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Embed code for: Earth Science PowerPoint (Unit 4)
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This is all the notes for our 4th Unit on Earth Science. If you are absent, please find the date(s) that you missed and get all the necessary information.
Date Earth Lesson 1 3/20 EVEN, 3/21 ODD – Page 4-5
Bell Work: How can we compare the layers of the Earth with the layers found in everyday objects?
Mr. Gray has Laryngitis….please be quiet and listen….he can’t talk any louder. Thank you!!
Super Awesome Surprise
Foldable notes on the layers of the earth
Date Earth Lesson 1
ANSWER: layer cake, hard boiled egg, parfait, apple, cantaloupe
Q: Which term describes the bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or through a narrow opening?
A: Which term describes the bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or through a narrow opening?
diffraction – Correct.
interference – Incorrect. Interference occurs when two or more waves overlap and combine together.
reflection – Incorrect. Reflection occurs when a wave bounces off a surface it cannot pass through.
refraction- Incorrect. Refraction is the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an angle.
The male Siberian mammoth reached a height of about 3 m at the shoulder. Females reached a height of about 2.5 m at the shoulder. What is the ratio of the maximum height of a female Siberian mammoth to the height of a male Siberian mammoth?
Answer to Mathematics Booster
Greek and Latin
Today record the term and the meaning of the term.
I will know what plate tectonics are and where they are seen on earth
I will be able to analyze the structure and relationships among plate boundaries.
How are the earth’s layers similar to an egg?
Turn to a partner and share your ideas
How are the earth’s layers similar to an egg
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 1
Begin by cutting out the layers of the earth.
Take two pieces of 8 x 11 of colored paper
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 2
Paste the crust picture close to the top of the first paper in the center of the page.
Set the second piece of paper on top of the first below the crust.
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 3
Paste the mantle on the second piece of paper close to the crust.
Carefully line up the mantle and the crust and fold the bottom of the top sheet of paper to about ¼ inch below the bottom of the mantle picture.
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 4
Paste the outer core on the third flap down so that it is under the mantle.
Fold the bottom sheet of paper up so that the edge meets the bottom of the outer core.
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 5
Finally paste the inner core to the bottom flap.
Once complete staple across the bottom of the foldable.
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 6
Color the following parts:
Inner core =red
Outer core = red orange
Lower Mantle = orange
Middle Mantle = light orange
Upper Mantel = yellow
Oceanic Crust = dark brown
Continental Crust = light brown
Ocean = blue
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 7
Next label the layers of the Earth. Starting at the bottom:
The Earth’s Layers (right side)
Mesosphere (right side)
Middle mantle (left side)
Asthenosphere (right side)
Lithosphere (right side)
Crust (right side)
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 8
On the bottom “inner core flap” you will need to add an extra flap.
Take a small strip of paper and fold it in half. Glue the back side of the new piece to the lower left corner.
On the inside label
State of Matter
Layers of the Earth Foldable Notes 9
Continue to add on each flap the same information beginning with the outer core, mantel and crust.
States of Matter
Make sure that this information is kept below the flap but located on the upper left hand side of the paper.
Students will then find this information on their own using the text book.
Exit slip: list the layers of the earth, starting with the layer that you are standing on.
Earth Lesson Day 2 (3/22 EVEN, 3/23 ODD – Page 6-7)
Bell Work: Using your foldable from yesterday, what part of the earth’s layers are included in the asthenosphere and lithosphere?
Continuing of foldable notes over the layers of the earth
Bell Work Answer
Lithosphere- Crust and upper mantle
Q: Which property of light waves makes a pencil look bent in a beaker of water?
A: Which property of light waves makes a pencil look bent in a beaker of water?
diffraction – Incorrect. Diffraction is light bending around an object or through a small slit.
interference – Incorrect. Light does not bend in interference. Interference occurs when two or more waves overlap and combine together.
reflection – Incorrect. Reflection is when a wave bounces off a surface it cannot pass through.
refraction – Correct. Refraction is the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an angle (water and air are mediums).
Earth is close to being a sphere, but it is actually an oblate ellipsoid. The centrifugal force resulting from spinning on its axis causes Earth to bulge outward at the equator. This bulge is big enough to be measured. The radius of Earth at the poles is 6357 km, and the radius of Earth at the equator is 6378 km.
What is the difference between Earth’s radius at the equator and at the poles?
What is the difference between Earth’s diameter at the equator and that the poles?
Answer to Mathematics Booster
Radius = 21 km
Diameter = 42 km
Today come up with an example of each of you terms
3 Types of Plate Boundaries
Convergent (Mountain Building)
There are 2 types of convergent boundaries.
When two plates collide (come together), we call this convergence.
If 2 continental plates collide, we get mountains.
If an oceanic plate meets a continental plate, it creates a volcano.
The oceanic plate is more dense so it dives below the continental plate and melts in the mantle.
When two plates move apart (diverge), usually in the ocean, they create a trench or a ridge.
A transform boundary occurs when 2 plates slide past one another.
