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Embed code for: - New York as a global city - booklet
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New York A Global City Question du programme THEME Les dynamiques de la mondialisation QUESTION Les territoires dans la mondialisation Lesson Plan Introduction I. An attractive city A. Transport in NYC B. A diverse population C. Tourism and Education II. A world power A. The financial capital B. Politics and diplomacy C. Culture III. Challenges for today and for tomorrow A. Transforming urban areas B. A divided city Introduction What is a global city ? Saskia Sassen literally wrote the book on global cities back in 2001 (though her global cities work dates back well over a decade prior to that book). In short form, in the age of globalization, the activities of production are scattered on a global basis. These complex, globalized production networks require new forms of financial and producer services to manage them. These services are often complex and require highly specialized skills. In this world then, a global city is a significant production point of specialized financial and producer services that make the globalized economy run. Sassen covered specifically New York, London, and Tokyo in her book, but there are many more global cities than this. A number of studies were undertaken to produce various rankings. However, when you look at them, you see that the definition of global city used is far broader than Sassen’s core version - these rankings attempt to look at global cities in four basic ways: 1. Advanced producer of services 2. Economic giants 3. International Gateway. 4. Political and Cultural Hub. From www.newgeography.com New York city facts 1624: first Dutch settlement 1674: New York City returned to the English and remained English. The city’s commercial ties to London gave it an advantage over other American cities 1883: opening of the Brooklyn Bridge. Manhattan and Brooklyn became a single city of 3.4 million people over an area f 359 square miles 1895: the metropolis had 298 firms with assets of $1 million 1921: the port was merged with that of the New Jersey to create a single Port Authority 1932: New York’s governor, Franklin D/ Roosevelt was elected president and his administration launched a New Deal ; New York City alone received $1 billion between 1933 and 1939 1934-1945: mayoralty of Fiorello La Guardia : major bridges, sixty miles intracity expressway, a traffic tunnel for East River, additions to subway lines 1939: opening of La Guardia airport and 14 new piers added to the port 1930, 1931, 1939: Chrysler building, Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center 1945: United Nations established in New York City 1947-1963: massive construction boom, addition of 58 million square feet of office space 1955: 7.8 million people 1960s: race riots 1970s: the city experienced near bankruptcy 1985: 6 of the big 8 accounting firms and 7 of the top 10 management consulting agencies were in New York City 1988: the metropolitan region reached 18 million people; central city shrunk to 7.3 million 1990s: NYSE remained the world’s largest capital market 2001: terrorist attack, a large part of downtown is destroyed Source : Christopher KENNEDY, The Evolution of Great Cities. Urban Wealth and Economic Growth. 2011. Pages 26-29 Transport in New York City Port Authority Facilities John F. Kennedy Airport is the busiest international air passenger gateway in the United States. Over seventy airlines operate out of the airport, with non-stop or direct flights to destinations in all six inhabited continents. The state-of-the-art World Trade Center Transportation Hub, when completed in 2015, will serve over 200,000 daily commuters and millions of annual visitors from around the world. At approximately 800,000 square feet, the Hub, designed by internationally acclaimed architect Santiago Calatrava, will be the third largest transportation center in New York City, rivaling Grand Central Station in size. The WTC Transportation Hub's concourse will conveniently connect visitors to 11 different subway lines, it will represent the most integrated network of underground pedestrian connections in New York City. The Hub features an "Oculus” design, which will give the facility a distinctive, wing-like appearance. When completed, the "Oculus,” the upper portion of the Transportation Hub, will serve as the main concourse. Incorporating 225,000 square feet of exciting, multi-level retail and restaurant space along all concourses, the Hub promises to be a destination location, becoming the centerpiece for the entire Lower Manhattan district. When complete, this structure will reach five stories underground into a basement with connecting ramps leading to the parking and below-grade facilities of all of the adjacent projects on the 16-acre WTC site. From http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/transportation-hub.html Who are the New Yorkers? New York City has historically attracted job seekers from outside the United States. In 2013, foreign-born immigrants accounted for 42.7% of all New York City workers, 37.0% of all New York City residents, and 46.0% of the New York City labor force. As of 2013, over 1.9 million immigrants to the United States worked in New York City; of those, 1.6 million lived in New York City. In the last decade, the growth of the foreign-born population, at 7 percent, outpaced the growth of the city's overall population, at 3 percent. At the same time, the origins of New York City's immigrant population are changing. Immigration from Europe has fallen dramatically as a proportion of overall immigration to New York, while Latin America has surged to the top spot, followed closely by Asia. Tourism and Education City officials estimate the overall economic impact of tourism in 2013 to be $58.7 billion. Direct visitor spending was estimated to be $39.4 billion. With seven universities in New York featured within the QS World University Rankings 2015/16 and an additional three in close proximity to the city, there’s good reason why New York City is one of the most popular study destinations in the world, ranked 15th in the QS Best Student Cities 2015. 