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The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer Fredalene B. Bowers, Thorn Gehring Abstract This is the second in a series of articles onfamous correctional educators. Thefirst article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issuefor thefirst article) This articlefocuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of Pestalozzi's early life and the experiences that influenced his ideals. The second section identifes Pestalozzi's contributions in practical or industrial education, in literature, in correctional reform and as a humanistic educator. Thefinal section summarizes major components of Pestalozzi's -method' of education, and offers a synthetic conclusion. The authors hope this article can increase readers knowledge of the history of correctional education and the primary leaders in thefield. Introduction The following inscription can be found on a monument over Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's grave: Here lies Heinrich Pestalozzi, Born in Zurich on 12th January 1746, Died in Brugg on 17th February 1827. Saviour of the Poor in the Neuhof, Preacher of the People in 'Leonard and Gertrude,' In Stans Father to Orphans, In Burgdorf and Munchenbuchsee Founder of the new Elementary School, In Yverdon Educator of Mankind. 306 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer Man, Christian, Citizen. All for Others, Nothing for Himself. Blessed be his Name. (Silber, 1960, p. 270-271) The fact that the monument and inscription did not appear until 1846, nineteen years after Pestalozzi's death (the one hundredth anniversary of his birth), seems fitting for a man who was largely unappreciated, misunderstood and often ridiculed during his lifetime. It was only in his later years, and even more after his death, that educators, social reformers, philosophers, religious leaders, government officials, and correctional educators began to understand and appreciate the work and ideals of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. His concern for 'the people' was evident in his belief in every man's right to an education, in society's role in providing that education, and in the importance of the home environment. His concern for legislation and the fair and humane treatment of criminals may have been influenced by his own experiences with jails. During the thirty years he spent in Neuhof, Pestalozzi lived in poverty. His lack of interest in his personal appearance, his limited means, ragged clothing, depressed mood and absentmindedness (or intense focus on his own thoughts) often resulted in being mistaken for a vagabond and thrown into jail overnight. Summary: the Main Themes of Johann Pestalozzi's Life Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's early life played a significant role in his later development and interests. The death of his father, at age thirty-three, left Pestalozzi's mother with three young children and limited financial resources. However, with the help of a faithful servant, Barbara Schmid, the two women devoted their lives to raising the children. The roots of Pestalozzi's belief in the 'original goodness of man and of his dedication to the poor' resulted from the unfailing love and attention given by his mother and this servant (Silber, 1960, p. 4). Throughout his career and writings, the influence of these women was evident. ...a human child needs sustained help and care, and these are given him from the hour of his birth by his mother with complete unselfishness. It is this moral attitude that turns her female animal instinct into a human mother's love. Pestalozzi calls this loving care her fidelity. (Silber, 1960, p. 232). 307 - The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi also recognized the importance of a close relationship between the home and education in the school to help ensure the child's success. His writings continually emphasized the importance of the mother in a child's life and the impact the mother-child relationship had on the child's development. Although Pestalozzi was known as an imaginative and unselfish child, these attributes were overshadowed by his lack of social skills and practical abilities. The intense love and devotion by his mother and faithful servant resulted in a sheltered environment and limited opportunity to interact with other children or develop practical skills. Young Pestalozzi's awkward behavior and eccentricities in social situations further ostracized him among his young peers. These early social difficulties impacted Pestalozzi's philosophy of education and resulted in his emphasis on practical training and socialization of the child. Later, as a young man at the university, he acquired a social activist reputation and developed friendships with other young men interested in raising the country's moral standards. (Quick, 1916, p.291). These friendships, mainly with members of the Helvetic Society (a group of bright young men with political and moral aspirations), later proved important contacts for his educational reform ideas. As a mature man, Pestalozzi felt his duties strongly, especially those associated