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This paper outlines a counterterrorism strategy for the next president.
The New U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy
The Be American Act
George Washington University
The United States’ post-9/11 counterterrorism strategies have stirred global controversy due to ethics and behavior standards. This paper proposes the Be American Act as a counterterrorism strategy for the next president. The Be American Act acknowledges the moral interest of the International Community and the American people by modifying the general areas that express the utmost debate. Next, this paper calls for prospective actions toward the pursuit of American ideals. Balance is then created through the comparison of allied members current counterterrorism strategies in place and unabridged motions to advance priority to greater threats beyond terrorism is morally directed.
The Be American Act
Since 2001, United States’ (U.S.) “Counterterrorism” policies have caused the greatest disagreements between the people and the administration, both at home and abroad. Policies such as the U.S. Patriot Act; the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act; the Protect America Act; the Immigration Act; broad interpretations for the 4th, 5th, and 6th amendments; lethal action; and executive orders have been at the forefront of combat and on the front-page of every tabloid throughout this country. While some may argue that the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) should remain in the overall spotlight, our next presidents’ counterterrorism efforts should instead do the exact opposite and put terrorism on the back burner and focus on the moral representation of America. America has always been a country of ideals. When President Obama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009 for his efforts toward non-nuclear proliferation, he demanded that we hold ourselves to the highest possible standards (Office of the Press Secretary, 2009) even while terrorism expert David C. Rapoport describes the inherent extremist violence that we face today, to be a 4th wave of terrorism that is religiously motivated (Rapoport, 2004), and forces us to be victims of bigotry. With regards to these comprehensive characteristics of America and radicalization, we know that we must be the article of American conviction to triumph the terror at home and abroad.
First, to motivate American moral representation, we must refocus our goals toward absolute morality. Americans have always advanced their interests through the similar intrinsic interpretations of Holy Scriptures. Many believe in global governance in such a way that there should be a universal standard of behavior. Previous studies have shown that this can be achieved through healthy habits. In view of this, the humanitarian sphere is undergoing development, but still demands promotion and even greater amounts of service that can address critical areas of political crisis; the military has sent thousands of volunteers to assist these communities through health, education, agriculture, disaster relief, and dislocation and relocation efforts for refugees (Project Hope, 2015). The global vision to end world hunger will also require on-going care through investigations that address the root cause of hunger and long-term activities that improve global food-security (World Vision, 2015). Still, global energy challenges have already become of interest owing to the idea that future economic developments must ensure consistency and reproduction through services that can evolve with consumer preferences for convenience and resiliency (Grubler, 2008). Uniquely, by pursuing humanitarian, food-security, and alternative energy goals, we will assemble the globalization of the U.S.’s abilities to bring people together over principle investment where other governance issues such as terrorism can then be observed and treated.
Next, to emphasize American moral representation, we must recognize America’s moral demands. While occupation in the Middle East (M.E.) is a strategy to further secure our borders, the moral American community wants troops removed from the M.E. because there is very little public consent of American occupation in those countries thus making it appear as though we are striving toward total rule instead of pure democracy (Holland, 2015), which continues to remain a foreign interest. In addition to this force, we are creating a vulnerable state by such pre-occupation, provoking war in states like Israel, and increasing our federal deficit by unnecessary defense spending (Berlatsky, 2014). Granted, this same moral American community supports Camp Delta in Guantanamo Bay staying open for the underlying reason that the detainment site provides justice for the victims and families of the attack on the World Trade Center in 2001 as well as the families of fallen Gulf War heroes. Values have long been placed in our patriotic duty to serve this great country by protecting the people and conserving the territory. For this reason, the Department of Defense and the State’s Militia should not have a limit to recruitment. Instead, the Department of Homeland Security’s overlapping efforts should be dismissed as causes of counter-production in America’s war on terrorism. These individuals should then take on some of the globally promoted morality assignments listed in the previous process.
