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Embed code for: Session XXVI Exam V (Final) Review (FA 15)
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Comprehensive review of all learning objectives covered throughout the semester.
CHEM 108 SI
Session XXIV – 12/09/15
Final Exam Review
SI Leader: Cassidy Sloot
End of semester evaluation
LO1: Know the structures of the different organic functional groups.
LO2: Be able to draw isomers of a given molecular formula.
molecular formula? same
Draw a possible structures for the following molecular formula: C5H10O2
LO3: Be able to identify whether given molecules are isomers or the same molecule.
What is the relationship between these structures?
Functional group isomers
I have no idea!
LO4: Know the difference between a condensed structure, structural formula, and a line structure.
Draw/write the structural formula, and condensed, and line structures for hexanoic acid.
Condensed structure: CH3(CH2)4COOH
LO5: Be able to name alkanes given the structure and be able to draw the structure given the name.
Name the following alkanes and draw the line structure for 2,3-dimethyloctane.
LO5: Be able to name alkanes given the structure, and be able to draw the structure, given the name.
LO6: Be able to name cycloalkanes given the structure, and be able to draw the structure, given the name.
Name this cycloalkane and draw the line structure for 1-bromo-2,2-dimethylcyclohexane.
LO7: Have a basic understanding of halogenation rxns of alkanes.
alkane + halogen alkyl halide
Draw the structures of all eight possible products of the following reaction.
C4H10 + 2Br2 (8 isomers of bromobutane) + 2HBr
LO1: Be able to name (in proper nomenclature) and draw structures of alkenes and alkynes, as well as their substituent groups, cis- or trans- isomers, and the types of reactions that typically involve hydrocarbons.
Name the following structure:
Name this molecule:
List the four general types of reactions involving hydrocarbons:
LO2: Be able to identify products of various reactions (hydrogenation, halogenation, hydrohalogenation, hydration) of hydrocarbons.
What rule applies to hydration?
What product will result from the following reaction?
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH=CHCH3 + H2
LO1: Be able to name aromatic compounds.
Name these aromatic compounds.
Name this compound.
LO2: Be able to name alcohols.
Name this alcohol:
LO3: Be able to identify a primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohol.
What classification is the alcohol group in CH3CH2CH2CH(OH)CH3?
LO4: Have a basic understanding of the properties of alcohols.
Are alcohols polar or nonpolar?
How does their boiling point compare to hydrocarbons? higher
LO1: Be able to predict the product(s) of a dehydration reaction.
Name the reactant, and draw the major & minor products of this dehydration rxn:
LO2: Understand the new definitions for oxidation and reduction reactions as they pertain to organic chemistry.
Oxidation: more C-O bonds; less C-H bonds
Reduction: more C-H bonds; less C-O bonds
LO3: Be able to predict the product of an oxidation reaction involving alcohols.
Draw and name the product of this oxidation reaction.
LO4: Be able to name phenols (we covered this in naming aromatic compounds).
LO5: Have a basic understanding of the acidity of alcohols and phenols.
LO6: Be able to name simple ethers (you aren’t responsible for naming with alkoxy groups).
Name the molecule below.
Methyl propyl ether
Ethyl isopropyl ether
Ethyl methyl ether
LO7: Be able to identify a thiol compound.
LO8: Know that when naming compounds with a halogen as a substituent, that you use chloro-, bromo-, iodo-, andfluoro- as the substituent names.
LO9: Be able to name amines.
Name these amines:
LO10: Understand the basic properties of amines.
LO1: Know the basic structure of a heterocyclic compound.
Identify the heterocyclic compound(s):
LO2: Given any amine, be able to predict the ammonium ion that would be produced after dissolving in water.
Draw the products of the following reactions.
LO3: Have a basic understanding of what an ammonium salt is.
Identify the ammonium salt:
LO4: Have a basic understanding of where we find these amine compounds in our foods and medicine.
LO5: Understand the structural differences between aldehydes and ketones.
LO6: Be able to use IUPAC naming to name aldehydes and ketones.
