What email address or phone number would you like to use to sign in to Docs.com?
If you already have an account that you use with Office or other Microsoft services, enter it here.
Or sign in with:
Signing in allows you to download and like content, and it provides the authors analytical data about your interactions with their content.
Embed code for: Recognition Response and Admin of Naloxone Long Version Slidedeck V8
Select a size
Oklahoma First Responder Naloxone Initiative
Oklahoma State Department of Health
Injury Prevention Service
Office of Scientific and Research Integrity
Oklahoma Department of Mental Health & Substance Abuse Services
Obtain baseline understanding of the prescription drug overdose problem
Understand how opioids work
Identify an opioid overdose
Learn how to respond to an opioid overdose
Learn how to administer Narcan (naloxone), an opioid antidote
Become familiar with OK statute §63-1-2506
Scope of the Problem
Age-adjusted Unintentional Poisoning and Motor Vehicle Crash Death Rates, Oklahoma, 1999-2012
Source: CDC WISQARS
PREVENTION & EDUCATION
A multi-faceted approach to overdose prevention is required.
A comprehensive array of efforts are underway in Oklahoma, including:
MONITORING & DIVERSION CONTROL
INTERVENTION & TREATMENT
Effective November 2013, Oklahoma Statute §63-1-2506.1
Administration of opiate antagonists allows:
First responders shall have the authority to administer, without prescription, opiate antagonists when encountering an individual exhibiting signs of an opiate overdose.
Most users attempt to achieve abstinence from drugs, but on average this process takes 9 years and 4 episodes of care.
Naloxone is a drug used to reverse the effects of opioids.
Naloxone is safe and effective.
Naloxone has no effect on non-opioid overdoses.
Widespread support for naloxone programs:
The White House, Office of National Drug Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Federal Drug Administration
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Equip Health Care Providers and First Responders
to Recognize and Manage Overdoses
In the United States6:
Over 180 community-based naloxone programs
Over 50,000 people trained
Over 10,000 overdose reversals (lives saved)
Opioids are used primarily in medicine for pain relief, treatment of opioid use disorders, and cough relief.
All categories have overdose risk
How do opioids affect breathing?
Opioid Receptors, brain
Narcan knocks the opioid off the opioid receptor
Only blocks opioid receptors; no opioids = no effect
Not harmful if no opioids in system
Temporarily takes away the “high,” giving the person the chance to breathe
Narcan works in 1 to 3 minutes and lasts 30 to 90 minutes
Narcan can neither be abused nor cause overdose
Only known contraindication is sensitivity, which is very rare
Narcan can cause withdrawal symptoms such as:
How does Narcan affect overdose?
Nodding, but arousable (responds to sternal rub)
Not arousable (no response to sternal rub)
Speech is slurred
Very infrequent or no breathing
Sleepy, intoxicated, but breathing
8 or more times per minute
Breathing slow or stopped
Less than 8 times per minute
May hear choking sounds or gurgling/snoring noises
Blue lips, blue fingertips
Stimulate and observe
Rescue breathe + give naloxone
CPR – Rescue breathing/ventilations
Repeat 3 & 4, if necessary
Recovery position, if breathing
Respond to Opioid
Prior to administration of naloxone, review ABCs
Assess for other causes of altered mental status and/or respiratory depression
The half-life of naloxone is relatively brief
Monitored closely for recurrent symptoms
Altered mental status, respiratory depression, etc.
The medical director should include parameters within the protocols for EMRs and EMTs on how to address these adverse effects
Risk Factors with Opioid Overdose
Incidence of risk factors increases with use of other substance
Alcohol, benzodiazepines, or other medications
Waking The Dragon
Stimulate victim with a sternal rub
If no response, delirious, or altered consciousness, call for EMS support
If no response from stimulation,give naloxone
Two (2) individual pre-filled syringes of naloxone
One (1) mucosal atomizer
(nose pieces/spray device)
Prefilled ampule of naloxone
Mucosal Atomization Device (MAD)
1. Remove yellow caps from delivery device
How to Give Nasal Spray Narcan
2. Remove purple cap from medication vial
3. Thread atomizer on to the top of the delivery device
4. Gently screw the medication vial into the delivery device until you feel it catch.
5. Spray half (1 ml) up one nostril and half up the other nostril.
Give rescue breaths, if you have proper safety equipment and training
Place 1 hand on the chin and tilt head back to open airway
Make sure the airway is clear and remove anything in their mouth
Pinch the nose closed
Give 2 slow rescue breaths into the mouth
Use a rescue breathing mask if available
Use a bag valve mask if you are trained
Make sure the chest (not the stomach) is rising with the breaths
Give 1 breath every 5 seconds until the person can breathe on their own
If no pulse, start CPR
Repeat 3 & 4
5. After 3-5 minutes, if the victim is still unresponsive with slow or no breathing, administer another dose of naloxone and continue rescue breathing.