1. Cornell University: New York City’s highest ranking institution, Cornell University is currently ranked 19th in the world. A member of the prestigious Ivy League group, Cornell University’s main campus is actually in Ithaca, around 200 miles to the north-west of New York City, but it also has a strong presence in NYC. 2. Columbia University: Currently stands in 22nd place in the QS World University Rankings. Another member of the prestigious Ivy League, Columbia University has a central location in the Upper West Side of Manhattan. It boasts a highly diverse faculty and student body (just under 30,000 students overall), with more than 7,000 international students from over 150 different countries. 3. New York University (NYU): Ranked among the world’s best, at 53rd this year. Notably, New York University has a strong focus on internationalization. Its main hub is its Washington Square campus, in Greenwich Village. This area is one of New York City’s most creative neighborhood, and over the years the school has attracted an eclectic mix of writers, artists, musicians and intellectuals. From www.topuniversities.com Economic Power 2014 saw the New York Stock Exchange lead the world's markets in global capital raising for the fourth consecutive year. Fueled in part by the largest IPO in history - that of Alibaba which raised $25 billion - it was a landmark year for the NYSE across a range of industry categories including the number and value of tech IPOs. For the fourth year in a row, NYSE led in capital raised at more than $70 billion, and for the third year in a row led in tech IPOs with $29 billion in proceeds. Today, NYSE- Listed companies account for $27 trillion in market capitalization, representing the most valuable listed franchise in the world. From www.nyse.com For the past 61 years, Fortune Magazine has been ranking the top 1000 companies in the United States based on revenues for the latest respective fiscal years for each company. The 2015 list shows there are a few areas of the country where Fortune 1000 companies are clustered. The biggest cluster is a corridor along the East Coast : stretching from Boston, Ma. to Norfolk, Va., 267 Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in this nine state area of the East Coast. New York City is home the most headquarters with 72, followed by Houston (49), Atlanta (22), Chicago (22), and Dallas (15). Political Power Shortly after the establishment of the United Nations in 1945, the U.S. government negotiated the Agreement Between the United Nations and the United States Regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations (1947) established the specific geography of the U.N. “headquarters district” as the property on the East River where the 38-floor U.N. tower is located along with an easement over Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive. In four subsequent supplemental agreements (completed in 1966, 1969, 1980, and 2009), the headquarters district of the U.N. has expanded significantly over a dozen times in four separate agreements -most recently under the Obama administration in 2009- and now encompasses entire buildings and warehouses in New York and Long Island beyond the original U.N. headquarters building in Turtle Bay. As part of the U.N. headquarters district, these locations, which in some cases are simply floors and offices in commercial buildings, are “inviolable” to U.S. officers and officials and “under the control and authority of the United Nations” except as specified in the agreement. From Heritage.org Cultural Power Chinese Investors Star on Broadway Who’s the latest behind-the-scenes investor on Broadway? China. Three of the hottest musicals on Broadway have Chinese backers as China starts expanding live theatrical entertainment at home and looks to New York for expertise. “This is the first season that Chinese companies are investing on Broadway,” said Simone Genatt, chairman of Broadway Asia, a New York-based production and licensing entertainment company primarily focused on Asia. “They’ve been doing Broadway musicals in mainland China for the last decade, but this is the first time China is here in New York.” The New York investments are part of a broader push to expand musical theater inside China. Big Broadway shows such as “Cats” and “The Sound of Music” have been touring China for years. In a next step, “Cats” and “Mamma Mia” have been translated into Chinese. Chinese companies say they’re hoping to leverage their stakes in Broadway shows to gain expertise in U.S. productions, bring shows to China and eventually develop more original Chinese-produced musicals. From the Wall Street Journal, June 4, 2015. New