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"Gardens" of Uitenhage 1804-1910
Uitenhage, Garden Town - 1804 to 1910 Gardens, Parks, Trees and Recreation E A Beckley April 13, 2017 1 Introduction This short paper was collated to shed a little light on gardens in the earlier years of Uitenhage. Most of the other early history of Uitenhage is quite well documented. It is aimed at the residence of our town that is old , present and future Uitenhages or any body who nds it of interest. I worked in the Uitenhage municipal parks for 35 years, recently retired as a Senior Horticulturist and that is my connection with the horticulture of Uiten- hage. I am not a historian but in my later working years my co-workers often referred to me as the history channel. I am also not a writer as I have only collated what I have come across that other authors have writing.. In 1982, I was working Magennis Park when the Parks Department celebrated the 100 years of the Park, as it was claimed that 1882 the Council ocially acknowledged the area as a park. To celebrate this, an old fountain with a history was erected in the park. In researching for the event I also had the privilege of meeting a very old lady (I cant recall her name) whose father had been the Water Fiscals and the Water Fiscals cottage bordered the park when she was a kid, later the cottage was demolished for the now old Riebeek College extension. The park was her playground as a child so she could tell us were things stood in the park, what it look like and naturally stories of the park. I thought I had a fair knowledge of early Uitenhage Gardens but I must confess it was lacking. You know the story, there are more questions than answers, the more you found out the less you know. I now have bucket loads of unanswered questions. I guess I will have to do a lot more digging. Digital Libraies/Books must be thanked as it has made searching a lot easier. I came across many non-horticultural interesting fact during my research but one I must share, Uitenhage almost became the seat of Parliament of South Africa. On the horticultural side two subjects came up time and time again when Uitenhage was described, water and gardens. 2 The start of Uitenhage A decision had been taken to split the Graa-Reinet district of the Cape Colony and a suitable site needed to be found for the new Drostdy. In 1804 the farm of Widow Scheepers along the Swartkops River was chosen as it met the criteria. Meeting the `The Criteria': Die plaas was in 'n gesonde en aangename omgew- ing gelee en van altyd loopend en goed water rykelyk voorzien; die grond was vrugbaar en geskik vir die verbou van graan en allerlei soort vrugte en groente; brand- en timmerhout was op die plaas.  Criteria used to select the site for the Drostdy set the tone that this new town had the potential to be a garden town. Private Gardens and the general description of the Town Already by October 1808 this edgling town had regulations and one was about the promotion of gardening in the town. Within 18 months of acquiring an erf, the erf had to be enclosed and the ground cultivated for gardens or vineyards or to produce trees, but not for corn. Water from the Springs was abundant and by means of small canals each erf had turns, leibeurte, making the goal of cultivating the erven achievable.  In 1829 another important development for the town took place when the springs on the farm Sandfontein, situated 8km North of the town, was bought by the government and added to the commonage of Uitenhage. The town was now ensured of a reliable and abundant source of water produced by the 20 dierent eyes of the springs. Slowly the eects of the easy availability of water showed in the greening of the town and several travellers and writers commented on the trees and plants of Uitenhage, which later became known as the Garden Town. This water source also enabled people to make a living from their vegetable and fruit gardens, while the water culverts on every side of the street gave the town a calm pastoral feel.  3 Image 1: Uitenhage Layout 1813 Thirty four year after the town was started C. J. F. Bunbury on a botanical excursions in South Africa, describes Uitenhage on a visit: The town, or rather village, of Uitenhage, had a very pleasing appearance when we rst caught sight of its bright white houses spread over a fertile valley, surrounded by wooded hills of various elevations; nor was this agreeable impression dissipated when we entered it. We spent the next day (an exceedingly hot one,) at Uitenhage, which is one of the most agreeable