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 1
Lay your paper hamburger style so that the earth globes are on the right side of the page.
Cut out the two pictures on the right and the five pictures on the far left.
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 2
Use page 677 of the text book to label the picture.
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 3
Glue the map to the bottom right of the middle page. Title it Earth’s Plate Boundaries.
Stack the five post-it notes from the top to the bottom on the left of the page.
Glue the “volcano/earthquake” picture to the first post-it and title it Plate Boundaries.
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 4
Label the tabs of the post-it
Should be color coded as stated
Convergent (subduction) [red]
Convergent (mountain building) [red]
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 5
Next cut out the pictures of the four types of boundaries.
Glue to the top portion of each post-it note section.
Convergent (mountain building)
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 6
Next turn to page 682 of your text book.
Using the colors given in the text book, trace the different plate boundaries.
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 7
Now that you have learned about the plates, label the top pictures with either convergent, transform, or divergent and color them the correct color.
Continental Drift Foldable Notes 8
In space above the plate boundaries and to the left of the continental drift, title it PLATE TECTONICS AND CONTINENTAL DRIFT
In this space you will summarize plate tectonics and continental drift by reading from your text book.
If needed you may go onto the back side of your foldable.
Next you will be completing:
Earth Lesson Day 3 3/24 EVEN, 3/27 ODD – Pgs. 8-9
Bell Work: Referencing your foldable, why are there two types of convergent boundaries?
Foldable notes on Convection, Conduction, and Radiation
Convergent (subduction) - when they collide one layer goes under the other.
Convergent (mountain building) – when they collide the layers push up.
Q: Microwaves have a higher frequency than
SC12.2.3.g DOK 1
A: Microwaves have a higher frequency than
gamma rays. – Incorrect. Gamma rays have the highest frequency in the EM spectrum.
infrared light. – Incorrect. Infrared light has a higher frequency than microwaves.
radio waves. – Correct. Radio waves have the lowest frequency in the EM spectrum.
visible light. – Incorrect. Visible light has a higher frequency than microwaves.
Assume that the average thickness for the crust is 50 km, calculate how much thicker the mantle is than the crust if the mantle is 2,900 km thick.
2,900 km ÷ 50 km =
The mantle is 58 times thicker than the crust.
Today use your term in a sentence.
Convection, Conduction, Radiation Foldable Notes 1
Cut out the three remaining pieces from yesterday’s handout.
Place the layer piece (the one that looks like a piece of pie) in the upper right side. Label it RADIATION
Place the convection picture on the left side, leaving space to write underneath and label it CONVECTION
Take the last picture and glue it on the right side. Underneath it label it CONDUTION.
Convection, Conduction, Radiation Foldable Notes 2
In the Radiation picture draw a wavy line to represent the heat coming form the core.
Next to the picture, define radiation and give an explanation as to how or why this is radiation.
If you run out of space you may use the back of your foldable
Convection, Conduction, Radiation Foldable Notes 3
On your convection picture, label the crust on the top and the core on the bottom.
Under it define convection and tell the sources of the convection.
Convection, Conduction, Radiation Foldable Notes 4
Label the three arrows with steam, solid rock and lava.
Under the picture define what conduction is and why this picture is an example of conduction.
Exit slip: summarize the boundaries you created in the snack tectonics
Earth Lesson Day 4 3/28 EVEN, 3/29 ODD – pg.10-11
Bell Work: Referencing your foldable, what do you notice about the types of plate boundaries that are touching the continents that are surrounding most of the Pacific Ocean? What about the one that runs through the center of the Atlantic Ocean? What conclusions can you draw about what will happen to the continents in the future?
Virtual Earthquake activity
Pacific is mostly convergent
Atlantic is divergent
Pacific is getting closer together and the Atlantic is getting farther apart.
Q: Read the experiment description below.
Experiment Description: A telescope is used to observe the position of the planets Mercury, Venus, and Mars for four days. The planetary movement is compared to the background stars and is measured in degrees.
Day 4 Movement
Which statement about planetary motion across the sky is supported by the data in the chart?
Mercury is slowing down.
Mars is changing direction.
Planetary motion is uniform.
Venus is the slowest moving planet.
A: Read the experiment description below.
Mercury is slowing down. – Incorrect. Mercury is speeding up.
Mars is changing direction. – Correct. The change in sign indicates a change in direction
Planetary motion is uniform. – Incorrect. Planets speed up, slow down, or change direction as they cross the sky.
Venus is the slowest moving planet. – Mars is moving slower than Venus across the sky.
Imagine that you are building a model of the Earth that will have a radius of 1 m. You find out that the average radius of the Earth is 6,380 km and that the thickness of the lithosphere is about 150 km.
What percentage of the Earth’s radius is the lithosphere?
How thick (in centimeters) would you make the lithosphere in your model?
150 km ÷ 6,380 km = 0.0235 = 2.35%
2.35% x 1.00 m = 0.0235 m or 2.35 cm
Today use your example word in a picture.
I will know what earthquakes are and how they are monitored on earth
I will be able to analyze graphs and data to draw conclusion about earthquakes.