Lastly, to apply American moral representation, we must refashion how we respond to terrorism. Terrorism is a perception of the people in the places that it exists. A national definition is still being widely debated; the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) defines terrorism as an act, premeditated and perpetrated by a sub-national or clandestine agent; politically motivated, and potentially includes religious, philosophical or culturally symbolic motivations; it is violent and perpetrated against a non-combatant target (Marianos, 2015). It has been deemed successful by its ability to disrupt. This is the exact reason why terrorism can no longer remain a priority for the political agenda. Our on-going responsiveness at home and abroad is a direct reflection of successful terrorism. The media’s infatuation with politics and terrorism is a direct reflection of a nation-state haunted by the terrorist attacks and post-9/11 failures. We exhibit fear. That fear does nothing but display that terrorism - in this 4th wave -- can be a successful tactic for anyone. Terrorists must live at the mercy of America and not the other way around; our responses will determine the effectiveness and importance of these groups and lone-wolves. Namely, globalized moral representation that neglects the disorderly needs of radicalization amid a religiously motivated war will set a positive superior example that has to potential to uncover all of the cooperative terrorism indoctrinations and intentions of global community members to begin greater efforts that counterterrorism at the source. There is great American value in traditional manners of merit.
The European Union’s Counterterrorism Strategy in comparison to the United States’
Post-9/11 changes to the “European Union’s (E.U.’s) Counterterrorism Strategy” is very similar to the U.S.’s. They have reorganized and expanded their institutional capacity: SitCen in the Council and the Police Chiefs’ Task Force have been remodeled to combat terrorism much like the U.S.’s Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); newly created structures like the European Police College (CEPOL) and E.U. external border management agency (FRONTEX) are similar to the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). In addition to these departments, they have designated a role similar the U.S. Director of National Intelligence (DNI) by creating the Office of the E.U.s Anti-Terrorism Coordinator (Monar, 2007). The E.U. has expanded information sharing efforts with the U.S. through mutual legal assistance and agreements on extradition. Prevention efforts have emerged through internet monitors like the Protect America Act activities. As a result, the E.U. has also experienced very similar internal backlash due to trade-offs between civil liberties and security. Financial Operations have taken place for internal and external security purposes and the E.U. has begun promoting good government and human rights much like the U.S. (Monar, 2007). The major differences between the two counterterrorism strategies is that the E.U.’s policies have been carefully and broadly worded due to the direct geographic access to the Islam Community. Their expansion was not nearly as aggressive as the U.S.’s because the E.U. has 28 member states instead of 50 with additional maritime territories. They have also kept their borders open. What appears to be the most significant is that the E.U. has a common definition of terrorism that is precise enough to provide a common platform for comprehensive criminalization and prosecution (Monar, 2007). The U.S. is in desperate need of one. Furthermore, both the E.U. and the U.S. have been able to identify problems with their strategies; unlike the U.S., the E.U.s responses have been troubled by state and social integration while focusing on cooperation and the U.S. continues to be distressed by interagency cooperation in the company of relative counterterrorism integration (Monar, 2007). Both have raised concerns over legitimacy of actions. Indeed both could use some moral direction that models balance between the two countries and their internal conflicts.
Future Threats that Require Emphasis (Erwin, 2012)
Climate Change: Climate change is expected to cause natural disasters and resource shortages throughout this next century. The Jetstream is expected to shift tropical storm weather patterns while the emissions scenario is expected to affect the temperature increase through population increase and lack of transition to clean energy (Federal Highway Administration, 2015). Projected topography effected by weather patterns have set off heavy property damage and mass casualty alarms along with water scarcity due to temperature increase (Gorman, 2006). It is recommended that these concerns be alleviated through continued research efforts for factual information, back-up plans for the communication infrastructure, emergency management and mass assistance efforts for those who will be effected, and transition to clean alternative sources. This study should also result in greater displacement solutions to avoid internal disorder.
Biological Weapons: The idea of biological weapons being used in a terrorist attack has also set off alarms. An Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) members’ laptop recovered in Syria allegedly contains documents on how to construct bubonic plague (Doornbos, 2014) presenting the International Community with a real future threat. In addition to this, the latest Ebola outbreak in the year 2014 is very concerning; it has killed five times more than all other known Ebola outbreaks combined with six countries being affected: Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, the U.S., and Mali (BBC, 2015). Due to a lack of health care and internal services in Africa, suicide missions to infect other countries upon contraction of the disease has provoked against other countries security. Care and disease reduction by U.S. personnel through moral representation efforts would be an overall solution to combat these threats.