places in the colony. Though called a town, it has the appearance of a large rural village; its houses, which are (almost without exception) neat and well-built, and of the most cheerful appearance, are placed at some distance apart from one another, with well-stocked gardens, orchards, and green elds intervening. There is scarcely a sign of poverty to be discerned in the whole place. It enjoys also the advantage (inestimable in this country) of a copious and never-failing supply of good water. The surrounding country, though not beautiful, is certainly pleasing. The Zwartkops, which ows near the town, is a beautiful little river, slow, still, and clear, winding gracefully through the valley, and fringed with thickets of tall reeds, fern, Acacia, and a pretty kind of willow. High and broken banks of red clay rise immediately behind these thickets, on the South side, and set o their delicate verdure to advantage. The surface of the river is most beautifully decorated with a profusion of the sky blue water 4 lily one of the loveliest plants of Southern Africa. On each side of the valley are steep but rounded clay hills, covered with the succulent and thorny bushes, which characterize this part of the country. The inn at Uitenhage is by far the best I met with in the colony Probably the best manner to describe Uitenhage in the latter half of this pe- riod is the description in the Descriptive Handbook the Cape Colony, published in1875. The country about Port Elizabeth is very uninviting, stretching for miles over the dry plains known as the Bay at, the adjoining divisions (Uiten- hage) abound in beautiful vegetation and picturesque scenery. Uitenhage is only eighteen miles distant, and will shortly be almost within an hours' reach by railway. The town was described many years ago as "a pretty secluded spot, well laid out, and supplied with water from a spring in the Winterhoek Moun- tains, which gives 2,512,632 gallons in twenty-four hours. The consequence of this in conjunction with the salubrious climate and rich soil of the locality is a profusion of fruits, trees and owers of the most luxuriant growth, adding con- siderably to the beauty of this part of the country." It occupies an area of one square mile, the streets are each a mile long, very wide and run at right angles with each other; the footpaths on either side are separated from the road by watercourses, and in most places shaded by oaks which here attain a large and luxuriant growth. Originally each house had two acres or about a morgen of gar- den ground attached to it; but in the business centres, where the value of land has increased, the erven have been sub-divided many times. Caledon-street, now the chief street in the town, contains about thirty stores or oces, many of which are large handsome buildings, and are occupied by wholesale merchants and importers, who do a considerable trade with the farmers of the extensive district. In the same street are also the Standard Bank, Oriental Bank, Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Church, Native Church and school-room, Malay Mosque, Public Library, Dutch Reformed Church school, Government school, Native Government school, town oces, jail, court-house, Drosdty, three hotels, and several smaller shops, private residences, &c. This comparative concentra- tion of trade to one street has caused the less populous parts of the town to fall into neglect; so that in winter it presents a rather dilapidated appearance; but in spring, when the numerous trees burst forth into leaf and blossom, and the hedges are covered with roses, the aspect of the place fully merits the descrip- tion we have quoted, and the appellation " Garden of the Eastern Province " by which it was long known.  5 Visitors in 1895 declared it was evident that Uitenhage famed for its beautiful scenery did not belie its reputation. Surrounded by lofty hills, embowered in foliage, fragrant with the scent of roses and with the soothing mummer of rip- pling water running down the streets, one could but feel that this is one of the most pleasant spots on earth. Although they had been suering from a long drought, yet there were no signs to demonstrate such a fact to the stranger. The quince hedges were in blossom, roses in full bloom and the peas and potatoes were ready for the market.  By 1907, the vegetation ourished which announced an abundance of fruit and a profusion owers. Gardens are everywhere and legions of owerpots adorn windows, walls and doorways. Fruit growing was an extensive industry, and a great deal of this and other produce is transported from the town and suburbs abroad and in the Colony.  