Shaking and trembling of the earth’s crust.
More than 1,000,000 occur a year or one every 30 seconds
Faulting is the most common cause
Earthquakes continue until all the energy is absorbed into the surrounding Earth’s material (dirt, rocks, buildings, etc.)
TSUNAMIS- an earthquake occurs on the ocean floor causing waves to become greater than 20 meters.
FOCUS- underground point of origin
EPICENTER- aboveground point of origin; most violent shaking occurs at the epicenter
The three main types of seismic waves are: P waves, S waves, and L waves
Shadow Zone- is the area where no s-waves travel because they can not travel through the liquid outer core
Opposite side of the Earth from then the Focus
Arrive first at the epicenter
Can travel through solids, liquids, and gases
They are push-pull waves
Can travel through solids, but NOT through liquids and gases
Move in up-down motion
L Waves (Love Waves)
Slowest moving seismic waves
Travel on top of Earth’s surface
Cause most of damage to Earth, because they bend and twist the surface
How Earthquakes are Measured
Seismograph-measures and detects seismic waves
Seismogram- Paper record of waves
Seismologist- scientist who study earthquakes
Richter Scale- a scale that allows scientists to determine earthquake strength based on many readings
1-10 levels at which an earthquake is measured on amount of damage caused; Above a 6 is very destructive
Reading a Seismograph
Find the P-Wave arrival time
Find the S-wave arrival time
Find the S-P Interval
Find the Amplitude
the virtual earthquake activity
Exit slip: explain why you have to have three triangulation points to find the location of an earthquake.
Earth Lesson Day 5 3/30 Even, 3/31 Odd – Page 12-13
Cornell notes over types of volcanoes
Virtual Volcano Activity/Mapping HotSpots
Travel though solid liquid and gas
Q: A radio wave has a wavelength of 100 centimeters (cm) and a frequency of 0.3 gigahertz (GHz). A microwave has a wavelength of 1 cm. What is the microwave’s frequency?
SC12.2.3.g DOK 2
0.03 GHz – Incorrect. When wavelength decreases, the frequency increases.
0.3 GHz – Incorrect. If the wavelength changes, the frequency also changes.
3 GHz – Incorrect. See below.
30 GHz – Correct. Wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional. Since wavelength decreased by a factor of 100, frequency increased by a factor of 100.
A: A radio wave has a wavelength of 100 centimeters (cm) and a frequency of 0.3 gigahertz (GHz). A microwave has a wavelength of 1 cm. What is the microwave’s frequency?
The deepest hole ever drilled into the continental crust was in the Kola Peninsula, in Russia, in 1984. It was 12,226 m deep! Because the temperature of the crust increases with depth, it is impossible to drill much deeper into crust. Hot rock flows around the drill bit and fills the hole faster than the hole can be drilled.
How deep is the hole compared to the height of Mount Everest? (Hint: Mount Everest is 8,850 m)
Did it extend to the asthenosphere?
12,226 m – 8,850 m = 3,376 m
No, it didn’t extend into the asthenosphere.
Today use your words in a paragraph
I will know how volcanoes are formed and what types of volcanoes are located on the Earth.
I will know how the hot spot in the Pacific Ocean affected the creation of the Hawaiian Island chain.
Different Types of Volcanoes
Shield Volcanoes Shield volcanoes are built of layers of lava released from repeated non-explosive eruptions.
Cinder Cone Volcanoes Cinder cone volcanoes are made of pyroclastic material usually produced from moderately explosive eruptions.
Composite Volcanoes (stratovolcanoes) are one of the most common types of volcanoes. They form from explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material followed by quieter flows of lava.
Mt. Saint Helen’s
What you have left of the virtual earthquake activity
Marking the text volcano article
Quiz over Earth science next class!
Teachers- it would be helpful to have these strips premade. They are approximately 2” x 4” students can cut them down if need be.
Students will need 5 post-it notes and the Earth foldable students prints for today’s activities. It is a power point doc.
Up to teacher discretion as to the depth of detail included on the picture but should include dates and continental labels.
These notes can be give as a handout by printing 3 slides per page and having the students writing comments or question on the lines.
Have the students turn to a partner and create a saying or way to remember p waves;
Example Puh-Puh- Puh- P waves with a stuttering high five
Have the students turn to a partner and create a saying or way to remember s waves;
Example sssssss s waves like a snake, making a wave motion with their arm.
Have the students turn to a partner and create a saying or way to remember love waves;
Example: have students roll arms (patty cake style) saying I love you ending with hands to chest.
This activity may not be completed in one day.
In 1943 a cinder cone stared growing on a farm near Paricutin Mexico. During 9 years of activity Paricutin build a propionate cone that covered 100 square miles that covered the town of San Juan.
Exit slip: explain why you have to have three triangulation points to find the location of an earthquake.
In 1943 a cinder cone stared growing on a farm near Paricutin Mexico. During 9 years of activity Paricutin build a propionate cone that covered 100 square miles that