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HRM782 N1A Week #6 October 20, 2016
Recruitment: The First Step in
the Selection Process
The Big Question #1
What role do accurate expectations play in establishing and developing a fit between a person and an organization?
© 2013 by Nelson Education
The Big Question #2
What are the elements of a Recruitment and Staffing Action Plan?
The Big Question #3
What shifts in recruitment and selection policies and practices have been brought about by social media and related technology?
What more can we expect?
The Big Question #4
Why is it important to evaluate/audit regularly recruitment and selection strategies and practices?
What are the best approaches to evaluation?
Attracting Job Applicants
Recruitment: the generation of an applicant pool for a position or job in order to provide the required number of qualified candidates for a subsequent selection or promotion process
Applicant pool: the set of potential candidates who may be interested in, and who are likely to apply for, a specific job
Figure 6.1: Recruitment as Part of the HR Planning Process
Copyright © 2016 by Nelson Education Ltd.
The Organizational Context
Interests and values: an individual’s likes and dislikes and the importance or priorities attached to those likes and dislikes
Job search: the strategies, techniques, and practices an individual uses in looking for a job
Corporate Image and Applicant Attraction
Reputation of an organization is an important concern to job applicants
Corporate image predicts the likelihood of interest on the part of a job seeker
Familiarity with the company
Competitive compensation package
Image advertising: advertising designed to raise an organization’s profile in a positive manner in order to attract job seekers’ interest
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.2 text p. 262
Guidelines for Effective Recruiting
Ensure that candidates receive consistent and non-contradictory information about important features of the job and its environment
Recognize that the behaviour of recruiters and other representatives gives an impression of the organization’s climate, efficiency, and attitude toward employees
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.2 (cont)
Ensure that all recruiting information and materials given to job applicants present accurate and consistent information
Present important information on the job and the organization to job candidates by several different, reliable, and credible sources
Give serious consideration not only to the content of information presented to candidates but also to the context in which it is presented
The Person-Organization Fit
Person-job fit: when a job candidate has the knowledge, skills, abilities, or other attributes and competencies required by the job in question
Person-organization fit: when a job candidate fits the organization’s values and culture and has the contextual attributes desired by the organization
Realistic Job Preview
Realistic job preview: a procedure designed to reduce turnover and increase satisfaction among newcomers to an organization by providing job candidates with accurate information about the job and the organization
External Factors: The Labour Market
Labour markets and recruiting – organizations must be prepared to alter strategy to suit market/demographic conditions
Part-time labour markets and recruiting – use of outsourced temporary workers
Outsourcing: contracting with a qualified outside agent to take over specified HR functions
The Legal Environment: any organizational recruitment program must comply with the legal and regulatory requirements that apply to its operation
Systemic Discrimination: in employment, the intentional or unintentional exclusion of members of groups that are protected under human rights legislation through recruiting, selection, or other personnel practices or policies
Diversity Recruitment: many organizations are dealing with employment equity issues to eliminate discrimination in the workplace for women, visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and people with disabilities. Diversity makes good business sense
Business Plan: an organization’s business plan addresses those aspects of the external environment that affect how the organization does business. An organization’s business plan also influences the degree to which the organization fills vacancies with internal or external applicants. It is common to bring someone in from the outside to fill an entry level position
Job Level and Type: both the type of occupation and the nature of the industry in which it is involved may influence an organization’s recruiting strategy
Recruiting Strategy and Organizational Goals: different organizational goals lead to different recruitment strategies. One must decide whether to concentrate recruiting efforts on internal/external candidates
Describing the Job: duties and responsibilities and skills required for the job
Human Resources Planning
Human resources planning: the process of anticipating and providing for the movement of employees into, within, and out of an organization
Recruitment Action Plan text pp. 234-235
Based on our business plan, how many positions will we need to staff?
Based on the job analysis, what is the nature of the position that must be filled?