In 1909 the Uitenhage Council, in a marketing and advertising strategy to pro- mote the town, even referred to the town was as a "Garden Town"  From the passages above it is clear that private gardens played a big role in the appearance of the town, but some private gardens stood out. Mr. Brehm and Mr. Dobson Gardens In the Descriptive Handbook the Cape Colony book it describes that a few years ago Uitenhage was famed for its two Botanical Gardens, then the property of Mr. Brehm and Mr. Dobson. These have been a tad neglected lately, but that known as " Belham's " still possesses some of the rarest and most valuable plants, native and foreign, to be found in the Colony; the exotics having been imported by the late Mr. Brehm with a lavishness of money and trouble characteristic of an enthusiast.  6 Image 2: The Domed building in the background was the Conservatory that belonged to Mr. Dobson 1880's Image 3: Dobson Fountain in the Town Hall Grounds Similarly the Uitenhage, Past and Present book accounts that on the town side Drostdy Street, then occupied by Mr. Dobson, was under cultivation, a large conservatory of the Crystal Palace order of architecture being a striking feature in the garden, and a relic of this building is the fountain that then (1904) stood in the Town Hall grounds. Of Mr. Brehm is said that it was him who rst planted what was long known as Brehm's garden in Cuyler Street. In 1896 recognition was given that over fty years before, one of the patriarchs of fruit growing at the Cape, Mr. Joachim Brehm of Uitenhage, became much 7 dissatised with the low class of orange then grown in the Eastern Province, and introduced direct from Rio several young trees of the true Bahia. From these, by careful bud propagation large numbers of this variety were dispersed far and wide, this most excellent orange is in high favour and buds or grafts were readily obtainable.  Smith Brothers' Nursery and Gardens There was another garden/nursery of note and was described in 1895 as the Smith Brothers' Gardens at Uitenhage are too well known to need description; we simply revelled in the sight of long beds of brilliant owers, the beautiful ferns, &c.  In about 1895 the Uitenhage Vineyard Company property with the number of vines that exceeded 100,000, was bought by Messrs. Smith Bros., the well- known fruit growers and nurserymen of Uitenhage. The extent of this excellent land about 100 acres and stretched from the North East slopes of Canon Hill to Graa-Reinet Road. These gentlemen, although initial removed some of the vines and abandoned the making of the wine to gradually transformed the place into a fruit-growing and horticultural farm. Their success was great, and the vineyard became a one of the show places of Uitenhage at the time.  In 1903 a Cape Colony Government book that describes opportunities for set- tlers, wrote that in Uitenhage fruit and ower culture are extensively carried on in the suburbs, and irrigation enters extensively into these operations and judging from the success of the ower and fruit nurseries of an enterprising rm in Uitenhage (success that has been enhanced by the proper use of irrigation), it seems probable that there is room for new comers in this part of the world to open up similar businesses. It was well worth the while for visitor's to obtain permission to go over Messrs. Smith Bros.' vineyards near the town. They are the largest in the Eastern Province, and that any aspiring cultivator could not do better than gather some encouragement and useful knowledge from the object lesson aorded by this ideal vineyard and nursery.  Their vineyards and orchards was famous in the Eastern Province, although it was not generally known that they possess the largest vineyard in this Province and by 1907 containing over half a million vines.  8 In 1885 Messrs. Smith Bros. exhibited at The South African Exhibition in Port Elizabeth in the seeds, bulbs, owers, etc. category. The exhibition was described as a magnicent collection of imported and colonial seeds, bread and fruit plants, &c., most creditably arranged and classied. The show was proba- bly the best and largest ever seen east of Cape Town. There were about twenty varieties of maize, with sample cobs of each. The collection also included a large assortment of fodders suitable for silo use, such as speigula maxima, Bokhara clover, Italian rye grass, trifolium incarnatum, &c. Many of the vegetable seeds shown by this rm were exhibited for the rst time here. The variety of ower seeds, mostly imported, was simply astonishing.  