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Chapter 6 Glossary Words Basics of Chemistry
May 17, 2016
Acidic Solution - A solution that has a pH below 7.0 (neutral)
Alkaline Solution - A solution that has a pH above 7.0 (neutral)
Alkalis - Also know as bases; compounds that react with acids to form salts.
Alkanolamines - Aklaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products.
Alpha hydroxy acids - Abbreviate AHas; acids derived from plants (mostly fruit) t;hat are often used to exfoliate the skin.
Ammonia - Colorless gas with a pungent odor that is composed of hydrogen an nitrogen.
Anion - An ion with a negative electrical charge.
Atoms - The smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element; structures that make up the element and have the same properties of the element.
Cation - An ion with a positive electrical charge.
Chemical Change - A change in the chemical composition or make-up of a substance.
Chemical Properties - Characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance.
Chemistry - Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.
Combustion- Raped oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
Compound Molecules - Also known as compounds; a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.
Element - The simplest form of chemical matter; an element cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity.
Element Molecule - Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions.
Emulsifier - An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.
Emulsion - An unstable physical mixture of two more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.
Exothermic Reactions - Chemical reactions that release a significant amount of heat.
Glycerin - Sweet, colorless, oily substance used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in skin and body creams.
Immiscible - Liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions.
Inorganic Chemistry - The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen.
Ion - An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.
Ionization - The separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions.
Lipophillic - Having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving).
Logarithm - Multiples of ten.
Matter - Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).
Miscible - Liquids that are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions.
Oil-in-water- Emulsion - Abbreviated O/W emulsion; oil droplets emulsified in water.
Organic Chemistry - The study of substances that contain the element carbon.
Oxidation - A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide,
Oxidation - Reduction - Also known as redox; a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduces (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen).
Oxidizing Agent - Substance that releases oxygen.
pH - The abbreviation used for potential hydrogen. pH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions.
pH Scale -A measure of acidity and alkalinity of a substance; the pH scale has a range of 0 to 14 being,with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is an acidic solution; a pH above 7 is alkaline solution.
Physical Change - A change in the form or physical properties of a substance, without a chemical reaction or the creation of a new substance
Physical Mixture - A physical combination of matter in any proportion.
Physical Properties - Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the substance.
Pure Substance - A chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions.
Reducing Agent - A substance that adds hydrogen to a chemical compound or subtracts oxygen from the compound.
Reduction - The process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance through a chemical reaction.
Reduction reaction - A chemical reaction in which is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance.
Silcones - Special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water - resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers.
Solute - The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Solution - A stable physical mixture of two or more substances.
Solvent - The substance that dissolves the solute and makes a solution.
States of Matter - The three different physical forms of matter - solid, liquid, and gas.
Stances that allow oil and water to mix.
Suspensions - Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid,
Thioglycolic Acid - A colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions.
Volatile Alcohols - Alcohols that evaporate easily.
Volatile Organic Compounds - Abbreviated VOCs; compounds that contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile).
Water - in - oil - Emulsion - Abbreviated W/O emulsion; water droplets are emulsified in oil.
eat and light.
Pure Substance - A chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed