Good Terms 0Summarize the patient’s statements in favor of change.
0Emphasize the patient’s strengths.
What agreement was reached?
Is this patient interested in change? "On a scale of 0 to 10 [with 0 indicating not important, not confident or not ready], rate. . ." ". . . how important it is for you to change your drinking behavior?" ". . . your level of readiness to change your drinking behavior?" "Why did you choose ___ [the # stated] and not a lower number?" If the patient is interested in changing, use these questions. "What would it take to raise that number?"
"How confident are you that you can change your drinking behavior?"
Reflect and summarize throughout. If You Give Advice When you have significant concerns or important information to impart, use this approach. It reduces the possibility of patient resistance. Ask: Ask permission to discuss your concerns. Advise: If permission is granted, give information or share your concerns. Ask: Ask for the patient’s reaction to your comments. April 2009: C Dunn, C Field, D Hungerford, S Shellenberger, J Macleod Always thank the patient for speaking with you. 45 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Appendix O: Training to Deliver Brief Interventions In general, brief intervention training consists of four broad areas: 1) Confidence or Self-Efficacy, 2) Style, 3) Content, and 4) Practice. 1.Confidence or Self-Efficacy 2.Style People are more likely to become good at any job if You have selected certain members of your staff to they not only know that the job can be done, but also perform brief interventions in large part because of the that they can do it. The first step in brief intervention sort of people they are—friendly, interested in patients, training is to review the rationale that has led you to good listeners, and empathetic. Those are also the establish your alcohol SBI service. primary skills that seem to make brief interventions successful. • The main target population for brief interventions is nondependent, risky drinkers. These drinkers are • not addicted, so the goal of the intervention is to motivate them to cut back or stop drinking. • Patients who have alcohol dependence are also risky drinkers, but there will be far fewer of them. For them the goal is different. Not only do we want to motivate them to change their drinking patterns, but Staff should understand that the main job of a brief intervention is to motivate patients to be aware of alcohol consumption patterns, understand the associated risks, and make their own decisions. This slide presentation on “How to Increase Motivation”19 by a physician who is one of America’s leading SBI scholars provides useful information and tips on how best to motivate patients. we also want to motivate them to seek further help. We know the brief intervention, by itself, is unlikely • to be sufficient help. • Research on brief interventions for risky drinking has been widely successful in primary care settings. Many studies were implemented by regular primary care staff who received training similar to what you An advanced degree or certification is NOT required to deliver an effective brief intervention. However, staff can enhance their skills by using tools taught by various programs of motivational interviewing. Some of those items are available at: http://motivationalinterview.org/clinicians/ Side_bar/skills_maintenence.html. will provide to your staff. • Although the following videos demonstrate• Staff should understand that not all patients will brief interventions conducted in an emergency reduce their drinking with only one intervention. department, they will help trainees recognize However, studies show that reductions in drinking the features of a “good” brief intervention by those patients who do respond make the overall by dramatically comparing them with “bad” service highly beneficial and cost-effective. interventions. (See 1) Anti-SBIRT (Doctor A) and• Staff should also understand that such interventions 2)using SBIRT Effectively (Doctor B) at http://www.are effective even though they are quite simple to bu.edu/bniart/sbirt-in-health-care/sbirt-educationalprovide, take only a few minutes, and are regularly materials/sbirt-videos/)done by their peers. 46 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 3. Content 4. Practice Staff need training in all the particulars of what they Understanding alcohol brief interventions is one thing; should do to deliver a brief intervention. It is important doing them is another. The best training about this that they understand these matters before they watch subject is no substitute for actually doing it. So every videos and consult other training materials so that they training of staff who will perform brief interventions will know how your plan differs from what they may should include opportunities for practice, with feedback encounter elsewhere. Only you can provide a full list of on performance. that content, based upon your planning. Address the Seeing others conduct interventions is one way for following issues during your training: people to learn – as long as those demonstrations come • When and where brief interventions will be close to being what your planning team has decided delivered, and what happens if they cannot be done upon for your practice. The following websites provide on the same day as screening. video demonstrations that might prove useful. • How the subject will be introduced to patients. 