York City, a vibrant cultural scene INCREASED GROWTH OF NEW YORK CITY’S ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY October 15, 2015 Mayor Bill de Blasio, Deputy Mayor Alicia Glen, and Media & Entertainment Commissioner Cynthia López today announced that New York City’s filmed entertainment industry now contributes $8.7 billion to the local economy, an increase of more than 1.5 billion, or 21 percent, since 2011. According to an independent study conducted by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), New York City is one of only three cities in the world with a filming community large enough to enable a production to be made without needing any roles to be brought in from other locations, including cast, crew members, and the creative team. Additionally, a rich real-life history, iconic locations, diverse storytellers and top talent are among the reasons productions choose to film in New York City. While television has seen the greatest increase (from 29 series in the 2013-2014 season to a record 46 series in the 2014-2015 season), New York City was home to 242 film productions in 2014 and as of this month, 256 films have been shot so far in 2015. “There’s something special about New York City – and the TV and film industry has picked up on it. The filmed entertainment industry channels nearly 9 billion dollars into our local economy each year, supporting the creation of thousands of dependable good-paying jobs and showcasing the history, creativity and vivacity of our people and our city,” said Mayor Bill de Blasio. From www.nyc.gov Transforming urban areas Reshaping the Financial District after 9/11 "Because of those buildings being attacked, there was an outpouring of awareness and generosity and people wanting to help rebuild, coupled with an openness to other cultural influences. The architectural scene in the US, which once was probably led by architects in Los Angeles and other places in the west, has returned once again to the east coast. I'm not saying there aren't any good architects on the west coast, but there's a tremendous concentration of architects in New York City now that haven't been here since the turn of the 20th century." Interview of architect Craig Dykers of Snøhetta, who designed a recently opened pavilion on the memorial site. (www.dezeen.com) Two examples of gentrification: The Meat Packing District between 1985 and 2015 Brooklyn's Hipster Heaven All the people waiting on the L train platform are in their 20s and 30s and have full body tattoos, piercings and funny hairstyles. They’re going to Williamsburg, a neighborhood where they’ve created, next to Latino and Hassidic communities, a community of their own. Williamsburg, one subway stop into Brooklyn, has turned into a neighborhood of artists, students and people who go out at night. They demand good food at fair prices and, above all, think they are different from the sophisticated, arrogant, money-driven Manhattanites. It’s peaceful, with trees on both sides of the street and not a megastore in sight. Williamsburg looks like a village, with its own style, pace and rules (especially, “be cool”). It’s all about modesty and conviviality. The avenue is the center of it all. There are Italian, Mexican and macrobiotic restaurants mingled with bagel, thrift and antiques shops. People stroll calmly down the sidewalks, often followed by a dog or bike. (from journalism.nyu.edu) Transforming abandoned buildings into trendy bars (2007-2009) A tale of two cities A report by the city comptroller’s office found an alarming rise in the share of overcrowded housing units from 2005 to 2013. Here’s a press release on the implications of this finding: “Studies make it clear that crowding hurts the whole family, it makes it harder for kids to learn and puts the entire family at a greater risk of homelessness. This new report shows that the problem of crowding is stubbornly increasing, with nearly 1.5 million New Yorkers now living in a crowded (2 people in a studio) or severely crowded home (three or more people in a studio).” New York City has prospered during the 12-year mayoralty of Michael Bloomberg, which comes to an end this year. But the same cannot be said of all New Yorkers. In January 2013, for the first time in recorded history, the New York homeless shelter system housed an average nightly population of more than 50,000 people. That number is up 19 percent in the past year alone, up 61 percent since Bloomberg took office, and it does not include victims of Hurricane Sandy, who are housed separately. While homelessness is increasing in other cities, the numbers from New York are astoundingly high. This January, on average, over 21,000 children slept in city shelters each night, a 22 percent increase over the same period in 2011. More than one percent of NYC children (21,034 of 1,780,000) slept in a shelter this January. From www.citylab.com, March 8, 2013. oductions choose to film in New York City. While television has seen the greatest increase (from 29 series in the 2013-2014 season to a record 46 series in the 2014-2015 season), New York City was home to 242 film productions in 2014 and as of this month, 256 films have been shot so far in 2015. “There’s something special about New York City – and the TV and film industry has picked up on it. The filmed entertainment industry channels nearly 9 billion dollars into our local economy each year, supporting the creation of thousands of dependable