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Univ of Alaska OER talk.
Increasing College Affordability @ UAA
Open Educational Resources
Dr. Cable Green Director of Global Learning email@example.com twitter: @cgreen
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under:
Textbook Pricing in Context
One Month Access to…
Netflix – 10k Movies / TV Episodes
$7.99 / month
Spotify – 15M Songs
$9.99 / month
CourseSmart – 1 Biology Textbook
$19.67 / month
Cost of Community College
Books & Supplies
Tuition and Fees
Source: College Board, Trends in Higher Education Report, 2011
Incredible Financial Pressure
Source: Student PIRGs: http://www.studentpirgs.org/sites/student/files/reports/A-Cover-To-Cover-Solution_4.pdf
Physics: Principles With Applications, 7th Edition by Douglas C. Giancoli
5 major publishers hold nearly 90% of the market
Source: Turning the Page by James Koch
Nicole Allen, SPARC: CC BY
of students decided against buying a required textbook because of cost
US PIRG Report, 2014 http://www.uspirg.org/reports/usp/fixing-broken-textbook-market
of students said that cost of textbooks impacted how many and which classes they took
of students felt they would do significantly better in a course if textbook was available for free
How are 2/3 of students supposed to learn with materials they can’t afford and are not buying?
High textbook costs
Decrease student access
Increase student drop rates
Decrease student success and learning
Cost of “Copy”
For one 250 page textbook:
Copy by hand - $1,000
Copy by print on demand - $4.90
Copy by computer - $0.00084
Cost of “Distribute”
Distribute by mail - $5.20
$0 with print-on-demand (2000+ copies)
Distribute by internet - $0.00072
Copying a book
$1000s per copy
$1s per copy
$0.0001s per copy
Distributing a book
Copy and Distribute (and storage) are “Free”
This changes everything…
Any kind of teaching materials – textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, videos, readings, exams
(1) Free and unfettered access, and
(2) Free copyright permissions to engage in the 5R activities
open ≈ free
free is assumed online
open > free
open = free + permissions
retain is fundamental
retain is prerequisite to revise and remix
1. Free and unfettered access
2. Perpetual, irrevocable 5R permissions
1. Free (possibly gated) access
2. All rights reserved (or stronger)
Cost to Students
Permissions to Faculty and Students
Open copyright licenses
Founded in 2001
Step 1: Choose Conditions
Step 2: Receive a License
Washington Community Colleges
English Composition I
62,000+ enrollments / year
x $128 textbook
≈ $8 Million every year
$32M saved in 2 years
+ $25M in 2015-2016
The Open Textbook Initiative
University of Minnesota
Received funding to provide faculty development on your campus:
The impacts of high textbook costs
Open textbooks as a solution
Stipends for faculty reviews of open textbooks
For more information:
When elective and required courses adopt OER so a student can graduate without ever buying a textbook
Decreased cost to graduate by 25%
Increased pedagogical flexibility
Improved course completion rates
REMOVING TEXTBOOK COSTS AS A BARRIER TO STUDENT SUCCESS THROUGH AN OER-BASED CURRICULUM
When a student drops, it..
Slows down their graduation
Costs the institution tuition dollars
New State OER position @ OR HECC + $550,000-ish for:
(1) Help identify available open educational resources;
(2) Assist public university and community college personnel in methods of:
(a) Properly attributing, combining, revising and redistributing open educational resources;
(b) Creating openly licensed content and sharing one’s work; and
(3) Assist faculty members at public universities and community colleges as they seek
to use open educational resources in their courses.
Smooth faculty transition to open content
Cut total spend on textbooks by 90%
Student access to materials from day 1
in student success
of all new content
Data-driven course updates
OER Potential in U.S. Higher Education: Save Students: Billions / year
Open textbook saves $128 per course / student
11 Peer Reviewed Studies:
OER Outcomes vs. Traditional Textbooks
93% Same or Better Outcomes
9 Peer Reviewed Studies of Perceptions of OER Quality
4,510 Professors and Students
What if textbooks were free at UAA?