1. NIAAA provides 10-minute videos of four cases of how practitioners can conduct alcohol SBI for at-risk • What elements are to be included in the drinkers but also manage severe cases, including intervention. addiction, if they choose. • What materials, if any, staff will use as reminders or 2. View a 4:36-minute intervention with a male who share with patients as well as where those materials is drinking at hazardous levels. You can play or will be and who is responsible for producing and download the example “Brief Intervention: Steve” at distributing them. http://www.sbirtoregon.org/movies.php. To compare • How long (and how short) interventions should be. the same script with different actors, view the video • How staff will know which patients should receive labeled “Michael” at http://www.sbirtnc.org/video interventions. demonstrations/. • What special elements are to be used with screened 3. View a 5:15-minute intervention with a woman patients identified as likely to have alcohol who has hypertension and is drinking at harmful dependence. levels. You can play or download the example “Brief Intervention: Jill” at http://www.sbirtoregon. • What referral procedures have been established and org/movies.php. To compare the same script with how they are to be used. different actors, view the video labeled “Marie” at • How follow-up should be scheduled and conducted http://www.sbirtnc.org/video-demonstrations/. with patients. After you view video demonstrations, you can easily • How to document each intervention with respect to create a fictional patient whose role can be played patient records, other clinicians, billing, etc. by you or another staff member. After practice, the • What data on interventions will be collected and person playing the patient can provide feedback on analyzed for quality improvement. what seemed good and what could be improved. More practice, and practice with different “patients,” will build • How to report issues relating to alcohol interventions both skills and confidence. Practice will also help you that others should know about. and your trainees become comfortable delivering brief interventions. In time, delivering an alcohol intervention will be no more difficult than taking blood pressure. 47 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Appendix P: Follow-Up System Developing a follow-up system is likely to involve two areas of planning and action: 1. Adapt reminder systems you currently use: 2. Create a plan for follow-up appointments that a. To set a follow-up appointment for risky drinking, includes: b. To inform patients that they should return for a a. Determining the patients’ current drinking levels follow-up visit within a reasonable period, perhaps and patterns—this could involve re-administering 1–3 months, and the screening instrument or equivalent questioning, c. To include a reminder call to the patient just before b. Reviewing goals patients set during the initial that appointment date. intervention, e.g., cutting back or quitting, c. Reinforcing patients’ motivational level and tips for reducing to or maintaining sensible limits, and d. Establishing another follow-up visit if necessary or referral to specialized help if needed and desired. 48 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Appendix Q: Billing The following information may help your practice get reimbursed for alcohol SBI services. • Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment—Coding, Billing and Reimbursement Manual. This manual was developed specifically for the Wisconsin SBIRT program “…to provide Wisconsin clinic and administrative staff with guidance on obtaining Medicare, Medicaid and commercial insurance payment for SBIRT services.” Although it was developed specifically for the state of Wisconsin, the background information describing the various codes and reimbursement processes may be useful. • The following resources provide further information on coding and billing. • http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/ Downloads/Reduce-Alcohol-Misuse-ICN907798.pdf • http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/ Downloads/SBIRT_Factsheet_ICN904084.pdf • http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNMattersArticles/ downloads/MM7791.pdf • An article on Medicaid reimbursement for SBI has some helpful background information and a list of states with open or listed codes as of July 2010. It can be accessed at http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/data/ Journals/PSS/3936/pss6203_0306.pdf • A digital tool designed to help you determine whether billing codes are listed on a state’s fee schedule, and, if listed, whether or not they are open for reimbursement (i.e., a billing amount has been assigned to the codes). Click on the state to see the information. http://ireta.org/sbirt-reimbursement-map Can I get reimbursed for alcohol screening and intervention