Name the aldehyde and ketone shown:
LO7: Have a basic understanding of the physical properties of aldehydes and ketones.
Are aldehydes and ketones polar or nonpolar?
How does their boiling point compare to hydrocarbons and alcohols? higher than hydrocarbons
lower than alcohols
LO8: Have an understanding of the oxidation and reduction of aldehydes and ketones.
What type of product(s) will result from the oxidation of each of the following?
Reduction = exact opposite!
1° alcohol aldehyde carboxylic acid
2° alcohol ketone
3° alcohol no rxn!
Reduction of 3-methyl-2-pentanone will result in which of the following products?
A secondary alcohol
A carboxylic acid
A & B
LO9: Have an understanding of hemiacetal, and acetal formation.
Reactants needed for a hemiacetal: aldehyde/ketone + 1 alcohol
Reactants needed for an acetal: aldehyde/ketone + 2 alcohols
LO10: Have an understanding of acetal hydrolysis.
Draw the products of this hydrolysis rxn:
LO1: Be able to name carboxylic acids using the IUPAC naming system.
LO2: Know what an acyl group is.
LO3: Have a basic understanding of what is meant by an α and β position within a carboxylic acid.
Name this carboxylic acid, label α the and β carbons, and circle the acyl group.
LO4: Have an understanding of the properties of carboxylic acids.
Are carboxylic acids polar or nonpolar?
How does their boiling point compare to hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldyhydes, and ketones? Higher
Are carboxylic acids acidic or basic?
LO5: Be able to identify carboxylic acid derivatives.
Identify the functional groups in these carboxylic acid derivatives:
LO6: Have a basic understanding of where we see carboxylic acids in our daily lives.
LO7: Have a basic understanding of the acidic nature of carboxylic acids.
LO8: Have an understanding of esterification and amide formation.
Draw the reactants needed to form these compounds:
LO9: Have a basic understanding of where we find the use of carboxylic acid derivatives in our daily lives.
LO10: Have an understanding of ester and amide hydrolysis reactions.
Hydrolysis is the exact opposite of formation!
LO11: Have a basic understanding of where we find polyamides and polyesters in our daily lives.
LO1: Be able to recognize a peptide bond.
Circle the peptide bonds:
LO2: Given any two amino acids, be able to draw the structure of the two of them with a peptide bond formed.
LO3: Given an amino acid, be able to determine what the side chain is.
LO4: Understand the terms hydrophilic and hydrophobic as they relate to amino acids.
Draw the dipeptide of glycine and alanine. Classify the side chains of each amino acid.
LO5: Be able to determine what the product(s) would be if a zwitterion were in a high pH environment or a low pH environment.
Draw the structure of alanine in an acidic environment.
LO6: Given a molecule, be able to determine whether each carbon is chiral or achiral.
Identify the chiral carbon(s):
LO7: Be able to recognize the amino-terminal and the carboxyl-terminal of a protein.
ID the amino and carboxyl terminals:
LO8: Be able to discuss the possible implications of having your amino acid residues in the wrong order, or having an amino acid in the wrong place. A Google search might be good here.
LO9: Know the different kinds of interactions that can occur between proteins.
LO10: Know the basic structural differences between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures and what types of bonds occur with each.
Amino Acids Involved
covalent (peptide) bonds
amino & carboxyl
2. salt bridges
3. hydrogen bonding
4. disulfide bridges
2. basic & acidic
LO11: Know the basic structural differences between fibrous and globular proteins and examples of each.
What is the main difference between fibrous and globular proteins?
Solubility & function
Fibrous insoluble; structure
Globular soluble; function (metabolism, transport, etc.)
LO12: Be able to describe the difference between protein hydrolysis and denaturation.
Which levels of structure do denaturation and hydrolysis affect?
Denaturation secondary, tertiary, quaternary
LO13: Be familiar with the terms enzyme, substrate, active site, cofactor, coenzyme.
LO14: Given a reaction, be able to determine which type of enzyme was used to catalyze the reaction.