Nuclear Weapons: There is nothing cryptic about the briefcase “Nuke” or any of its’ pandemic aftereffects. After World War II, the U.S. will forever remain a nuclear target. Currently, suspicion toward Iran’s Nuclear Program has caused superpower headaches. Global leaders distrust Iran’s charge for M.E. energy because Iran fails to sign the non-nuclear proliferation peace treaty. Iran, in the past, has also been known to sponsor terrorism, which heightens the stakes of Iran’s advancement. Reuters reports that Iran continues to violate international law -- they have done so this year, with their latest ballistic missile test on 10/21 (Nichols, 2015). Many believe that the nuclear threat could be mitigated altogether by rescinding nuclear energy and transitioning to solar power.
Cyber-Attacks: Technological advancements are the best advocates for scammers and spies. The computer networks of a broad array of U.S. Government agencies, private companies, universities, and other institutions (Erwin, 2012)—all holding large volumes of sensitive economic information—have all been targeted by cyber criminals for commercial opportunities while Chinese intrusion into community health centers for economic and industrial espionage purposes, have been connected to the mismanagement of cyberspace. The cost of these attacks are always large and not always something that we can recover from. It is recommended that a large part of the U.S. defense budget be directed toward solutions that can counter the compromises of our economy in both personal and national volumes. This practice will set up future counter-cyberterrorism efforts as well.
Transnational Crime: Due to the demographic trends of the 21st Century, mass trafficking of drugs, people, weapons, and sex will continue to activate terrorism and keep these crimes in the grave spotlight. These activities form supply chains that support long-term terrorism efforts such as recruitment, training, facilities, materials, propaganda, and weapon exchange (Marianos, 2015). Not to mention, destabilizing events like the Arab Spring have created power vacuums and ungoverned lands where criminals and terrorist groups are able to operate with impunity (Erwin, 2012). The globalization of transnational crime networks encourage ruthless behavior—counter-behavior efforts through moral representation are very likely to strengthen cooperation with intelligence partners appropriately enhancing counterterrorism collections that develop greater synergies between global intelligence departments and personnel (National Security Council).
In conclusion, the all-out reality of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) is that it is likely to last for the rest of this century and possibly even the next because of the fundamental religious manifestations of the groups that exist and the sacred locations of the groups that exist. There is absolutely no way that the GWOT will end tomorrow unless humanity is wiped out overnight. It has been nearly 15 years since the attacks on 9/11. By continuing to focus on this war in detail and in the spotlight, we are seeking perfectionism in a world and war that will never be perfect. It is true that some may argue that the GWOT should remain the primary interest of our people and our administration, but our attentiveness should be less extreme; our next presidents’ counterterrorism efforts should actually neglect terrorism and focus on the moral representation of America. By doing so, we will be able refocus our outright goals, recognize public demands, and refashion foreign engagements and dealings. There are multiple other threats that must be deterred ahead of time without preoccupation. By doing so, we are setting ourselves up to foretell the consequences. It is often overlooked that terrorism is successful through calculations of its ability to disrupt. We cannot display disruption any longer. To beat terrorism, we must show terrorist organizations complete disregard, and we must do so, by offering a die-hard American attitude that will go to extraordinary lengths to give them nothing!
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Erwin, S. I. (2012, November). The Top Five Threats to National Security in the Coming Decade. Retrieved from National Defense: http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2012/november/pages/topfivethreatstonationalsecurityinthecomingdecade.aspx
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World Vision. (2015). Leveraging Food Assistance for a Hunger Free World. Retrieved from World Vision: http://www.worldvision.org/our-impact/food-agriculture
RUNNING HEAD: The New U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy 1
The New U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy 2
OFFICIAL: October 28, 2015
Copyright: All Rights Reserved To The Author Of This Productefforts should actually neglect terrorism and focus on the moral representation of America. By doing so, we will be able refocus our outright goals, recognize public demands, and refashion foreign engagements and dealings. There are multiple other threats that must be deterred ahead of time without preoccupation. By doing so, we are setting ourselves up to foretell the consequences. It is often overlooked that terrorism is successful through calculations of its ability to disrupt. We cannot display disruption any longer. To beat terrorism, we must show terrorist organizations complete disregard, and we must do so, by offering a die-hard American attitude that will go to extraordinary lengths to give them nothing!
Erwin, S. I. (2012, November). The Top Five Threats to National Security in the Coming Decade. Retrieved from National Defense: http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/archive/2012/november/pages/topfivethreatstonationa