Increase: enrollment, retention, completion
Reduce: student debt
Reduce: time to degree
Increase: student success
OER studies show:
student success up
increased tuition because fewer drop-outs
textbook costs down
Need more students?
Advertise no textbook costs for a degree program.
“what does open allow me to do?”
Students hate doing them
You hate grading them
Huge waste of time and energy
Students see value in doing them
You see value in grading them
The world is a better place at the end
Does it make any sense WA State and K-12 Districts together spend $130M/year
on textbooks and the results are:
Books are (on average) 7-10 years out of date
Paper only / no digital versions.
Students can’t write / highlight in books
Students can ’t keep books at end of year
All rights reserved… teachers can’t update
Parents often pay for lost paper books…
Publicly funded resources should be
openly licensed resources.
White House issues directive supporting
public access to publicly funded research
Current research funding cycle does not maximize dissemination, economic efficiency, social impact
Articles submitted to journals and peer review occurs
Government RFPs announced, research grants awarded
Scientific research conducted and papers written
Acceptance in journals; authors transfer copyright to publishers
Articles published in mainly closed access journals
Libraries subscribe or public pays per article fee to view on publisher's website
Public granted little or no reuse rights beyond access to read articles
Slow scientific progress, poor return on public investment
Optimized research funding cycle maximizes
public access, economic efficiency, social impact
Government RFPs announced, open license requirements included, research grants awarded
Acceptance in journals; public access policy ensures deposit in open repository
Public granted full reuse rights under open licenses
Articles published in traditional journals under embargo
Accelerated scientific progress, optimal return on public investment
Public can download articles from open access repository
$2 billion: new academic programs @ 700+ Community Colleges
Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) required
California Community Colleges require Creative Commons Attribution for all Chancellor’s Office Grants & Contracts
Faculty: My asks of you:
(1) Before you order your textbook(s)
for next semester… please look
at Open Textbooks (e.g., OpenStax)
and other OER.
(2) What OER can you reuse, revise,
remix from others?
(3) License your works with CC!
Students: My ask of you:
Ask your faculty to take an “Open Textbook” pledge
Ask for OER to be highlighted in the course catalog
Ask for internships to help faculty move their course to OER
Ask faculty to let you co-create and improve the curriculum.
College Leadership: My ask of you:
Add OER / OA to strategic plans
Open Policy on discretionary grants
Support faculty: time/money/PD
Make this a Univ-wide conversation
Mark OER in course catalog
Track & report cost savings, KPIs
CC licenses on your MOOCs
the opposite of open isn’t “closed”
the opposite of open is “broken”
Dr. Cable Green Director of Global Learning firstname.lastname@example.org twitter: @cgreen
Open Policy Network slides – from Tim Vollmer @ Creative Commons
Big idea Icon - from the Noun Project, Public Domain
Blueprint Icon - by Dimitry Sokolov, from The Noun Project -
Check List Icon - by fabrice dubuy, from The Noun Project -
Hackathon - by Iconathon 2012 -
Question Icon - by
http://thenounproject.com/catalarem Rémy Médard, from The Noun Project -
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ CC BY
Big remix – with special thanks to:
Copyrighted graph reproduced from http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21612200-its-economics-101-why-textbooks-cost-so-much
Copyrighted image from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/12/30/peter-thiels-graph-of-the-year/
Now north of $1.3T
CC BY photo from https://www.flickr.com/photos/peasap/4684467836
Public facing – we’re a learning company – don’t care about textbooks
Private strategy – fight a “rear guard strategy” and profit as long as possible from high textbook costs
Image © from http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/28/showbiz/heat-director-buddy-cop
Adaptation by Nicole Allen, CC BY
Koch, J. (2013). Turning the Page. http://www.luminafoundation.org/publications/Turning_the_page.pdf
CC-BY slide by David Wiley
CC BY: David Wiley
Clearly, the Internet has empowered us to copy and share with an efficiency never before known or imagined.