with citizenship (Quick, 1916, pp. 294-295). In 1798, under the new Helvetian (Swiss) Republic, he served as a political mediator between the country folk and the city government. He fought for the abolition of social privileges, equality of all citizens, freedom of trade and tax reform. He was also profoundly influenced by Rousseau's Emile, the French Revolution, and humanitarianism. Pestalozzi, the Industrial Educator Originally prepared for the ministry, then for law, Pestalozzi eventually became a farmer. He had "the double purpose of improving a waste tract of land through new methods of cultivation and of living a life in accord with the prevalent naturalistic ideals" (Monroe, 1912, p. 309). His farmhouse was called "Neuhof" and it was funded by extensive loans (Quick, 1916, pp. 295-296). Students were first enrolled at Neuhof in 1774. Pestalozzi wrote "Our position entailed much suffering on my wife...nothing could shake us in our resolve to devote our time, strength and remaining fortune to the simplification of the instruction and domestic education of the people." (Quick, 1916, p. 297). However, many of the children were not as unselfish or as devoted to the cause 308 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer as Pestalozzi and his wife. "Very often the little beggars whom he had gathered up waited only till they had received from him new clothing, and then ran away and resumed their vagabond life" (Compayre, 1907, p. 421). Pestalozzi's work in education has been summarized as an emphasis on the point of view of the developing mind of the child. He believed that man's improvement must come from two sources: education to strengthen man's powers and legislation to improve conditions. Pestalozzi also emphasized that education for a particular occupation 'must always be subordinate to the universal aim of a general education' (Silber, 1960, p. 35). From 1775-1780 Pestalozzi conducted, at Neuhof, what was probably the first 'industrial school for the poor.' The children were engaged in raising special farm products, in spinning and weaving of cotton and in other occupations....they also spent some time in reading and in committing passages to memory and especially in arithmetical exercises....But the combined functions of manager, farmer, manufacturer, merchant, schoolmaster, were beyond the ability of the reformer... (Monroe, 1912, p.309). Pestalozzi was devastated when his experiment at Neuhof failed. 'My life is devoted to the education of the poor; this is what I seek and nothing else' (Silber, 1960, p.25). However, Neuhof was not a complete failure. Pestalozzi gained much practical experience in administration and teaching, especially with difficult children. He also learned 'that a successful education depended on providing a child with security and on giving him genuine affection. These were two principles to which Pestalozzi clung throughout his life.' (Heafford, 1967, p. 11). Pestalozzi, the Writer With the demise of Neuhof, Pestalozzi needed a means to make a living, thus, he began his career as a writer. During the next eighteen years, 1780-1798, Pestalozzi, as a participant in the revolutionary movement, devoted himself chiefly to literary activity....Social and political reforms were to be brought about by education--not the current education, but a new process of development that would result in the moral and intellectual reform of the people...The most popular of all Pestalozzi's writings, the one that exerted the most influence, was his Leonard and Gertrude, the first volume of which was published in 1781. Written as a novel, it popularized the idea that he initiated in practical reform. The purpose of the book was to depict the Th. In..rnl nf rnrrprinnal Fdiication 55(4) * December 2004 Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer Bowers, Gehring simple village life of the people and the great changes caused therein by the insight and devotion of a single ignorant woman, Gertrude. By her industry and patience and skill in educating her children she saves her husband, Leonard, from idleness and drink. Neighbors, children and neighboring families are finally brought within the influence of the new ideas; and by the simple methods of this peasant woman this new purpose in education effects the reform of the entire village. This was his mission in life: to work out in detail the methods of this education that was to effect the regeneration of society by securing for every child that moral and intellectual development which was his natural right and inheritance. (Monroe, 1912, pp. 309-310). From 1787 to 1797 Pestalozzi's writings ceased. He had become famous, and was frequently in the company of men such as the poet Goethe and the philosopher Fichte. He was declared a "Citizen of the French Republic," despite his Swiss nationality, "together with Bentham, Tom Payne, Wilberforce, Clarkson, Washington, Madison, Klopstock, Kozciusk, etc." (Quick, 1916, p. 310). Fichte urged him to complete his works and philosophy of education, and in 1797 Pestalozzi's books appeared in quick succession: Inquiry into the Course of Nature in the Development of the Human Race, then a book