What email address or phone number would you like to use to sign in to Docs.com?
If you already have an account that you use with Office or other Microsoft services, enter it here.
Or sign in with:
Signing in allows you to download and like content, and it provides the authors analytical data about your interactions with their content.
Embed code for: critical response final paper hakeim granville
Select a size
The Impact Of The Anesthesia On Modern Society
Have you ever experience waking up while in surgery? Well according to the article "Awakening" by Joshua Lang creates the point that anesthesia awareness is a gruesome experience patients could go through after surgery but finding a solution to measure one's consciousness was the goal at hand. In the article, the experience of having this disorder was terrifying to relive those moments of surgery having nightmares or even causing one to take their own life because it is "horrendous to bear" . Secondly as we anesthesiologist and scientist slowly try to find a solution on how to successfully stop awareness from happening to patients leads to measuring one's consciousness or unconsciousness level while in surgery was "burning in the field". Although anesthesia is a breakthrough for medical advancement in today's world, some patients would still face negative side effects in using anesthetics after having surgery that would bring torment into their life's later on as a result to the minds state of consciousness during the operation; and with this scientist try to establish a method to measure a human's brain for any awareness within going through medical surgery.
In the earlier time frame anesthesia awareness was unheard of until a study done on patient named Linda Campbell recalling those horrifying nightmares and flashback of that time in surgery when her appendix was being removed. Soon after she returned the mom sense something different about her behavior as it states "Campbell began flinging food from her high chair. She suffered random episodes of uncontrollable vomiting. She threw violent temper tantrums during the day and had disturbing dreams at night. “They were about people being cut open, lots of blood, lots of violence,” Campbell remembers"(Joshua Lang pg 1). This shows that after the surgery the girl wasn’t the same as she was experiencing some symptoms her parents did not know the cause for which was abit mind blowing because of the reactions she had. So with this result these symptoms went one for some time pulling her from school to be in a rehabilitation house. Over time these symptoms subsided and it was as if she was normal again but not entirely. Because those symptoms came back to haunt her in older stage of life and she needed help but it was after meeting up with anesthesiologist that reviewed her symptoms which she had has a child calling this experience she had anesthesia awareness. After which Campbell did some research to fully understand the complexity of what have been occurring to her ever since she was a child into adulthood not only finding some results but also finding other people online who had similar cases with anesthesia awareness to share eachother stories on what occurred in that surgery room. Campbell now knowing the struggles especially with the knowledge that there is no way for her to prove that she woke up, and that many, if not, most people might not believe her. She said "Anesthesia awareness is an intrapersonal event,” she says. “No one else sees it. No one else knows it. You’re the only one" (Lang pg 3). Which implies although she might experience waking up while in surgery there's no way of letting others know what occurred to her but instead she would have these vivid memories to live on with.
However in the case of Sizemore Jr former Baptist Minister who portrayed similar symptoms like Campbell although there wasn’t any records of this experience. He underwent exploratory laparotomy operation because of recurring abdominal pain. His family filed a lawsuit because they complained that Sizemore was awake throughout the surgery resulting in his strange behavior after the surgery claiming to have suffered insomnia, Sizemore complained of being unable to breathe and claimed that people were trying to bury him alive not even wanting to see his grandchildren and to be left alone. It was clear that Sherman had symptoms of PTSD even though he wasn’t urged by his family to seek the psychiatric help he needed because of this disorder he portrayed. Within couple of weeks after the procedure Sizemore committed suicide. Now with incident occurring to Sizemore causing not to live willingly and with lack of support from his loved ones to seek medical attention for this disorder, alarm bells was ringing for investigation as to why patients are suffering these horrendous aftermath after been drugged with anesthesia. The call for brief research to figure why patients are conscious to their surrounding while in surgery was imminent.
Now behold cometh the hour cometh the man Doctoral student Nassib Chamoun a young, vibrant young man who stepped up to the plate to study and find answers to the issue and
also to address methods that could be applied to measure the human mind for it’s state of consciousness. In doing so he attended an EEG demonstration during a surgery at Harvard Hospital and noticed something within the EEG monitor.The EEG technology was an old instrument that was used to measure electrical activity in the brain and was shown to have scripts that had ink spot on the paper to see an individual’s brain activity. After seeing how the EEG monitor worked intrigued him and thought of how to gather those data into a more simpler device that surgeons and anesthesiologist could use effectively. With that in mind he left his doctoral program and spend years working on finding a technique to measure patients brain activity in a more advanced matter. Onward with the quest he found faith in a family friend named Charlie Zraket, whom was a CEO to a contractor called Mitre, which influenced Chamoun to create the BIS monitor. He retrieved information from his buddy Zraket because his company uses bispectral analysis, that break’s down waves in to find patterns. This method mostly used for ocean waves was later used with submarines and planes respectively. With this knowledge brought forth the idea to use this technology into detecting human’s consciousness. The inauguration of the BIS monitor was arguably one the most prestigious machines built even referring to it as the anesthesia "Holy Grail". Soon after many surgeons and anesthesiologist relied on Chamoun’s BIS monitor to see for patients brain activity. Now even though the creation of the BIS monitor came in handy for medical advancement still questions were asked on how accurately the BIS monitor can detect people's consciousness. However Tononi emphasizes the idea to find the solution of consciousness. He implied a theory that lead him to the creation of the TMS model that was a bit more accurate than the BIS monitor. Now he proved that the BIS monitor was inferior to the TMS in that explicates his theory of the mind being informative and that easily demonstrates the provision of the minds consciousness.
In essence, through Langs article of the "Awakening" it was shown that the idea of anesthesia awareness had negative effects and in finding the cause for people's consciousness is still undefined even in today's society. The use of BIS and TMS models were close methods in finding one's level of consciousness but as these two inventions pioneer the way for better theories to come further down in the future the cause of anesthesia awareness is still left unknown.
to her but instead she would have these vivid memories to live on with.
However in the case of Sizemore Jr former Baptist Minister who portrayed similar symptoms like Campbell although there wasn’t any records of this experience. He underwent exploratory laparotomy operation because of recurring abdominal pain. His family filed a lawsuit because they complained that Sizemore was awake throughout the surgery resulting in his strange behavior after the surgery claiming to have suffered insomnia, Sizemore complained of being unable to breathe and claimed that people were trying to bury him alive not even wanting to see his grandchildren and to be left alone. It was clear that Sherman had symptoms of PTSD even though he wasn’