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Embed code for: 9 if this is your heart rate and each yellow line contract
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#9 if this is your heart rate and each yellow line contract. The only time u r feeding the coronary arteries during the ventricular diastolic. Rrp deals is an indirect measurement to the cardio myocardium needs. When the heart is working harder it requires more oxygen, rrp is define as rate pressure products equals to heart x left ventricle contract x sbp. If hr and sbp requires more 02. U get that coronary blood flow. U have to increase blood flow. Why is it important two main coronary left and right main? You have cholesterol build up coronary arteries. Not going to be easy cause its blocked. There has to be balance between coronary blood supply and myocardial oxygen demands. The hr n sbp the coronary arteries has to supply more blood. If u increases the amount if blood. Ischemia is a lack of blood flow. When the heart becomes ischemia, u get chest pain. A person w block coronary, u don’t want bp n hr to go up. There are meds that help lower hr bp called beta blockers. Anyone who has risk factor w CAD, heart attacks, they block beta 1 receptors, they bind to the hormone epinephrine. That’s rrp.
Hypoxia is lack of oxygen.
120 mm of mercury. In the capillary is 15 mmhg is going to exert the wall, fluid exert the pressure against the capillary wall and pushes fluid into the capillary fluid pressure. (Hydrostatic pressure in the book.) It forces fluids out of the capillary and into the interstitial space.
Interstitial fluid pressure (Hydrostatic pressure) there is fluid in the interstitial space back into the capillary.
CFP is greater than IFP. The more fluids are leaving the capillary.
IFP pushes fluids back into the capillary
Osmotic pressure tends to draw water
Capillary osmotic pressure sodium and albumin
Small protein that’s in the I space.
WHEN U ADD 4 PRESSURE THE NET MOVEMNET OF WATER IN NORMAL PHYSICALLY IS OUT OF THE CAPILLARY BUT WHAT DO WE HAVE A LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. PARRALLL THE CARDIOVASUCLAR WHEREVER U HAVE VEINS U HAVE LYMPHSTIC SYSTETM. ITS PERMEABLE ONE WAY VALVE. GOINT OT AFFECT FLUID VOLUME.
Bleding blood low blood volume
Low venous return to right side of the heart low preload. Less stretch. Actin and myocin will be inactive alingn.
CFP is determining by SBP. SBP begins to drop it will cause capillary fluid to drop. Capillary fluids tend to be greater than IFP.
If capillary fluid pressure increased. The lymphatic system will bring it back to the heart.
You have a heart and gut and a leg. The left side of the heart pumps 02 to the cells of the body. In systemic arterial, in all arteries that supply the legs and gut, you have beta1 receptors and alpha 1 receptors.
In high levels in epinephrine, like u are scared, high levels of epinephrine they r going to stimulate alpha 1 receptor. And when you stimulate alpha 1 receptors. It causes massive vasoconstriction everywhere, including the arteries that supply the legs. In ohm flow law, we learned that blood flow is equals to SBP over resistances. The diameter of the systemic arteries. High levels epinephrine is secreted from the adrenal medulla. it stimulates alpha 1 receptor in the systemic arteries it causes massive vasoconstriction everywhere. Resistance to blood flow goes up, SBP goes up, left ventricle has to contract harder, and it has to pump blood through smaller arteries, and now you start to run, the cells need to making and using ATP, in order to make them contract, ATP when the muscle cells use ATP they hack off the 3rd phosphate you get ADP and energy and when ADP gets build up inside the muscle cells are going to stimulate the metabolism, so in legs and arm u produce co2, heat, ADP, h+ and those cells are lacking o2. And all those things are the byproducts of metabolism, will cause arteries that are supplying the most metabolic active parts of the body to override the effect of epinephrine and dilated. And the arteries that are supply the non-metabolic-active parts of the body are constricted. So the left ventricle contracts its going to send the vast majoring of that oxygenated blood towards arms and legs. Cause the arteries that are dilated has less resistance to blood flow. Arterial blood always takes the path of least resistances.