on the ABCs, and another of fables. (Quick, 1916, pp. 311-312). Pestalozzi the Correctional Reformer Pestalozzi's career as a writer provided the opportunity to advocate for humane treatment within the criminal justice system. Prior to writing Legislation and Infanticide in 1780 (published in 1783), Pestalozzi scoured the records of many criminal cases. His research extended over several years and helped weave together his philosophy on practical education, human nature and moral development. Pestalozzi examined the connections between circumstances and crime, crime and punishment, punishment and education, education and national tradition, national tradition and morals. He felt compassion for the offenders not only because they lacked the material necessities of life; his belief in the original goodness of man was shocked at the perversion it had suffered in them. Convinced that it could not be completely extinguished even in the basest of them, he felt it necessary to restore the criminal to true humanity both by softening the obduracy which lay in him and by changing the circumstances 310 The Joumal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator 8 Correctional Reformer which had prevented him from being good. The responsibility for social reform was laid upon the legislator. (Silber, 1960, p. 53). His views.regarding corrections were very progressive for his time. Pestalozzi believed that prisoners are human beings, endowed with the same capacities, emotions, prejudices, habits, and attachments as everybody else...The main concern of the legislator must be directed towards the criminal's moral restoration and his civil rehabilitation after his release. For this purpose the building and the management of the prison must be arranged in a more humane manner; the prisoner must get adequate air, be allowed to work, be permitted to rest, and be rewarded for good behavior. Ways must be found to reach his heart in order to stir him and so to prepare the way for his reform. Pestalozzi is convinced 'that no punishment or revenge can reform a man if they are not accompanied by kindness and love.' (Silber, 1960, P. 51). In his writings on legislation and society, Pestalozzi reiterated his education ideals. 'Education for good citizenship ...must proceed along two lines: it must educate the people morally, and it must train their practical abilities for their particular occupations to make them useful members of the community.' (Silber, 1960, p. 63). Pestalozzi, the Humanistic Educator In 1798, at more than 50 years old, Pestalozzi realized that he needed to show his ideas in action, in addition to writing about them (Monroe, 1912, p. 310). It was during this time that the French overran Switzerland and established a Directory of five persons to run the country. Pestalozzi began writing material to support the new government. Several directors favored his approach to education, and Pestalozzi's school was funded. (Quick, 1916, pp. 314-315). He launched a new career as schoolmaster, and his influence expanded steadily. (Monroe, 1912, p. 310). However, many of the Catholic Swiss cantons resisted the French, and the revolutionary soldiers were fierce in their retaliatory massacres (Quick, 1916, p. 315). Pestalozzi took charge of education in a district of Switzerland that had a large number of recently orphaned children. At Stanz, on the shores of Lake Lucerne, he worked out the core of his program, combining learning activities The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Pestalozzi: Educator & Correctional Reformer Bowers, Gehring with work to establish a milieu in which students were "immediately interested." (Monroe, 1912, pp.310-311). Perhaps because of his age, he was now fifty-two years old, or his reaction to the revolution, Pestalozzi worked enthusiastically. He wanted to prove that he had not wasted his life away in search of impracticable ideas. To the students he seemed no philanthropist, but only a servant of the devil, an agent of the wicked government which had sent its ferocious soldiers and slaughtered the parents...a Protestant who came to complete the work by destroying their souls. Pestalozzi, who was making heroic efforts on their behalf, seems to have wondered at the animosity shown him by the people of Stanz...And yet in spite of enormous difficulties of every kind Pestalozzi triumphed. (Quick, 1916, p. 316). His five month experiment at Stanz proved one of the most memorable events in the history of education. Pestalozzi was now completely satisfied that he saw his way to giving children a right education, and 'thus raising the beggar out of the dung-hill'; and seeing the right course he was urged by his love of the people into taking it. (Quick, 1916, p. 333). The institution Pestalozzi established at Stanz was an orphan asylum (Compayre, 1907, p. 423). He wrote Children instructed children; they themselves tried the experiment; all I did was to suggest it. Here again I obeyed necessity. Not having a single assistant, I had the idea of putting one of the most advanced pupils between two others who were less advanced. (Pestalozzi, in Compayre, 1907, p. 424). Pestalozzi called