LO1: Be able to describe in words, how an enzyme works.
LO2: Be able to discuss the affects of pH, temperature, and substrate concentration on enzyme activity. The “why” is also important.
Temp. & pH
Denaturation above optimum
More substrate in active site
LO3: Be able to describe both positive and negative allosteric control of enzyme activity.
LO4: Be able to describe what feedback control is, and why it would be used.
Positive: increases rxn rate
Negative: decreases rxn rate
Feedback: stops formation of unneeded product
LO5:Be able to discuss competitive and noncompetitive inhibition.
Competetive: inhibitor binds in active site
Noncompetetive: inhibitor bonds outside active site, but modifies active site.
LO6: Be able to discuss the differences between reversible and irreversible inhibition.
LO7: Be able to describe what covalent modification and genetic control of enzymes are.
LO8: Know the difference between what a water-soluble vitamin and fat-soluble vitamin, and which vitamins are within each group.
Fat soluble: A, E, D, K
Water soluble: all others
LO9: Know the difference between essential and nonessential vitamins and which vitamins fall into each category.
Essential: not made by our body; all vitamins except D & K
LO10: Be able to discuss some of the general symptoms of vitamin deficiency.
Vitamin Deficiency Effects
LO1: Have an understanding of endergonic and exergonic reactions and how that relates to biochemistry.
LO2: Know the basic functions of the mitochondria.
Energy in the Cell
What is the main function of mitochondria?
What is the end product (chemically)?
Where in mitochondria does this take place?
LO3: Given a particular reaction or pathway, be able to determine whether it anabolic or catabolic in nature.
LO4: Know the 4 main stages of metabolism and be able to describe them.
Stage 1: digestion
enzymatic breakdown & transport of macronutrients
Stage 2: acetyl co-A production
products of digestion converted to two-carbon molecules
Stage 3: citric acid cycle
series of oxidation rxn’s; energy released via reduced coenzymes
Stage 4: ATP production
coenzymes transfer electrons to ETC; energy is captured as ATP
LO5: Understand the process of converting ATP to ADP and vise versa.
ATP Energy Transporter
Assign energy storage or energy release to each reaction.
What is happening to the ATP in each reaction?
LO6: Have an understanding of how reactions couple together so that unfavorable reactions will take place.
Is the overall energy change exergonic or endergonic?
How does this strategy aid metabolic pathways?
LO7: Have and understanding of how the coenzymes on page 637 are used.
LO8: Have a basic understanding of what the citric acid cycle is for.
Oxidized and Reduced Coenzymes
What is their main role?
LO9: Given a reaction that occurs in the citric acid cycle, be able to recognize what is happening chemically within that step. (You don’t need to memorize names of molecules or enzymes).
What is occurring in these steps of the TCA cycle?
-OH group moved
Isomerization Rxn (enzyme: isomerase)
Coenzyme oxidizes reactant
Reduced coenzyme formed
Oxidation reaction (enzyme: oxidoreductase)
LO10: Know the overall products of the citric acid cycle.
List the overall products of one turn of the Kreb’s Cycle.
LO11: Have a basic understanding of how the electron transport chain works. (You do not need to memorize the names of the enzymes used, but if you were given a blank diagram, be able to show what is happening, along with an explanation).
Electron Transport Chain
LO12: Have a basic understanding of free radicals within the body and antioxidants.
LO1: Given the structure of a carbohydrate, be able to determine whether it is a monosaccharide or disaccharide, ketose or aldose, pentose or hexose.
LO2: Given the structure of a carbohydrate, be able to determine which carbons, if any, are chiral.
LO3: Given the structure of a carbohydrate, be able to determine whether the sugar is a D- or and L- sugar.
Classify the sugars as D- or L- enantiomers, as ketose or aldose, and list how many chiral carbons are in each. Label the hexose and pentose.
1 chiral carbon
2 chiral carbons
3 chiral carbons
LO4: Given the straight chain structure of a monosaccharide, be able to draw it in its cyclic form. You do not need to memorize specific structures of the sugars.