Based on the job analysis, what qualifications must job candidates possess?
Recruitment Action Plan (cont)
Based on organization analysis, what percentage of the positions can, or should, be staffed with internal candidates?
Based on the labour market, is there an available supply of qualified external candidates?
Based on the labour market, how extensively will we have to search for qualified applicants?
Recruitment Action Plan (cont)
Based on legal considerations, what are our goals with respect to employment equity?
Based on the business plan, organization analysis, and job analysis, what information and materials will we present to job candidates?
Timing of recruitment initiatives: employee attrition, expansion or contraction of business (may hire even during downsizing to streamline workforce)
Locating and targeting the applicant pool: by geography, location of training, recent shut down of competitor
Recruitment and Staffing Plan (Notebook 6.1 text p. 236)
NB - Elements of a Recruitment and Staffing Action Plan
Develop a recruitment strategy
Develop the applicant pool
Screen the applicant pool
Conduct a review of job applicants
Evaluate the recruiting effort
Recruitment Sources for Internal Candidates
Internal Job Postings: known quantity, realistic expectations
Replacement Charts: succession plans and attrition
Human Resources Information Systems: database of job analysis/description
Nominations: nepotism and other favours
Recruitment Sources for External Candidates
Professional Periodicals and Trade Journals
Special Events and Trade Shows
Radio and Television
Recruitment Sources for External Candidates (cont)
Special Recruiting Events
Employee Referral Networking
Service Canada Centres (Employment and Social Development Canada/ESDC)
Executive Search Firms
Temporary Help Agencies
Recruiting at Educational Institutions
Seeking entry-level technical, professional and managerial employees
Placement services provided in the educational institutions
Well-established campus recruiting programs
E-Recruiting: The Use of the Internet and Social Networks
Internet recruiting: the use of the Internet to match candidates to jobs through electronic databases that store information on jobs and job candidates
Social Network Recruiting
Social networks: Internet sites that allow users to post a profile with a certain amount of information that is visible to the public
LinkedIN, Facebook, Instagram, Blogs, Sponsored Professional Sites
E-Recruiting at NAV Canada
Uncomplicated ad creation and turnaround
Brand building through greater reach
Outreach recruiting for diversity
Higher quality candidates through outreach and built-in screening
Metrics from Google analytics give key insights from site tracking
Increased recruiter efficiencies
Does not reach remote areas
Too many unqualified applicants
Evaluating the Recruitment Effort (Notebook 6.7 p. 270)
Within 6 months
Within 12 months
Within 24 months
Recruitment and Selection Today 6.7 (cont)
Satisfaction with supervisor
Commitment to organization
Perceived accuracy of job descriptions
Ryan and Tippens Audit of Recruitment Practices – Notebook 6.8, p. 271
Based on 19 questions, including:
Have we determined which applicant groups to target?
Are efforts being made to recruit a diverse applicant pool?
Are we considering all aspects of job performance in choosing tools?
Are we proving applicants with specific information?
Do we solicit feedback from applicants about the process?
Are applicants treated with respect?
Is the selection process consistently administered?
Is feedback provided to applicants in a timely manner?
Recruitment is the first step in hiring or staffing process
Recruitment needs to attract qualified job applicants and must take into account the strategies that job seekers use
HR planners must consider both the internal and external constraints
HR professionals must know the effectiveness of different recruitment methods and build them into their recruitment strategy plans in order to evaluate the recruiting outcomes
Obtain appropriate methods for contacting the target applicant pool
Recruitment strategies must contain an action plan
Recruitment campaigns are based on the principle of improving the fit
Figure 6.1 (p. 228) presents a simplified view of the HRM system, which serves as the framework for the discussion of recruitment issues. In this model, recruitment is an outcome of HR planning.
Individuals become job applicants after forming an opinion on the desirability of working in a particular job within a specific organization. Organizational characteristics such as location, size of the enterprise, and type of industry may steer individuals away from applying for jobs no matter how attractive the job or how qualified they are to do it.