his approach at Stanz 'the result of a simple psychological idea which I conceived intuitively.' (Silber, 1960, p. 116). He was more concerned with the developing of their inner powers than with obtaining spectacular results in learning regarded as 'mere words'; so he attempted 'to make training in attentiveness, in carefulness, and of a reliable memory precede that of the artificial powers of reasoning and of judgment'... His method was not to follow any established doctrine but to make use of the existing circumstances; not to put fixed notions into the 312 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) - December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator 8 Correctional Reformer heads of the children but to awaken their latent faculties....This 'simple psychological idea' led to a revolutionary attitude in the field of education; it turned the traditional method of teaching upside down. The pre- Pestalozzian way started from the object; Pestalozzi started from the child-- he humanized education. (Silber, 1960,116). In 1799, the very French soldiers whose behavior had brought him to Stanz "drove him away again." They needed the school buildings for a military hospital. (Quick, 1916, p. 317). Pestalozzi moved and began teaching at Burgdorf where he developed the principle of the object lesson for mental development. "Here Pestalozzi first announced his great aim, 'I wish to psychologize education"' (Monroe, 1912, p. 312; Quick, 1916, p. 336). It was here that he was able to implement and refine many of his innovative educational ideas: the use of movable letters to teach spelling and reading, visual and tactual aids to teach arithmetic, use of slates and slate pencils to facilitate corrections, encouraging oral group answers, implementing physical (gymnastic) exercises and activities, and constant interaction between teacher and student. Word of the success spread and Burgdorf became the site of many visits. 'Thousands came...there was hardy a day when the castle was not full of strangers....Pestalozzi's method had been heard of from Petersburg to Naples'. (Silber, 1960, p.132). "Pestalozzi was thinking not so much of the children of Burgdorf as of the children of Europe. For Burgdorf...could not contain him" (Quick, 1916, p. 336). Focusing on his new challenge to the existing education Establishment, he wrote How Gertrude Teaches her Children in 1801. Great public attention was directed to his work, which was assisted by the government, and was widely discussed through pamphlet and magazine controversy (Monroe, 1912, p. 312). But the program was impacted by the withdrawal of funds and disagreement among the Institute's directors, and eventually abandoned. Around 1802 Pestalozzi made a journey to Paris, as a member of the consulta called by Bonaparte to decide the fate of Switzerland. He hoped to take advantage of his stay in France to disseminate his pedagogical ideas. But Bonaparte refused to see him, saying that he had something else to do besides 313 The inimal of Corrpctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer Bowers, Gehring discussing the questions of a,b,c. Monge, the founder of the Polytechnic School was more cordial, and kindly listened to the explanations of the Swiss pedagogue. But he concluded by saying, 'It is too much for us!' More disdainful still, Talleyrand said, 'It is too much for the people!" (Compayre, 1907, pp. 434-435; emphasis in original). The Swiss government took over the castle of Burgdorf in 1803, which he had converted to a school. In exchange, they gave Pestalozzi the convent of Munchen-Buchsee. Then in 1805 he moved his operation to Yverdun (Compayre, 1907, p. 434), in a French-speaking district of Switzerland at the foot of Lake Neufchatel, where Pestalozzi thought he would make more headway. He was correct. Yverdun became a world-famous institute with Pestalozzi taking the role as the director and renowned author. Yverdun was a place where educators, philosophers and government leaders from two continents visited and shared ideas. The Yverdun experiment continued for 20 years focusing on secondary education and teacher preparation programs. This was the origin of teacher education as we know it-and the root of what would become the teacher licensure movement. It led eventually to the modern systems of teacher certification or credentials, which are now accepted as part of the education scene. Monroe offered this summary of his life "what Rousseau had demanded in a theoretic way for one individual, Emile, Pestalozzi demanded for every child, no matter how poor and humble his surroundings or how limited his capacities" (Monroe, 1912, p. 313). Pestalozzi defined education as "the natural, progressive, harmonious development of all the powers and faculties of the human being" (Monroe, 1912, p. 315). He sought to establish schools that were "transformed homes, approximating the same relationships, duplicating the same spirit, seeking the same ends...' (Monroe, 1912, p. 317). The generic term 'family substitute institution' is used today to describe such residential facility programs. One of the most famous in this category was Wehrli, a Swiss family substitute institution established by Phillip Emanuel in 1810, and superintended by Johann Jakob Wehrli, a 20 year old school teacher. Because of the close association between Wehrli and the themes of his own educational approach, Pestalozzi was said to have been very interested in the Wehrli institution, and astonished that Emanuel and Wehrli had been able to 314 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer realize Pestalozzi's own ideas, even though he had never been a student of his (Eriksson, 1976, p. 108). In sum, Pestalozzi was considered the origin of the family substitute model. Pestalozzi's instruction focused on immediately tangible objects, rather than words, and on the sense impression of the student. This was known as the object lesson. 