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Embed code for: Session XXVIII Exam VI (Final) Review
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50 comprehensive practice questions covering learning objectives from throughout the semester.
CHEM 108 SI
Session XXVIII – 5/2/17
Final Exam Review
SI Leader: Cassidy Sloot
End of semester evaluation
T/F: conformers have identical molecular formulas with different connectivity.
I have no idea!
Draw the two branched-chain isomers with the formula C7H16 where the longest chain in the molecule is 6 carbons long.
Draw and name a 7-carbon alkane that has both a tertiary and a quaternary carbon atom.
According to Markovnikov’s rule, what major product will result from the following reaction?
Draw the structures of phenol, aniline, and toluene.
What type of molecule is pictured below?
What is the name of the following compound?
Draw and name the product:
How would you classify the alcohol group in this compound?
Draw the alcohol(s) that, if dehydrated, would result in the following alkene:
What is the correct IUPAC name of this molecule?
A & B
Rank the molecules in order of increasing boiling point. What causes this difference in boiling point?
alkanes < ethers < alcohols
They are in order of increasing strength of molecular forces…
alkanes = London dispersion
ethers = dipole-dipole
alcohols = hydrogen bonding
What products would you get from the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the following molecule?
What type of amino acid R groups are hydrophilic?
B,C, & D
Given the following zwitterion, what would this molecule look like in an acidic environment?
What type of interactions, if any, would occur in this area of a protein?
A: hydrogen bonding
What is the IUPAC name of the following molecule?
A: 3-chloro-2-hydroxybutanoic acid
Predict the product of this reaction:
Draw the dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. Classify the side chains.
Phe: nonpolar (hydrophobic)
Identify the peak at which pepsin will catalyze reactions fastest.
Select the correct pair of terms related to enzymes.
Enzyme; A reactant in an enzyme catalyzed reaction.
Active-Site; A protein or other molecule that acts as a catalyst for a biological reaction.
A pocket in an enzyme with the specific shape and chemical makeup necessary to bond a substrate.
Substrate; A pocket in an enzyme with the specific shape and chemical makeup necessary to bond a substrate.
Specificity; The limitation of the activity of an enzyme to a specific reaction, or specific type of reaction.
What type of enzyme inhibition is shown? Why is this an important process?
A: feedback control; it allows the body to prohibit excessive buildup of certain metabolic products
Which of the following levels of protein structure is destroyed during digestion?
None of the above
When the following molecule reacts with ammonia (NH3) what would the product be?
Indicate where you would see hydrogen bonding between the backbones of the following peptides.
Under what conditions will the glycogenolysis pathway be used in the body?
A: during fasting when there is in adequate glucose available from the diet.
Calculate the overall ΔG value of these coupled rxns.
What are the net products of glycolysis and where in the cell does it occur?
A: 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH/H+ … it occurs in the cytosol.
Where in the body does chemical breakdown of carbohydrates occur as part of digestion?
A: The mouth and small intestine.
Which steps of the citric acid cycle involve oxidation or reduction?
A: steps 4, 5, 7, 9
If the forward reaction of photosynthesis is anabolic, how would you describe the reverse reaction?
Label the anomeric carbons of D-glucose and D-fructose as α or β. Label each as a reducing or non-reducing sugar.
Indicate which two atoms will connect to form a new bond when this straight chain carbohydrate forms a ring.
Describe what would happen during the selected portion of the electron transport chain (steps e., f., g.).
Answer: protons from reduced coenzymes are pumped into intermembrane space of mitochondria.
Name the links in starch and cellulose. Why can we digest starch but not cellulose?
A: Starch= α-1,4; cellulose= β-1,4; our bodies do not produce the enzyme needed to digest β-1,4 bonds.
Under what conditions will your body use the pathway for gluconeogenesis?
A: during short-term starvation when there is inadequate glucose supply from the diet and glycogen is depleted.
Describe the main differences between Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus.
Type I – juvenile; autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells; no insulin release.
Type II – adult; insulin is released but the body’s cells are resistant to it so it does not stimulate glucose uptake from the blood.
Within the mitochondria, is the pH lower in the intermembrane space or in the mitochondrial matrix, and why?
A: the intermembrane space; there is a higher concentration of H+ ions there.
Compare the main differences between passive and active transport. Why do we need both?
A: passive – no ATP required; moves molecules from high to low concentration; channel protein not always required
Active – ATP required; moves molecules from low to high concentration; channel protein always required
Our body needs to move molecules in both directions in order to function properly.
What are the similarities and differences between these two lipids?
A: glycerol backbone vs. sphingosine backbone
Both contain a phosphate group (both are phospholipids)
One contains nitrogen in an amide bond
Two fatty acids vs. one fatty acid
How many acetyl-CoA molecules will be produced from a fatty acid with 20 carbons?
What are the two fates of triglycerides following digestion? Under what condition would each occur?
Converted back to triglycerides for storage (excess energy is available in the body)
Converted to acetyl-CoA for generation of energy (body is in a low-energy state)
How many ATP molecules will this fatty acid produce after complete metabolic catabolism?
Which macromolecule will produce more ATP energy? Describe how you came to your conclusion.
Label each rxn as either hydrolysis or saponification. How is each catalyzed?
Which of the following processes will occur first in lipid digestion?
Activation to acyl Co-A
Transport to mitochondria
What type of lipid is shown?
Which lipoprotein transports dietary lipids following a meal?
All of the above
What process occurs during step two of beta oxidation, shown below?
A: hydration of the double bond
30cule reacts with ammonia (NH3) what would the product be?
If the forward reaction of photosynthesis is anabolic, how would you desc