6. Recovery position, when breathing is restored
Respond: Recovery Position
Respond to Opioid Overdose: Naloxone Administration
Intranasal delivery route has advantages:
Uncomplicated and convenient
Nose is an easy access point for medication delivery
It is painless
No shots needed
It eliminates any risk of a needle stick
Initial supply = 2 units for each posted ambulance
Use it/Lose it = request re-supply
Store naloxone at room temperature (59-86 degrees F) and per additional manufacturer guidelines
Naloxone Deployment & Supply:
Key Points for Administration of Intranasal Naloxone or a Naloxone Auto-Injector
Medical director approval is mandatory
Training is mandatory
A protocol from the medical director is mandatory
Medical director retains authority to limit or prohibit administration of intranasal or auto-injector naloxone
Administration of naloxone by the endotracheal, intramuscular (exception via an auto-injector), or intravenous routes remains prohibited for EMRs and EMTs
Okla. Stat. tit. 63, § 1-2506.1 Administration of opiate antagonists effective November 1, 2013.
A. First responders shall have the authority to administer, without prescription, opiate antagonists when encountering an individual exhibiting signs of an opiate overdose. For the purposes of this provision, a first responder shall include:
1. Law enforcement officials;
2. Emergency medical technicians;
3. Firefighters; and
4. Medical personnel at secondary schools and institutions of higher education.
B. Any first responder administering an opiate antagonist in a manner consistent with addressing opiate overdose shall be covered under the Good Samaritan Act.
Legal Considerations: Oklahoma Naloxone Law
Okla. Stat. tit. 63, § 1-2506.2 Prescription of opiate antagonists to family members
A. Upon request, a provider may prescribe an opiate antagonist to an individual for use by that individual when encountering a family member exhibiting signs of an opiate overdose.
B. When an opiate antagonist is prescribed in accordance with subsection A of this section, the provider shall provide:
1. Information on how to spot symptoms of an overdose;
2. Instruction in basic resuscitation techniques;
3. Instruction on proper naloxone administration; and
4. The importance of calling 911 for help.
C. Any family member administering an opiate antagonist in a manner consistent with addressing opiate overdose shall be covered under the Good Samaritan Act.
Memorandum of Agreement
MOA must be signed by agency
Required for access to free intranasal naloxone kits from OSDH
Naloxone Training Form
Used every time you train others
Pre/post training evaluation used to report knowledge and perception of project
Naloxone Administration Reporting Form
Used to report overdose events
Used to obtain refills of naloxone
Check boxes used to describe overdose events
No identifying information on victim is reported
Needs to be completed right away
Obtain baseline understanding of the opioid overdose problem
For medical questions:
To order naloxone kits:
“Naloxone Administration for Opioid Overdose”
“Oklahoma Naloxone Initiative”
“Opioid Medication Safety: The Role of Naloxone”
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) [online]. (2012) Available from URL: http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortsql.html. Massachusetts Department of Public Health
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple Cause of Death 1999-2010 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released 2012. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2010, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. http://wonder.cdc.gov/mcd-icd10.html (accessed July 2013).
3. Oklahoma State Department of Health, Injury Prevention Service. Unintentional Poisoning Fatality Surveillance System (abstracted from medical examiner reports).
4. U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control, Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System (ARCOS) Reports, Retail Drug Summary Reports by State, Cumulative Distribution Reports (Report 4).
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple Cause of Death, 2010 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released 2012.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community-Based Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs Providing Naloxone — United States, 2010, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. February 17, 2012 / 61(06);101-105
We acknowledge the DuPage County Department of Public Health and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health for permitting use of training content.
You respond to a known drug abuser who is found unconscious with a hypodermic needle inserted into her arm. Her pupils are pinpoint and she does not respond to painful stimuli. Upon assessment of vital signs, her blood pressure is 110/70, pulse is 60, respiratory rate is 2, and she has a pulse oximeter reading of 84%.
What is the first action you should take?
This patient is apneic as evidenced by her respiratory rate of 2. The appropriate initial action to take is to open and maintain the airway and administer oxygen via bag valve mask.
Therapeutic interventions to support the patient’s airway, breathing, and circulation should be initiated prior to the administration of naloxone.
So, where does Oklahoma stand in comparison to the US?
Explain graph and reiterate the fact that these are unintentional poisonings, as opposed to intentional or undetermined (e.g.; individual meant to take the drugs, but did not intend to kill themselves)
From 1999 – 2010 UP deaths increased fivefold
Both trend up – back in 1999 OK was actually lower, but we are higher every year after
Oklahoma rates are much higher—almost twice as high as the U.S.
To put into perspective - back in 1999, had 127 deaths and in 2012 had 707
More than 550 extra people dying each year from UP
Close to 2 deaths per day
UP surpassed motor vehicle crashes (MVC) in 2009, dropped slightly lower from 2010-2011, and surpassed MVC again in 2012
2012; UP- 707, MVC - 695
Four out of five of unintentional poisoning deaths involved at least one prescription drug. Of those deaths, nearly 90% were related to prescription painkillers.3
Oklahoma ranks in the top five for per capita distribution of many common opioids, such as: hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin), morphine, fentanyl, and meperidine (Demerol).4
More overdose deaths involved hydrocodone or oxycodone than all illegal drugs and alcohol combined.3
Adults aged 35-54 had the highest death rate of any age group for both prescription and non-prescription-related overdoses.3
31 percent of opioid-analgesic poisoning deaths were multi-drug combinations
State and community action items
11-minute video - Opioid Medication Safety: The Role of Naloxone
An overdose occurs when too much of an opioid, like heroin or Oxycontin, fits in too many receptors slowing and then stopping the breathing
Prior to the administration of naloxone by all EMS providers, all patients should initially receive the appropriate medical interventions to provide support of their airway, breathing, and circulation (ABCs)
Many life-threatening conditions other than opiate overdose can cause altered mental status and include trauma, stroke, sepsis, shock, dehydration, metabolic (chemical) imbalances, and low blood sugar. Each of these time-sensitive conditions require immediate intervention by licensed medical personnel and can be overlooked in patients with drug overdose if both conditions occur at the same time. Delayed appropriate medical diagnosis and intervention can result in permanent disability and even death.
All patients should be assessed for other causes of altered mental status and/or respiratory depression (hypoxia, hypoglycemia, head injury, shock, stroke)
The adverse effects following naloxone administration, particularly in chronic opioid users and abusers, may place the patient and bystanders at risk
Acute withdrawal can precipitate confusion and agitation, especially in patients that have combined the use of opioids with other substances. This could lead to violent confrontations with anyone that administers naloxone, including law enforcement.
Opioid addiction is associated with a multitude of associated medical and psychological problems including acute and chronic diseases, life-threatening infections, the risk for infectious disease, and severe and refractory pain that deserve proper evaluation and ongoing management by specially trained medical professionals.
The half-life of naloxone is relatively brief (as short as 30 minutes)
All patients who receive naloxone must be monitored closely for recurrent symptoms, including altered mental status, respiratory depression, and circulatory compromise
The incidence of risk factors increases when other substances such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, or other medications have also been taken by the patient
Check the body for any fentanyl patches, and ensure that none are in the mouth
There may be multiple patches
6-minute training video
Remind to be gentle when screwing in the medication vial.
As the person responds to either rescue breathing and/or nasal naloxone then place them in the recovery position.
This will help to keep their airway clear and prevent them from choking if they vomit.
Additionally, anytime you as the responder must leave the victim unattended you should always place the individual in the recovery position.
The medical director retains the authority to limit or prohibit the administration of intranasal naloxone or a naloxone auto-injector
The administration of naloxone by the endotracheal, intramuscular (exception via an auto-injector), or intravenous routes remains prohibited for EMRs and EMTs
3-minute naloxone training video
Number of Individuals Who Received Naloxone During More Than One (1) Event
No. of Events
No. of Individuals with Multiple Events
No. Who Died From Opioid Toxicity
Only those events that had valid identifiers (a valid date of birth and a first and last name) were considered.
There were 12,067 (92.36%) events that had valid identifiers.prescription and non-prescription-related overdoses.3
All patients who receive naloxon