Image 4: Smith Bros Nursery - Garden 9 Image 5: Smith Bros Advert The Smith Bros nurseries, as they had a small branch in Port Elizabeth, and their activities went far beyond a run of the mill nursery. Smith Bros was a brand which ranged from Smith Bros seed, Smith Bros fertilizers & plant food, even to plant varieties like the Smith Bros' Half Early Apricot and the Smith Bros' Large Late Apricot. They were practical pomologists (At the time had the largest collection of fruit trees oerd in South Aftica), merchant nurserymen, 10 seed growers & merchants, cut ower growers and distributors, orists (even decorating of churches for weddings), gardening accessories (including fertilizers & pest control products) & tool merchants, exporters of bulbs and even found time to be the sole agents for Moss Rose Whisky in Africa.  Image 6 & 7: Smith Bros' Nursery and Fernery They even attracted sta from Kew Royal Gardens, London to work for them like Mr. C. Howlett, was a member of the garden sta at Kew, and then became foreman in the nursery of Messrs. Smith Brothers.  In 1898 the Smith Bros even published a book, A Guide For The Garden Horticulture by Smith Bros Uitenhage South Africa. It is a 288 page and is an illustrated cultivation guide to Horticulturalists and amateurs in the fruit, vegetable and ower garden, greenhouse, conservatory and stoep gardening and is said to be the rst complete Horticultural book in South Africa.  11 Image 8: Smith Bros' Book Note the book is advertised on the advert from Uitenhage, past and present: Souvenir of the Centenary, 1804-1904, see Image 5. Greening During the 19th century local authorities came to realise more and more their duty regarding the greening of towns and the creation of positive outdoor spaces.  12 First Park and the Start of Magennis Park The rst Park, or Public Gardens, in Uitenhage was situated between Market and Chase Streets, and appears to have extended from the site of the present Town Hall to Caledon Street. In the year 1846 the Town Commissioners ob- tained from the Government of the day a grant of land for the purpose of forming a market place. This piece of land extended from the site of the present, now old Railway Station in Market Street to Caledon Street, and, as it was larger than the requirements of the market warranted, the upper portion was formed into a public garden known as The Park. There is some doubt as to the year when this garden was laid out, but it appears to have existed as such until about the year 1877. In that year the town was incorporated as a Municipality and among other changes that took place was the selling of the Park for building purposes. Then a move was made to the high ground on the east side of the town to be known in after years as College Hill, and here was established the present public Park, in later named Magennis Park. All who visited the Park at the time (1904) must have observed the grove of eucalyptus or blue gum trees: a curious history attaches to them. It appears that about the year 1870 the City Fathers became impressed with the idea that the supply of rewood was rapidly coming to an end. To provide against such a calamity they cleared a piece of land on the Hill, about four English acres and planted it with Blue Gums! The alarm soon subsided, and the gum plantation became the nucleus of the present public Park. Little progress, however, seems to have been made until the Council secured the services of an English gardener - Richard Home - who became the rst Park Curator or `Corporation Nursery- man and Park Superintendent,' as the oce was then styled. Mr. Home held the post till his death in August, 1882.  He was succeeded as Park Curator by Mr. Robert Cruickshanks, who had charge till the end of July, 1891, when the present Curator, that as in 1904, Mr. H. Fairey took charge. The management of the Uitenhage parks was entrusted to a Committee, elected annually, of the Town Council, and the late Mr. James Magennis was chairman of the body from its inception till his death in August 1897. Under his fostering care, seconded by the able Scotch Curator, great progress was made and much useful work done both in the park itself and the town in general.  In 1897 the Council set aside ¿682 for spending on Magennis Park, the other two parks, tree planting and the salary of the Parks Curator 13 and even in the dicult economic times of 1909 ¿622 was made available for this purpose.  