Jobs providing autonomy, decision-making authority, and opportunities for self-development win out over those that lack these attributes
Organizations that offer special accommodations and flexible work arrangements gain competitive advantages in recruiting.
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.1 (p. 217) provides a few guidelines for organizational recruiting.
An applicant’s resume plays an important role in determining whether the applicant will proceed to the next stage of the hiring process. Organizational recruiters use the content of job applicants’ resumes to make inferences about the suitability of applicants.
Both the perception of person-job fit and of person-organization fit predict whether the company will make a job offer.
Labour markets and recruiting: the overall nature of the economy may influence an organization’s decision to hire nor not to hire, but once a decision to hire is made, the nature of the labour market determines how extensively the organization will have to search to fill the job with a qualified candidate.
When qualified labour is scarce, the organization must broaden its recruiting beyond its normal target population.
Organizations must be prepared to alter their recruiting strategy to match labour market conditions.
Part-time labour markets and recruiting: more companies are employing low-wage, entry-level workers on a part-time basis. Temporary or contingent jobs have shown tremendous growth over the last decade. Temporary work is serving as a training ground for more permanent positions.
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.3 (p. 230) eliminates any discrepancy between the supply of and demand for human resources.
Timing of recruitment initiatives: recruiting occurs in response to need; an employee leaves for one reason or another and, if the position is retained, must be replaced either through internal or external hiring.
Pattern occurs in large organizations which recruit from college/university graduates.
The timing of the recruiting process can extend over a considerable period of time.
Locating and targeting the applicant pool: target recruiting efforts on a specific pool of job applicants who have the appropriate knowledge, skills, abilities, and competencies in order to perform the job. This applicant pool may be concentrated in one geographic area or spread throughout the country.
Recruitment and Selection Notebook 6.4 (p. 232) illustrates that in order to remain competitive, the organization must synchronize its recruiting to when the best candidates are likely to be available. This means that the HR team must have a good working knowledge of the labour market and an effective recruitment and staffing plan.
Internal job postings: internal candidates provide the organization with a known source of labour. Internal applicants are likely to have more realistic expectations about the job or organization and to have more job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Replacement charts: organizations expect that vacancies will occur through death, illness, retirement, resignation, or termination and, as part of the HR planning function, develop a succession plan for filling vacancies with existing employees. Replacement charts list each job with respect to its position in the organizational structure. The replacement chart lists the incumbent for the position and the likely internal replacements for the incumbent. The chart includes information on the present job performance of each potential successor.
Human resources information systems: involves the creation of a comprehensive computerized database that contains the job analysis information on each position, including information on the required KSAOs.
Nominations: occur when someone who knows about a vacancy nominates another employee to fill it. In most cases, supervisors nominate one or more of their employees for a vacant position.
Advantages of Internet recruiting: company can reach a potentially limitless talent pool at minimal cost and beyond its normal geographical location; the company can provide more information about the position to job seekers than does a typical print ad; companies can provide up-to-date information on their corporate image; new jobs can be posted as the need arises; it speeds up the recruiting process; and it provides more opportunities for smaller firms.
Disadvantages to Internet recruiting: large volume of applications/resumes; time consuming to screening; not all companies want applicants to complete a standardized online resume.
Table 6.1 (p. 254) summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of different recruitment methods. Internal recruitment has the advantage of dealing with known quantities. Furthermore, internal job applicants already have realistic expectations of life in the organization.
Recruitment and Selection Today 6.5 (p. 252) illustrates that there are many different criterion measures that can be used to evaluate recruiting efforts. These criteria can be groups into three broad categories: behavioural measures, performance measures, and attitudinal measures.
qualified labour is scarce, the organization must broaden its recruiting beyond its normal target population.
Human resources information systems: involves the creation of a comprehensive computerized database that contains the job a