The blanching of the skin. When u lay down on your back and the boning parts of the body are going to compress the blood vessels that supply your skin. because of that, the compression of the arteries, u r cutting off blood flow to the skin. The cells that make up the skin are going to build up the CO2 heat ADP, H+ ion. They are lacking oxygen- hypoxia. That pressure, the bone is compressing that skin, when u roll that person over, the arteries that supply that skin are going to dilate, the blood flow is going to that area that lack blood flow and It’s going to get red and warm.
Skin cell has ion channels and sodium/potassium pump and requires ATP, and so that person didn’t get turned till after 5 hrs. and now the you cut off the oxygen and aerobic metabolism stops, glucose to pyruvate and w no oxygen can’t go to the mitochondria so pyruvate gets building up and gets converted to lactic acids is permeable and goes into the blood. Because its lacking oxygen so much that local pH is going to change in blood and in that cells and destroys enzyme of glucose to pyruvate. N/k pump is depended on ATP and if pump don’t work no more so Na+ leaks in and k leaks outs. And if u can’t pump out Na+ and water will follow by osmosis and that skin cells will explode and all the k+ will go into the blood. K+ is a massive arterial vasodilator. And if the area stays red permeate, you have killed the cells and get a bed sore. That’s why u turned patients every two hrs.
Resp terms to be familiar with.
External respiration from the alveoli into and out of the pulmonary capillary
Internal respiration the exchange of gas. System capillary in/and cell
Ventilation movement of air, in and out of the lungs.
The brain stem is involved in many biological of the body. Medulla oblongata and pons are involve in controlling in breathing. Pons prevents u from over inflated the lungs. The MO really responds in changes levels in the blood. Co2 is an acid. Because it produces H ions.
How is breathing control?
Why we breath.?
Your breathing causes the buildup of carbon dioxide and is in direct. The directed stimulators and build of H ions.
Your lungs are free floating in the thoracic cavity and u can actually bruise your lungs. The body cavity is stored has a thick lining that covers the thick lining is called parietal pleura. PP is directed connected to the diaphragm. There is a body cavity that separate the right and left lung is called the mediastum. PP of right and left lungs are separate. It important if one of the lung is collapse. Because they are separate, only one can collapse. In addition, if u have thin lining that covers the lining is called visceral. At rest the diaphragm is skeletal muscle. And so it is controlled.
It also prevents the lungs from rubbing each other.
The phrenic nerve causes the diaphragm to contract. U have 7 cervical nerves the phrenic nerve is connected to MO. The brachial plexus is a group of cells body. And comes and spread into the body. The phrenic nerve that supply the nervous innervation to the diaphragm. The diaphragm is under both concussion and unconscienced control. The diaphragm is the primary muscle.
Boyles law deals with volume and pressure and where inversely related. High volume in lungs and pressure inside the thoracic cavity
Law #2 is Daltons law. In atmospheric pressure 760 mm/hg. 1 atm is equal to 760 mmhg at sea level.
In example of air, if we take 1 atm of air tht equals to 760 mmhg. Air is made of nitrogen N2. It simply takes up space. We need to be concern of
02 21%.21x 760mm/hg= PO2
C02 0.03% is zero
N2 79%=.79 x760 = 600 mm/hg
u add up 79 and 21 is 100%
partial pressure id N2 = 600 mm/hg =PN2
oxygen is P02 of the air of we breath has 160 mm/hg
Henrys law has to deal with the solvability of liquid gas. How dissolvable the gas liq.
Pulmonary edema causes build up co2.
One way O2 and CO2 dissolved in plasma. The watery part of the blood. Plasma is 0.9 NACL
Bound to hemoglobin.
4 different blood types A, B, AB, O.
#2 why we breathe
It is Arterial blood levels of P02 and Pco2 and pH affect breathing. At rest the co2 produces, will be dump into blood, causes you to breath. And say u exercises co2 due to metabolism, and by forces co2 goes to blood from cell, its dissolves in the plasma called pco2. MO has chemoreceptors. As pco2 in art blood goes up. That co2 goes from high concentration in the blood and goes into CSF combines with H2O combines to H2co3 carbonic acids combines w H ion = hco3- to the MO.
The drop of p02 that will stimulates the chemoreceptor, and stimulate the MO to breathe. Peripheral get red and warm.
One way O2 and CO2 diss