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Two basic approaches to object recognition are the parts-based approach and the image-based approach. Describe each of these approaches, providing one (1) example of each. How do these approaches explain object recognition? Provide two (2) supporting facts.
Object Recognition is the ability to perceive the physical properties of an object and applying meaningful attributes to it. An example includes identifying a dog. The ability to recognize an object fast represents a computational challenge. However, the brain can do this effortlessly. The process includes understanding its use and recalling previous experiences with the object.
Part-Based Approach to Object Recognition
Part-based approach to object recognition is also referred to as Recognition by Components (RBC) in theory proposed by Irving Biederman in 1987 to explain image recognition (Matsuoka et al., 2011). According to Biederman, images are recognized by separating them into the main parts such as cylinders and blocks, which are also known as geons (geometric ions). For instance, when looking at a mug, it is broken down into two components; cylinder and handle.
Image-Based Approach to Object Recognition
The neural processes associated with image recognition are similar to those associated with language. In the same way, letters are combined to form words, lines and textures are combined to form visual objects.
Visual processing and object recognition happen in two stages. Firstly, the visual stimulus is transformed into neural impulses. These impulses are transmitted via the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus to the primary visual cortex. This is where individual features are analyzed. It is at this point that the visual information is distributed to several extrastriate visual areas where the shape, color, motion, and other visual features are processed. These features complete the picture of the image under observation.
The second stage allows viewing of this object’s categorical and particular identity. Previously it has been assumed that these two processes happen simultaneously. The discovery of the loss of perception with no loss of vision has made it clear that these two processes are different.
An example of an image based approach to object recognition is recognizing a collection of features and realizing the specific identity. For instance, one can recognize a phone and identify its type as Nokia.
Contrast episodic and semantic memory, providing three (3) specific differences between them
The main differences between these two memories are found in their development, time orientation, and how they are experienced by an individual.
Episodic memory represents memories of experiences and events. It may be referred to as the memory of autobiographical events such as graduation, childbirth, and the loss of a loved one. Episodic memory is a recollection of one’s experiences and particular events sequentially. The memory remembers past events that are filled with properties such as emotions and places. Hence, this type of memory is not just about words but the entire event. Semantic memory, on the other hand, is more structured. It is a record of concepts, facts, and academic knowledge, which one has acquired over time through a learning process. Therefore, Semantic memory is about knowing things and the general knowledge that a person has, but is not tied to an experience or an event.
Episodic memory is more subject to forgetting than semantic memory. Over time, episodic memory loses memories of past experiences. In contrast, general knowledge from those experiences remains stored as semantic memory.
Accessing information from semantic memory is automatic; it is done effortlessly. Retrieving episodic information is not automatic; it requires effort in remembering experiences, events, time, and location.
Describe four (4) characteristics of child-directed speech (CDS). How are CDS beneficial? Provide two (2) examples.
Child–directed speech is defined as an adult talk to a child. It happens across the world in all cultures except a few (Samoa and Papua New Guinea) where adults speak to children as they speak to adults. Talking to children has been found to accelerate their ability to comprehend and create sentences on their own.
Characteristics of Child-Directed Speech
There are several characteristics of a child-directed speech. Firstly, it is less complicated as compared to the normal speech. This happens because the speech appears to be an unconscious act (Hoff & Shatz, 2009). Secondly, child-directed speech has intonations that are more exaggerated. This is contrary to the intonations of normal speech, as the adult talk exhibits more than the usual intonations. Thirdly, child-directed speech has limited vocabularies and special forms of words. The child is not introduced to vocabularies, which is the reason simplicity is upheld throughout the speech. Lastly, the words in a child-directed speech appear to be longer and slower, as there are numerous pauses. This is to catch up with the slow pace of learning that is expressed by children.
Benefits of Child-Directed Speech
There are two primary benefits of a child-directed speech. Firstly, it has been discovered by scientists that child-directed speech helps children to grasp a lot of knowledge in language skills and communication. This is because of the repetitive nature of the speech that stimulates the child’s brain. Secondly, a child who experiences child-directed speech is exposed to the extraction of meaningful signals, which help them learn whatever is necessary for them within the cultural backgrounds (Tolchinsky et al., 2016).
Distinguish between a non-insight problem and an insight problem, providing one (1) significant difference. Discuss two (2) key assumptions about the insight problem
The Significant Difference between a Non-Insight Problem and an Insight Problem
A non-insight problem is also referred to as an analytic problem, which is a challenge whose solution can be found after a careful and systematic analysis. This can be achieved through arithmetic or analytical reasoning. The solution to the non-insight problem involves a steady incremental progress. On the contrary, an insight problem is a problem whose solution can be found by the restructuring of information or a sudden realization. It is associated with a sudden realization of a solution that appears correct (Marková, 2005). The initial representation of the problem may be structured in a way that is not lending any help to solving it. The presentation may be having erroneous assumptions. Insight is that ability to locate such assumptions and thus clearing the way to solve the problem. Once restructured, solutions to some insight problems come quickly.
Key Assumptions about the Insight Problem
There are two key assumptions about the insight problems. Firstly, there is the mistaken or erroneous assumption. This represents an assumption that hinders the participant from achieving the solution. Hence, when the assumption is removed, the participant is likely to find a solution.
Secondly, Intuition and Incubation are assumed to be a means to solve the insight problem. Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without evidence, while incubation is a process that involves recombination of thought elements. The fact that the insight problem is associated with mental interpretation to form the required image leads to the assumption that being capable of perceiving knowledge that is not directly presented is the ultimate solution.
Hoff, E., & Shatz, M. (2009). Blackwell Handbook of Language Development. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Marková, I. S. (2005). Insight in Psychiatry. S.l.: Cambridge University Press.
Matsuoka, Y., Durrant-Whyte, H. F., & Neira, J. (2011). Robotics: Science and Systems VI. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Tolchinsky, L. L., In Perera, J., In Aparici, M., In Rosado, E., & In Salas, N. (2016). Written and Spoken Language Development Across the Lifespan: Essays in Honour of Liliana Tolchinsky. Cham: Springer.
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 7
Running Head: COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 1Papua New Guinea) where adults speak to children as they speak to adults. Talking to children has been found to accelerate their ability to comprehend and create sentences on their own.
Tolchinsky, L. L., In Perera, J., In Aparici, M., In Rosado, E., & In Salas, N. (2016). Written and Spoken Language Development Across the Lifespan: Essays in Honour of Liliana Tolchinsky. C