'Mental' arithmetic, the syllabic and phonetic methods in language work, and the study of geography and of nature in direct contact with natural environment were some of the innovations in method. In general, the arrangement of all modern textbooks is a direct... outgrowth of Pestalozzi's efforts at analyzing the subject into its simplest elements and proceeding then, by a gradual increase in the complexity of the material, to build up a connected and symmetrical understanding of the subject. The old method of beginning with a mastery of rules and principles as in arithmetic, of the rules of abstract form in language, or of most general relations, as in geography, history and the natural sciences, has been gradually superseded. (Monroe, 1912, pp. 317-318). Major Components of Pestalozzi's 'Method" Morf, one of Pestalozzi's most capable disciples, summarized the instructional method of "Father Pestalozzi." The components included: 1. Emphasis on observation or sense perception ("intuition"). 2. Language always being rooted in observation of an object. 3. Judgment or criticism being inappropriate when students are learning. 4. Teaching "should begin with the simplest elements and proceed gradually according to the development of the child...in psychologically connected order." 5. Enough time should be directed to the lesson to allow mastery. 6. Teaching is not an exercise in dogmatism, but in development. 7. Teachers must respect students. 8. "The chief end of elementary teaching is not to impart knowledge and talent to the learner, but to develop and increase the powers of his intelligence." 9. Knowledge and power are related; skill results from learning information. 315 The Journal of Corredional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer Bowers, Gehring 10. Love should regulate the relation between teacher and student, "especially as to discipline." 11. The higher aims of education should regulate instruction. (Monroe, 1912, p. 318). Pestalozzi was a correctional educator who impacted the larger, more general fields of elementary education and secondary education, as well as teacher preparation. "The great superiority of Pestalozzi over Rousseau is that he worked for the people" (Compayre, 1907, p. 442). Conclusion Pestalozzi was a famous correctional educator who dared to live a principled life, even in environments structured to foster exactly the opposite. Many others demonstrated similar courage, but were not famous. Little was written about them, so there is no record to discuss in a secondary source like the current article. The stakes are high for inmates and educators in this field. Inmates are certainly not the only ones who can become "institutionalized." Even some of the field's most famous giants, like Pestalozzi, met impediments that temporarily knocked the wind from their sails. Our intention is that the next article in this series on historic correctional educators will present the work of Anton Makarenko. There are great commonalities between Pestalozzi in Switzerland and Makarenko (1973) in the Ukraine and Russia. Both provided preventive and institutional education for children who suffered from wars wrought by adults. Pestalozzi's work followed the devastation of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars; Makarenko's followed World War I, the Bolshevik Revolution, and the Russian Civil War. Pestalozzi's models served as a beacon for Froebel, the man who invented the kindergarten. Froebel was prepared by Pestalozzi for work in education, at his teacher's institute (Compayre, 1907, p. 449). Similarly, Makarenko's models served as the exemplar for Soviet local education. Because much of Pestalozzi's work was very advanced, many comparisons can be made between him and other great contributors to the field of correctional education/prison reform. For example, like John Howard (England, 1780s-'90s-see Bellows, 1948) and Elizabeth Fry (England, 1809-'30s-see Corder, 1855), Pestalozzi steadfastly advocated humane treatment of prisoners. Like Alexander Maconochie (South Pacific, 1840-'44-see Barry, 1958), he emphasized the essential goodness of humanity. Like Mary Carpenter (England 316 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer 1850s-'70s-see Carpenter, 1974/1881), Pestalozzi helped initiate the innovative concepts of industrial schools for the dangerous classes, and the monitorial method of staffing peer tutors. Like Zebulon Brockway (U.S., 1860s-1912-see Brockway, 1969/1912), he applied gymnastic exercises and other physical activities to help sharpen students' mental abilities. Like William George (NY, 1895-1930s-see George, 1911), Pestalozzi encouraged confined students to focus on the dispositions and skills required for good citizenship. Like Brockway and Maria Montessori (Italy, early 20th cen.