By 1907 Magennis Park was equated to a Botanical Garden, which are popular places of resort, laid out with skill and taste, and are kept in perfect order and condition.  Trees and Other Parks To its magnicent trees, Uitenhage owes much of its great beauty, but the streets were not always so well provided with shade as they are to-day. In 1876 they were requested to encourage by every means in their power the planting and cultivation of trees, and they have done so ever since. The rst grant made by the Divisional Council was in 1877, when the sum of ¿150 was voted toward tree-planting in Uitenhage and to fencing the Jubilee Park. In fact the town presented a much more barren aspect in 1879 than it does in 1904, for many of the trees had only just then been planted and were still of diminutive size. One of the features of Uitenhage used to be Baird Street, which was lined with orange trees, and when Sir Henry Barkly arrived here one of the rst wishes he expressed was to drive down this thoroughfare.  But the various evils to which the orange is so easy a prey attacked the trees in Baird Street, and they were eventually removed. To Councillor Rigg belongs the honour of having been the means of giving the rst great llip to more extensive Municipal arboriculture. In 1879 the Council resolved on his motion to plant trees in all available spaces and streets in the town at the proper seasons, and to request the inhabitants to assist the Council by seeing that the trees received the necessary attention. This was followed by a resolution creating a Tree Planting Committee, the members of which were the Mayor, Messrs. Noyce, Dolley sr., Rigg, and Walsh. The last-named gentleman was elected chairman of the Committee. Mr. J. Valentine was appointed nurseryman at ¿8 a month. He was succeeded shortly afterwards by Mr. S. Horne at ¿10. By 1904 over 2,500 trees lining the streets of Uitenhage.  14 Image 9: Tree Lined Uitenhage Street Previously tree planting had been carried on in the streets in a haphazard fash- ion; now it was done by the Town Council in a systematic manner. In 1886 the American institution of Arbor Day was introduced. In June of that year a large number of trees were planted by school children on a portion of the com- monage, south-east of the town. As an educational exercise in tree planting it has proved a failure, but the plantation formed and known as Victoria Park did considerably improved the appearance of that part of the town. The following year another addition was made to the Uitenhage parks. To commemorate the Jubilee of her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, certain lands at the north-west of the town were enclosed, and at the Jubilee celebrations in June, 1887, a large number of trees were planted by school children and residents of the town. This park, known as the Jubilee Park, did not realised the anticipations formed of it in 1887, but has certainly proved a valuable object lesson in tree planting, and greatly beautied that part of the town.  By 1896 Uitenhage is described as a picturesque but sleepy village, with an abundant water supply, distributed by open channels along the capacious tree-lined streets.  15 Magennis Park Continued In 1889 a considerable addition was made to the Park by the acquisition of several acres of land on the eastern side, and in the autumn of 1892 a large ower garden was laid out on the lower portion. Some three years later the building known as the Horticultural Hall was erected on a slope above the ower garden. Some very interesting and successful exhibitions have been held in it. In January, 1896, another strip of ground was acquired by the Council between the existing Park and the grounds of the later old Riebeek College. This ground was used for the lawns of the Park Croquet Club. The total extent of the park is now about 16 English acres. In speaking of the Park as a whole it may be said that while it cannot vie with the older public parks and gardens of the Colony, it is nevertheless at all times interesting, both to the gardener and the botanist. Amongst the trees, shrubs, and owers will be found representatives from most parts of the world, while the ora of the Colony is represented by several species.  