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Red eyes are extremely rare. The most common reason a person experiences red eyes are from albinism. Albinism is a heritable disorder that is characterized by little to no production of pigment melanin. “In an Albino where the pigment is entirely absent from both surfaces of the iris, the bright red blood is seen through the semi-transparent fibrous tissues of a pink color”. Typically in other eyes the Iris will have different colors that reflect through exposing a certain eye color. (
Melanin helps the skin, hair, and eyes decipher what color they will be (
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16280011https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16280011 ). Tyrosinase is an enzyme containing copper which is the first step of producing melanin. Tyrosinase is also found in the back of the tissue of the eye, which can cause lot of vision issues. More than 100 mutations in the TYR gene have been identified in people with oculocutaneous albinism type 1. (http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/TYR ). Different common types of eye conditions associated with Albinism include Nystagmus, which is a rapid movement of the eyes back and forth. Also Amblyopia which decrease in acuity of one or both eyes due to poor transmission to the brain. Optic nerve hypoplasia which is an under development of the ocular nerve.
Very rarely eyes can appear to have a red or violet color to the eye depending on the light.