Convert D-glucose into the α anomer of its cyclic form.
LO5: Know the properties of the 5 sugars mentioned in section 21.5 and have an understanding of where the sugars come from and/or where the sugar would be used.
Complete the tables:
-OH Group @ C2
Converted to glucose
LO6: Have an understanding of how the oxidation of sugars happens.
What functional group on carbohydrates can become oxidized?
Aldehyde ( carboxylic acid)
Can all carbohydrates become oxidized?
No; aldoses only
LO7: Have an understanding of how disaccharides are formed.
LO8: Have an understanding of how phosphate esters are formed.
Phosphoryltion via ATP ADP
LO9: Know the properties of the 3 sugars mentioned in section 21.7 and have an understanding of where the sugars come from and/or where the sugar would be used.
Complete the table:
Glucose + glucose
Glucose + galactose
Glucose + fructose
LO10: Have a basic understanding of molecules that are similar to carbohydrates in structure, but have atoms other than C, H, and O. Be able to give such examples.
List some examples of molecules similar to carbohydrates, but which contain atoms other than C, H, O.
LO11: Have a basic understanding of the structures and functions of cellulose, starch, and glycogen.
Amylose & amylopectin
LO1: Have an understanding of how carbohydrates are digested and what happens at each step along the way. Just a reminder, you don’t need to know the names of specific enzymes, but you should have a basic understanding of what is happening where.
Summarize the process of CHO digestion. Include the molecules/compounds involved at each step.
enzymes breakdown CHO’s into poly- & disaccharides
HCl; still poly- & disaccharides
enzymes breakdown CHO’s into monosaccharides; absorption
LO2: Given figure 22.2, be able to identify the pathways that the body uses to metabolize glucose.
LO3: Given a particular step within glycolysis, be able to describe what is happening.
Describe what is happening during this step of glycolysis.
Answer: phosphorylation (removal of phosphate from ATP).
LO4: Have an understanding of what products we get from glycolysis.
What are the products of glycolysis when one glucose molecule enters?
2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH
2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NAD+
2 pyruvate + 36-38 ATP + 2 NADH
2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 FADH2
None of the above
LO5: Know what the 3 fates of pyruvate are, and where they take place.
Complete the diagram, identifying the three possible fates of pyruvate.
LO6: Have an understanding of the path of the metabolism of glucose.
LO7: Know the complete energy output of the catabolism of one glucose molecule.
What is the overall energy yield from 1 glucose molecule? Indicate how much comes from glycolysis, the Citric Acid Cycle, and the ETC.
Answer: 38 ATP
Glycolysis = 2 ATP
Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP
ETC = 34 ATP
LO8: Have an understanding of how our metabolism works when we are in fasting and starvation mode.
Describe how the body adapts metabolically to fasting (<1 day), short-term starvation (~3 days), and long-term starvation (>1 week).
Fasting – glycogen stores are used to release glucose; glycogenolysis.
Short-term starvation – fat stores are used primarily; gluconeogenesis.
Long-term starvation – protein stores are used primarily; gluconeogenesis & ketosis.
LO9: Have an understanding of the terms hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
LO10: Have an understanding of the two types of diabetes.
LO11: Have an understanding of what glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis are, and when the body would go into each process.
Hyperglycemia: high blood sugar
Hypoglycemia: low blood sugar
T1D: autoimmune, destroys pancreas
T2D: insulin resistance d/t lifestyle
Glycogenesis: formation of glycogen; when too much energy
Glycogenolysis: breakdown of glycogen; when in need of energy
Gluconeogenesis: formation of new glucose from PRO/FAT; when in need of energy
LO1: Know the 7 different classifications of lipids and what their main functions are.
Type of Lipid
Ester f(x) group
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
Glycerol + phosphate + 2 fatty acids
Sphingosine + phosphate + 1 fatty acid
Cell insulation (nerve cells!)