Image 10: Horticultural Hall Magennis Park 16 Image 11 & 12: Water Furrow & Main Path Magennis Park Image 13: Park Croquet Pitch Magennis Park with the Water Fiscals cottage in the background, later the site of the old Riebeek College 17 Image 14: Band Stand Magennis Park Image 15: Lawn Tennis Court Magennis Park 18 Image 16: Rustic Bridge over Water Furrow Magennis Park Nothing of a botanical or scientic nature was attempted at that time (1904), but new varieties of trees, shrubs, and owers are constantly being tried; and while it maybe said that the town of Uitenhage has a climate nearly sub-tropical, not only do the warm house plants of the British Islands thrive in the open air, but many of the native British plants and others from equally cold climates also bloom and ourish. Thus may be seen the Deodar Cedar, from the Himalayan snow line, side by side with the English Elm, the British Oak, and the Pines 19 from .the shores of the Mediterranean, the Goa Cedar or Susitanian Cypress, and its relative from California, the Cupressus Macrocarpa. Trees and owers from many lands and varied climes may truly be said of the denizens of the Uitenhage Park. Often has the question been asked, What would Uitenhage be without its Springs? The great boon of a bountiful supply of water is plainly manifest in the Uitenhage Park. The park was renamed Magennis Park at a Council meeting held on 26 September 1893 after the mayor, who was an enthusiastic arboriculturist and who played an active role in the greening of the town.  In 1880 local men of the Yeomanry did duty in the Basuto Campaign and on their return home the men subscribed among themselves and erected the hand- some granite obelisk that stands near the Cannon Street entrance to Magennis Park in memory of their fallen comrades, whose names are inscribed thereon.  Image 17: Basuto Campaign Obelisk Magennis Park 20 Joseph Lewis was a blacksmith from Port Elizabeth, who died on the 5 October 1888 and some of the wrought iron railings are still around Port Elizabeth today.  He was also the blacksmith who made the ne gates on the Cannon and Church Street sides of Magennis Park but the date of manufacture and erection is not known but it must precede 1888. Image 18 & 19: Joseph Lewis Makers Plate and Cannon Street Gate Path Magennis Park Image 20: Church Street Gate Magennis Park 21 Cannon Hill Cannon Hill is on a hill over looking the old part of Uitenhage. It owes its name to the Old Cannon that is perched on this hill. Reference to Cannon Street dates back to as early as 1860.  This implying that Cannon Hill existed but it by 1860 but probably earlier, maybe just after the cannon was acquired in 1817 but was not an ocial park until much later, only in 1909. In eWISA Water History 1800-1899, describes how the Springs earth water furrow went round Cannon Hill, down to the Drostdy, then along the back of the erven in Caledon Street, a total length of 11 000 yards which was completed in 1839.  Image 21: View from The Cannon Hill about 1900 According to Uitenhage historian Dr. Jean Van Onselen in an interview with Ivor Markman of the Herald, 23 Aug 2007, the hill directly behind the Drostdy was used as a lookout point from the earliest days of Uitenhage. The cannon was ostensively kept for protection outside the old Uitenhage jail site in Caledon Street. When they wanted to celebrate joyful occasions, the convicts had to manhandle it up the hill. Eventually convict labour was no longer allowed, and schoolboy cadets would pull it up the hill each time it had to be red.  This suggests that Cannon Hill was already in use from start of Uitenhage, 22 rst just as a lookout point and then as a place to re the cannon on celebrate occasions. Image 22: The Cannon Cannon Hill was the last park created in Uitenhage during the Colonial Era that is prior to the Union. This piece of municipal land lay abandoned for some years and was used as a dumping ground until 1909. In that year, it was decided, according to a plan provided by the Town Engineer, to clear parts of the bush, plant shrubs on the slopes and level the top and provide seating. The work was done in preparation for the Union Day celebrations.  The old cannon was bought by Landdrost Cuyler, Landdrost of Uitenhage (1806 to 1827), from the wreck of the Amsterdam a Dutch ship of war, which came ashore at the mouth of the Swartkops River on the 16th December, 1817. On special occasions a feu- de-joie was red. In 1902 to celebrate the relief of Mafeking a tragic accident occurred. A Mr. Charles Cross usually red the cannon, but being delayed, the rst shot was red by a Deputy. Arriving late the cleaning of the barrel was overlooked, and a spark touched o the second shot, as Mr. Cross was loading the cannon. An explosion took place and the ramrod was driven through his body. He was taken to P.E. Hospital where he died. The tragedy resulted in Uitenhage agitating and acquiring its own Cottage Hospital, later known as Queen Mary Hospital.  