from insurance? Some health plans will now pay for alcohol and substance use screening and brief intervention. These patient encounters must include both screening with a validated instrument, such as the AUDIT or any instruments mentioned in this guide, and counseling by a physician or other qualified health care professional of at least 15 minutes. CPT codes are as follows: Medicare G codes: Medicaid H codes: • Screening and brief • Screening and brief • Screening and brief intervention 15 to 30 intervention 15 to 30 intervention 15 to 30 minutes duration—99408 minutes duration—G0396 minutes duration—H0049 • Screening and brief • Screening and brief • Screening and brief intervention over 30 intervention over 30 intervention over 30 minutes—99409 minutes—G0397 minutes—H0050 49 Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices Appendix R: Tips for Communicating about Your Alcohol SBI Services Methods for Disseminating Information about your Alcohol SBI Services • Publish articles in internal newsletters and patient • Present papers at meetings of local, regional, and publications produced by your organization. national professional organizations. Well-written, thoroughly researched papers serve to educate and • Provide news of this healthcare innovation to local engage professionals from other institutions who newspapers, radio, and television. These media often might also implement alcohol SBI. look for healthcare news that benefits patients and the community. • Publish academic papers that advance the knowledge base of alcohol SBI. • Develop pages on your organization’s website to communicate with employees, patients, and interested citizens. Key Considerations for Communications Whenever you communicate to audiences that do not already know about alcohol SBI, share the lessons you had to learn early—things that may seem obvious now. • Explain and clarify. It is always critical to explain • Provide drinking levels. Mention the risky that the overall goal of screening in alcohol SBI is drinking levels. You may be the first person in to identify risky drinking. It does not just identify your community ever to inform people about people who have alcohol abuse or dependence. If recommended drinking limits. Explain the this point is not made emphatically and frequently, difference between those who drink at risky levels many in your audience are likely to think that you (25% of general population) and those who are are seeking to identify only “alcoholics.” dependent on alcohol (about 4% of population). With all the publicity surrounding the health • Emphasize the health benefits of alcohol SBI. benefits of wine and alcohol, it should be noted that Because alcohol SBI encourages patients to stop when the recommended thresholds for consumption drinking or decrease the amount and frequency of are exceeded, any benefits from alcohol can turn drinking, calling attention to the health benefits to detriments. of alcohol SBI and reduction of risky drinking is appropriate. For medical audiences, feature the • Keep it simple. Don’t try to pack too much reduction of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and information into one story. A series of stories (if you mental health problems. For community audiences, can get them) may be much more effective than one highlight decreases in accidents, injuries, and long, complicated narrative. social problems. • Make it easy to understand. If your audience • Be positive and realistic. Emphasize that alcohol includes non-medical people, remember to use easily SBI is a public health approach that provides a understood, non-technical language. low-intensity, low-cost clinical preventive service to • Protect confidentiality. Always protect patient identify and intervene with people who drink too confidentiality! Remember that the media will want much. Be sure to note that many people—but not stories of real people who have been helped, so all—who receive alcohol SBI will respond positively, they will often ask for personal identifiers. Follow and over time will reduce their use to safer drinking established procedures and in large organizations levels and thereby reduce related risks to themselves engage your public relations/communications staff and others. to be certain confidentiality is preserved. 50 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention References
1. Whitlock EP, Polen MR, Green CA, Orleans T, Klein 14. Shield KD, Parry C, Rehm J. Chronic diseases and J. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral conditions r elated to alcohol use. Alcohol Res 2013; counseling interventions in primary care to reduce risky/ 35(2):155–73. harmful alcohol use by adults: a summary of the evidence 15. Miller WR. Rediscovering fire: small interventions, large for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern effects. Psychol Addict Behav. 2000 Mar:14(1):6–18. Med. 2004 Apr 6; 140:557–68. . Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Higgins PS, Gassman RA, 2. Jonas DE, et al. Screening, Behavioral Counseling, and 16 Gould BE. Training medical providers to conduct alcohol Referral in Primary Care to Reduce Alcohol Misuse. screening and brief interventions. Subst Abus. 2004 Mar; Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and 25(1):17–26. Quality (US); 2012 Jul. 3. Babor TF, McRee BG, Kassebaum PA, Grimaldi PL, 17. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force; Screening Ahmed K, Bray J. Screening, Brief Intervention, and and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): toward a public health to reduce alcohol misuse: recommendation statement. approach to the management of substance abuse. Subst Ann Intern Med. 2013 Aug 6; 159(3):210–8. Abus, 2007; 28:3, 7–30. 18. Jonas DE, et al; Behavioral counseling after screening for 4. Kaner EF, et al. Effectiveness of brief alcohol alcohol misuse in primary care: a systematic review and interventions in primary care populations. Cochrane meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Database Syst Rev. 2007, Apr 18;(2): CD004148. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Nov 6; 157:645–54. 5. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening 19. Saitz R. How to Increase Motivation. Boston University and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care Schools of Medicine and Public Health. 2008. http:// to reduce alcohol misuse: recommendation statement. www.bumc.bu.edu/care/files/2008/09/1how-to-increase Ann Intern Med. 2013 Aug 6; 159(3): 210–8. motivation-saitz-2008.pdf 6. Rehm J. The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism. Alcohol Res Health 2011; 34(2): 135–43. 7. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse, and Alcoholism. Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much: A Clinicians Guide, 2007. Available at http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/ publications/Practitioner/CliniciansGuide2005/guide.pdf 8. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010. 9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Council approves definition of binge drinking. NIAAA Newsletter, 3, 2004. 10. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994. 11. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. 12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Advisory on alcohol use in pregnancy; Feb 2005. Available at https://wayback.archive-it. org/3926/20140421162517/http://www.surgeongeneral. gov/news/2005/02/sg02222005.html 13. Lupton C, Burd L, Harwood R. Cost of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Am J Med Gen C: Semin Med Genet. 2004 May 15; 127C(1):42–50. Planning and Implementing Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use: A Step-by-Step Guide for Primary Care Practices 51
For more information please contact Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329-4027
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CS247528-A to themselves engage your public relations/communications staff and others. to be certain confidentiality is preserved. 50 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention References
1. Whitlock EP, Polen MR, Green CA, Orleans T, Klein 14. Shield KD, Parry C, Rehm J. Chronic diseases and J. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral conditions r elated to alcohol use. Alcohol Res 2013; counseling interventions in primary care to reduce risky/ 35(2):155–73. harmful alcohol use by adults: a summary of the evidence 15. Miller WR. Rediscovering fire: small interventions, large for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern effects. Psychol Addict Behav. 2000 Mar:14(1):6–18. Med. 2004 Apr 6; 140:557–68. . Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Higgins PS, Gassman RA, 2. Jonas DE, et al. Screening, Behavioral Counseling, and 16 Gould BE. Training medical providers to conduct alcohol Referral in Primary Care to Reduce Alcohol Misuse. screening and brief interventions. Subst Abus. 2004 Mar; Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and 25(1):17–26. Quality (US); 2012 Jul. 3. Babor TF, McRee BG, Kassebaum PA, Grimaldi PL, 17. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force; Screening Ahmed K, Bray J. Screening, Brief Intervention, and and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): toward a public health to reduce alcohol misuse: recommendation statement. approach to the management of substance abuse. Subst Ann Intern Med. 2013 Aug 6; 159(3):210–8. Abus, 2007; 28:3, 7–30. 18. Jonas DE, et al; Behavioral counseling after screening for 4. Kaner EF, et al. Effectiveness of brief alcohol alcohol misuse in primary care: a systematic review and interventions in primary care populations. Cochrane meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Database Syst Rev. 2007, Apr 18;(2): CD004148. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Nov 6; 157:645–54. 5. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening 19. Saitz R. How to Increase Motivation. Boston University and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care Schools of Medicine and Public Health. 2008. http:// to reduce alcohol misuse: recommendation statement. www.bumc.bu.edu/care/files/2008/09/1how-to-increase Ann Intern Med. 2013 Aug 6; 159(3): 210–8. motivation-saitz-2008.pdf 6. Rehm J. The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism. Alcohol Res Health 2011; 3