Sphingosine + sugar + 1 fatty acid
4 fuzed rings
Membrane fluidity; cholesterol precursor
20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid
Inflammation; local signaling
LO2: Given the structure of a lipid, be able to classify that lipid.
LO3: Be able to recognize the structural differences of an unsaturated and saturated fatty acid.
LO4: Understand the physical properties of unsaturated vs. saturated fatty acids.
LO5: Have an understanding of the polar/nonpolar nature of fatty acids and how that plays a role in biological function.
Are fatty acids polar or nonpolar? both
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
Saturated = no double bonds
Unsaturated = double bonds
How does the melting point of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids compare?
Saturated = Higher
Unsaturated = lower
LO1:Understand the three main functions of sterols.
List the 3 main functions of sterols:
Structural support (membrane)
LO2: Know the subdivisions of the sterol hormones.
Which of the following are derived from sterol lipids?
LO3: Have a basic understanding of a lipid bilayer.
LO4: Understand the different types of transport across the cell membrane.
List at least three characteristics of the two types of transport.
Low high concentration
High low concentration
LO5: Know the two types of eicosanoids and their main function.
LO6: Be able to differentiate between the structures of the two types of eicosanoids.
LO7: Know the basic steps of lipid digestion, which would include where enzymes are used, and what form the lipid is in.
Describe what will happen to a triglyceride in each of these organs during digestion. What form will the triglyceride be in at each point?
Stomach N/A; triglyceride
Duodenum hydrolysis & emulsification; diglycerides,monoglycerides, & free fatty acids
Small intestine absorption; free fatty acids
LO8: Know what the various forms of lipid transport there are, and where they come from.
List the 4 lipoproteins in order of increasing density.
Chylomicrons < VLDL < LDL < HDL
LO9: Have an understanding of the different fates of dietary triglycerides.
LO10: Have an understanding of when the body would make triglycerides.
List the 3 possible fates of a triglyceride:
Acetyl Co-A TCA cycle Electron transport chain
Under what conditions will the body synthesize triglycerides?
Excess acetyl Co-A (energy) available
LO11: Have a basic understanding about beta oxidation.
LO12: Have an understanding of how much energy a given fatty acid would produce from fatty acid oxidation.
How much energy will this fatty acid produce?
I have no idea!
LO13: Have a basic understanding of when the body would produce ketone bodies.
LO14: Have an understanding of when the body would use lipogenesis.
When will these processes occur?
Ketogenesis: excess acetyl Co-A molecules during starvation
Lipogenesis: excess acetyl Co-A molecules, not during starvation
LO15: Have an understanding of what DNA, chromosomes, and genes are, and what they do.
LO16: Know and be able to recognize the different parts of nucleic acids.
LO17: Know how nucleic acids are linked together.
What are nucleic acids composed of?
Long chain of nucleotides
What are nucleotides composed of?
Sugar + base + phosphate
What are nucleosides composed of?
Sugar + base
Nucleoside + phosphate
Label the type of bonds indicated:
Phosphate diester bond
LO1: Know which base pairs are paired together.
Which is a correct pairing of nitrogenous bases in DNA?
LO2: Have a basic understanding of replication, transcription, and translation.
LO3: Know the 3 types of RNA and what their functions are.
List & summarize the steps of converting DNA to protein. Include all types of RNA involved.
Replication – copy DNA
Transcription – transcribe DNA to RNA; rRNA, mRNA, & tRNA are formed
Translation – translate RNA to protein; tRNA brings correct amino acids according to mRNA codons
LO4: Given a sequence of codons, be able to predict the amino acid related to each codon, using table 25.4.
What will this mRNA code for? 5' GUU CAA ACU AAC GUC 3'
Gln Thr Asn Val Val
Val Val Thr Asn Val
Val Gln Thr Asn Val
Thr Asn Val Gln Asn
A couple of things…
All sessions slides can be found on the Facebook page.
Message me if you have any questions.
Good luck and Merry Christmas!
End of semester evaluation
http://si-fall2015.questionpro.com free fatty acids