23 Image 23: Cottage Hospital, later known as Queen Mary Hospital Willow Dam Uitenhage had another recreational area of note in this era, Willow Dam al- though not a formal park at the time. To estimate age of Willow dam is not easy, but from the extracts from Uitenhage, past and present: Souvenir of the Centenary, 1804-1904 published in 1904 it appears that many years ago is cor- rect. This picturesque Willow dam was constructed by Inspector Fairbanks many years ago. Prior to this the site of the dam was a level green sward, a favourite place for picnics in dry weather, but in wet seasons it formed the outlet for surplus water. In those days the main road ran several yards lower down. Mr. Fairbanks constructed the present road, and to avoid the steep dip he carried an embankment across the declivity, thus damming up the outlet. Willows were then planted on the embankment, and the sight of their bright, drooping verdure waving over the clear sparkling water has cheered many a weary traveller across the arid country between Graa-Reinet and Uitenhage. It was almost the rst glimpse of the cool, limpid element he got after leaving the Gem, and was a sort of earnest of the beautiful and well-watered town he was just about to enter. So clear and beautiful was the water that not only travellers from the desert but residents of and visitors to Uitenhage used to lave and swim in it. Many a 24 team of horses and cattle have refreshed themselves at its margin, and it was the spot made for by outgoing and incoming wagons. "Some years ago," says the Uitenhage Times", when the public mind was occupied with the storage of water, an engineer was sent to take the levels and otherwise test the capability of that spot. It was found that by raising the embankment a few feet higher the water might be thrown back so as to form a lake several miles in extent, and that from this level might be irrigated, at a triing cost, all the lower lands of the town." But nothing came of it, and Willow Dam remains to-day one of the most beautiful spots in Uitenhage The overow from the Springs at this time followed the natural course of the valley, the old stream bed being easily traced, in all its windings.......it again crossed the Graa-Reinet Road to the west side and owed down through the bush into the Willow-dam; crossing the road again it reached Oatlands, and from thence across Bay Road down the present storm water furrow into the river. For nine years after the Springs water rights were transfer to the Town the water continued in its old course, until in 1838 Mr. John Schlemmer, the then proprietor of Sandfontein, conceived the idea of diverting the stream from its old course and bringing it into the town by an open furrow, kept at such a level that the water would be delivered at the highest point of the then town. This suggest that Willow Dam area predates the Schlemmer's furrow of 1838 as Willow Dam is only 70m above see level and Schlemmer's mill, that was powered by Springs water at the top end of Magennis Park was 100m above see level, which means that the open furrow must have diverted Springs water before Willow Dam and would no longer owed through the dam. Other Recreation By 1878 Uitenhage had 3 Cricket Club, it was in this year that the Locomotive Cricket Club was granted a piece of ground between that of the " Southern Cross" and " Uitenhage" clubs, with the same privileges that had been granted to others. Permission was also granted to the " Locomotive Band" to play in the Square on Saturday afternoons and on special occasions.  25 Image 24: Eucalyptus Tennis Club Uitenhage's rst public tennis courts was presented to the town by Edward Philpott, Civil Commissioner and Resident Magistrate on 10th November, 1888 and named Eucalyptus Tennis club.  By 1815 and the town was only 11 years old, it had a functional Turf club. The membership fees were, "eectives" paid 15 rix-dollars per annum and the " honoraries" 10 rix-dollars per annum. A faithful record of the betting was kept. At the September meeting in 1815 the events was as follows; Zwartkops Plate, Pony Sweepstakes, Districts Plate, Regent's Plate, Hangklip Plate, Bethelsdorp Plate, and Handicap Plate. The expenses of the meeting amounted to 290 rix-dollars and this left 616 rix-dollars as a balance on hand.  