-see Ornstein and Levine, 2003), he used learning equipment that could be manipulated in the classroom, such as movable letters. Like Thomas Mott Osborne (NY, 1913-'26-see Tannenbaum, 1933), Pestalozzi focused on the evils that often accrue from traditional social institutions. Like Kenyon Scudder (CA, 1941-'56-see Scudder, 1968/1952), he emphasized the elegant truth that prisoners are people. Additional parallels with other contributors could be considered. The point is that Pestalozzi's work was so far ahead of its time that it actually contained the seeds of innovations that would take centuries to work out by the sustained efforts of subsequent reformers. In this way Pestalozzi's contributions were fuel that has fed modern correctional education and prison reform. Pestalozzi's work transcends all the traditional categories that we are accustomed to apply. He was a correctional educator, a vocational educator, an educational administrator and counselor, etc. Perhaps most important, however, Pestalozzi is recognized as the first innovator whose work ultimately resulted in teacher education and teacher licensure. He was the origin of those activities, and he was a correctional educator. From this perspective, we can make the case that correctional education was an important historical root from which all modern teacher education and teacher qualifications eventually emerged. Pestalozzi's life was a central link demonstrating that-in contrast with a common view as a minor or unimportant branch of education-correctional education is at the very core of the struggle to improve and consolidate education generally. Our struggle, like Pestalozzi's, is to improve the world by improving the lives of our students and ourselves. The next page presents yet another attempt to make the scope of his contributions coherent. 317 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer Bowers, Gehring Chronological Suimmary of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's Life and Work 1746 Born in Zurich, Switzerland, son of a surgeon and grandson of a rural pastor. 1769 Married Anna Schulthess, a well-to-do Zurich lady. 1774 Their home, Neuhof, house for the poor, became a school and home for approximately 50 people including children and servants. 1780-90 Wrote many fables with political and moral emphases, all identifying the harm done to man's spiritual nature by his animal nature. 1781 Wrote Leonard and Gertude, a novel about the original goodness of human nature and emphasizing the role of mothers and their importance in education. 1783 Wrote Legislation and Infanticide, the highly emotional Mannheim Prize winning essay advocating a humane treatment of criminals through legislation. 1793 Became an honorary citizen of France. 1797 His book My Inquiries into the Course of Nature in the Development of Mankind was published, emphasizing self-determination over circumstances and the importance of free will. 1798 Pestalozzi's orphan asylum at Stanz became a successful experiment in peer education in five short months. 1799 His Burgdorf school opened with the closing of Stanz. 1801 How Gertrude Teaches her Children, written during his time at Burgdorf, explained new educational ideas and ways of teaching. 1802 Journeyed to Paris, as a member of the Consulta, to meet with Napoleon and his administrators. 1803 The Swiss Government took over Burgdorf; in exchange 'gave him Muchen- Buchsee as a school site. 1805 Yverdun on Lake Neufchatel, the start of 20 years of the important secondary education program and teacher preparation site. 1826 Pestalozzi's Swangsong published, a summary of his life endeavors. 1827 Pestalozzi died in Brug, Switzerland, at the age of 81. References Anderson, L.F. (1931). Pestalozzi. New York: AMS Press, Inc. Barry, J. (1958). AlexanderMaconochie of Norfolk Island: A study of a pioneer in penal reform. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Bellows, H.W. (1948). John Howard: His life, character, and service. Illinois State Penitentiary. Brockway,Z. (1912/1969). Fiftyyearsofprisonservice:.Anautobiography. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. Carpenter, J.E. (1974/1881). The le and work of Mary Carpenter. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. Compayre, G. (1907). The history of pedagogy. London, England: Swan Sonnenschein a Co. Corder, S. (1855). Lfe of Elizabeth Fry: Compiledfrom her journaL Philadelphia, PA: Henry Longsteth. 318 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer De Guimps, R. (1892). Pestalozzi his ife and work. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Eriksson, T. (1976). The reformers: An historicalsurvey of pioneer experiments in the treatment of criminals. New York: Elsevier. George,W. (1911). TheJuniorRepublic: Itshistoryandideals.NewYork: D.Appleton. Hayward, R.H. (1904). TheeducationalideasofPestalozziandProbel. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press Publishers. Heafford, M.R. (1967). Pestalozzi: His thought and its relevance today. London: Methuen 8 Co LTD. Makarenko, A. (1973). The road to life: An epoch in education. New York: Oriole. (Three books.) Monroe, RM. (1912). A brief course on the history of education. New York: MacMillan. Ornstein and Levine. (2003). Foundations of education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Pestalozzi, J.H. (1898). How Gertrude teaches her children. (L.E. Holland F.C. Turner, Trans.) Syracuse, New York: C.W. Bardeen (Original work published 1801). Quick, R.H. (1916). Essays on educational reformers. New York: D. Appleton. Scudder, K. (1968A1952). Prisoners arepeople. New York: Greenwood Press. Silber, Kate. (1960). Pestalozzi: The man andhis work. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Tannenbaum, F. (1933). Osbome of Sing Sing. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Biographical Sketches FREDALENE B. BOWERS is an Associate Professor at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh in Higher Education/Child and Adolescent Development. She has worked extensively with at-risk children and families and holds counseling and principal certification. She worked with the PA Department of Corrections to develop the Managing Young Adult Offenders Training Course for State Correctional Institution, Pine Grove, Indiana, Pennsylvania and is an approved trainer for the PA Department of Corrections and the PA Department of Education's Student Assistance Program. THOM GEHRING has been a correctional educator since 1972, in NJ, VA, NY, CA, and in other systems as a consultant. He served as a teacher, counselor, researcher, administrator, and professor. Originally prepared as a secondary history teacher, Thom earned his M.Ed. in Adult Education, and his Ph.D. in Urban/Correctional Education, from Virginia Commonwealth University (dissertation on correctional school districts). He directs the Center for the Study of Correctional Education at California State University, San Bernardino. 319 COPYRIGHT INFORMATION TITLE: Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer SOURCE: J Correct Educ 55 no4 D 2004 WN: 0434607259004 The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. Copyright 1982-2005 The H.W. Wilson Company. All rights reserved. Consulta, to meet with Napoleon and his administrators. 1803 The Swiss Government took over Burgdorf; in exchange 'gave him Muchen- Buchsee as a school site. 1805 Yverdun on Lake Neufchatel, the start of 20 years of the important secondary education program and teacher preparation site. 1826 Pestalozzi's Swangsong published, a summary of his life endeavors. 1827 Pestalozzi died in Brug, Switzerland, at the age of 81. References Anderson, L.F. (1931). Pestalozzi. New York: AMS Press, Inc. Barry, J. (1958). AlexanderMaconochie of Norfolk Island: A study of a pioneer in penal reform. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Bellows, H.W. (1948). John Howard: His life, character, and service. Illinois State Penitentiary. Brockway,Z. (1912/1969). Fiftyyearsofprisonservice:.Anautobiography. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. Carpenter, J.E. (1974/1881). The le and work of Mary Carpenter. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. Compayre, G. (1907). The history of pedagogy. London, England: Swan Sonnenschein a Co. Corder, S. (1855). Lfe of Elizabeth Fry: Compiledfrom her journaL Philadelphia, PA: Henry Longsteth. 318 The Journal of Correctional Education 55(4) * December 2004 Bowers, Gehring Pestalozzi: Educator a Correctional Reformer De Guimps, R. (1892). Pestalozzi his ife and work. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Eriksson, T. (1976). The reformers: An historicalsurvey of pioneer experiments in the treatment of criminals. New York: Elsevier. George,W. (1911). TheJuniorRepublic: Itshistoryandideals.NewYork: D.Appleton. Hayward, R.H. (1904). TheeducationalideasofPestalozziandProbel. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press Publishers. Heafford, M.R. (1967). Pestalozzi: His thought and its relevance today. London: Methuen 8 Co LTD. Makarenko, A. (1973). The road to life: An epoch in education. New York: Oriole. (Three books.) Monroe, RM. (1912). A brief course on the history of education. New York: MacMillan. Ornstein and Levine. (2003). Foundations of education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Pestalozzi, J.H. (1898). How Gertrude teaches her children. (L.E. Holland F.C. Turner, Trans.) Syracuse, New York: C.W. Bardeen (Original work published 1801). Quick, R.H. (1916). Essays on educational reformers. New York: D. Appleton. Scudder, K. (1968A1952). Prisoners arepeople. New York: Greenwood Press. Silber, Kate. (1960). Pestalozzi: The man andhis work. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Tannenbaum, F. (1933). Osbome of Sing Sing. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Biographical Sketches FREDALENE B. BOWERS is an Associate Professor at Indiana University of