Parks in Later Years In later years both Victoria Park and Jubilee Park were redeveloped into sport areas and are no longer parks but Magennis Park and Cannon Hill are still very much part of Uitenhage landscape. Unfortunately Magennis Park is only a 26 shadow of its former glory that once boasted a Horticultural Hall, Conservatory, Aviaries, Lawn Tennis Courts, Bowling Greens, Band Stand, Croquet Pitch, Springs water furrow, an Almond Orchid, not to mention the paths, trees and the ower beds. Cannon Hill appears to have been favoured during the Union period of South Africa as the George the Fifth Coronation Monument and Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Gateway were added. In 1982 the Uitenhage Parks Department celebrated the 100 years of Magennis Park as it claimed that 1882 the Council ocially acknowledged the area as a park. To celebrate this, an old fountain with a history was erected in the park. The fountain history: Mr. Dobson who lived on the town side Drostdy Street had a large conservatory of the Crystal Palace style, with a fountain which was a striking feature. In 1887 the railway took over his property for workshops and this fountain was installed in the Town Hall grounds. The fountain was later removed from the Town Hall grounds and stored because of the expansion of the Town Hall. Image 25: The Dobson fountain Magennis Park Bibliography  Die Stigting en Vroee Geskiedenis van die Distrik Uiten- hage 1804-1814, P. M. H. Calitz. Magister graad Geskiede- nis, Universiteit van Stellenbosch. 1959  Uitenhage's Evolution 1804 -1910 Albrecht Herholdt, Colonial Architecture October 1988  Descriptive Handbook The Cape Colony its Condition and Resources. John Noble, published by J. C. Juta. London 1875  The Lions souvenir Book of Uitenhage, Published by the Lions Uitenhage, 1973  Cape Colony To-Day by A. R. E. Burton, F.R.G.S., Cape Town : Townshend, Taylor & Snashall Printers 1907.  Incipient Local Economic Development in the Eastern Cape by E. Nel and C.M. Rogerson, 1995  Uitenhage, past and present: Souvenir of the Centenary, 1804-1904 printed and published by W.S.J. Sellick at the "Uitenhage Times " Oce, Cape Colony.1904  Manual of Practical Orchard-Work at The Cape. By P. Macowan And Eustace Fillans. Cape Town; W. A. Richards & Sons, Government Printers, 1896.  Cape Colony for the Settler, by A. R. E. Burton, published by J. C. Juta & CO. 1903  The South African Exhibition Port Elizabeth 1885, Edited By Charles Cowen, Cape Town: The "Argus" Printing And Publishing Co. (Ltd.) 1886 27 BIBLIOGRAPHY 28  A Guide For The Garden Horticulture by Smith Bros Uitenhage South Africa 1898  Curtis's Botanical Magazine Vol. XV  The colonial municipality: A case study of Uitenhage by Albrecht Herholdt, Department of Architecture, Univer- sity of Port Elizabeth  Farming Industries of Cape Colony, South Africa: J. C. Juta & Co., Cape Town, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth. 1896.  http://www.amethyst.co.za/FamilyTree/18300920 - JosephLewis  eWISA Water History 1800-1899 (www.ewisa.co.za)  Dr. Jean Van Onselen in an interview with Ivor Markman of the Herald, 23 Aug 2007  The London Journal Of Botany Vol. 2 By Sir W. J. Hooker, Publisher Hippolyte Bailliere London, 1843 [Image 1:] Die Stigting en Vroee Geskiedenis van die Distrik Uiten- hage 1804-1814, P. M. H. Calitz. Magister graad Geskiede- nis, Universiteit van Stellenbosch. 1959 [Image 2 & 22 - 24] The Lions souvenir Book of Uitenhage, Published by the Lions Uitenhage, 1973 [Image 3] Glynis Millett-Clay [Image 4 & 21] Unknown [Image 5] Uitenhage, past and present: Souvenir of the Centenary, 1804-1904 printed and published by W.S.J. Sellick at the "Uitenhage Times " Oce, Cape Colony.1904 [Image 6-8] A Guide For The Garden Horticulture by Smith Bros Uitenhage South Africa 1898 [Image 9 & 23] Clive Botha [Image 10 - 16] Unknown, Copy E A Beckley [Image 17 - 20 & 25] E A Beckley elsdorp Plate, and Handicap Plate. The expenses of the meeting amounted to 290 rix-dollars and this left 616 rix-dollars as a balance on hand.  Parks in Later Years In later years both Victoria Park and Jubilee Park were redeveloped into sport areas and are no longer parks but Magennis Park and Cannon Hill are still very much part of Uitenhage landscape. Unfortunately Magennis Park is only a 26 shadow of its former glory that once boasted a Horticultural Hall, Conservatory, Aviaries, Lawn Tennis Courts, Bowling Greens, Band Stand, Croquet Pitch, Springs water furrow, an Almond Orchid, not to mention the paths, trees and the ower beds. Cannon Hill appears to have been favoured during the Union period of South Africa as the George the Fifth Coronation Monument and Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Gateway were added. In 1982 the Uitenhage Parks Department celebrated the 100 years of Magennis Park as