However, long before the Internet was invented, copyright law began regulating the very activities the Internet makes essentially free (copying and distributing).
Consequently, the Internet was born at a severe disadvantage, as preexisting laws discouraged people from realizing the full potential of the network.
The ENTIRE INTERNET is free
Revised from CC-BY slide by David Wiley
CC is the law catching up with the way the internet actually works.
CC-BY image by Creative Commons
What about something small – local? Do open policies make sense on a smaller scale?
Even one open textbook for a top 100 course makes sense.
But WA should (a) ask if anyone else has already done this and openly licensed it (e.g., CK12), (b) alert other states / countries that it is going to make this investment and share.
saved students an estimated $8.3 million dollars to date, more than quadruple the state’s initial investment
One of the earliest major programs to pursue open textbooks as a textbook affordability strategy comes from Washington State. The state legislature recognized that most of the enrollments in community and technical colleges were concentrated in a small number of courses, and therefore state student financial aid was being used to purchase the same textbooks over and over again each year. So, the legislature appropriated funding for a program called the Open Course Library to outfit the system’s 81 largest enrollment courses with OER and other low-cost materials that faculty could optionally use. So far it has saved students an estimated $8.3 million dollars to date, more than quadruple the state’s initial investment. Those savings will only continue to grow as more colleges, students and instructors make use of the materials.
Allen, Nicole (2014). Back to Facts: Washington's Open Course Library [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.sparc.arl.org/blog/back-facts-washingtons-open-course-library
2015-2016 prediction: http://www.ecampusnews.com/top-news/open-texts-students-672/?
2 hour workshop = 37% (conversion rate to adopting an open textbook)
66% of those who (1) attended the workshop AND (2) wrote a review
“Tidewater Community College in Virginia has developed a two-year Business Administration degree program that uses OER in every course, which enables students to graduate without spending a single dollar on textbooks. The college estimates that by leveraging OER, the so-called “Z-Degree” cuts the cost of attendance for students by about a third. A few months ago I spoke with Melissa Hoch, a single mother of two who had taken courses as part of Tidewater's program. She said that the money she saved on textbooks allowed her to put braces on her daughter, which she could not have done otherwise. This is just one example of the tough choices students are forced to make because of the added cost of textbooks.”
Testimony of Nicole Allen, Director of Open Education, SPARC
New York City Council Higher Education Committee
College Textbook Affordability Hearing
September 30, 2014
Tidewater Community College (2014). TCC’s Textbook Free Degree Garners National Attention [press release]. Retrieved from: http://www.tcc.edu/news/press/2014/zdegreecbn.htm.
OR HECC $700,000 for new OER position and regional grants to Community Colleges for OER
Based on the National Center for Education Statistics’
most recent enrollment records, there are more than
11 million full-time undergraduates at institutions of
higher education. With the availability of more than 160
open textbooks right now, we stipulate that every
undergraduate takes at least ONE course for which
there is an open textbook available, each year. From
this stipulation, we can estimate that if every student
had just one of their traditional textbooks replaced with
OER or an open textbook, it would save students in this
country more than $1 billion dollars annually.
This is also a conservative estimate. This savings figure
does not include the fact that most students take two semesters of schooling per year (which would double the estimates of savings), or the fact
that the average full-time student takes as many as 5 or 6 courses per semester.
Across eleven academic studies that attempted to measure results pertaining to student learning (with 48,623 students participated) none showed results in which students who utilized OER performed worse than their peers who used traditional textbooks.
Allen, G., Guzman-Alvarez, A., Molinaro, M., Larsen, D. (2015). Assessing the Impact and Efficacy of the Open-Access ChemWiki Textbook Project. Educause Learning Initiative Brief, January 2015. See also this newsletter. Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M. M., Lack, K. A., & Nygren, T. I. (2012). Interactive Learning Online at Public Universities: Evidence from Randomized Trials. Ithaka S+R. Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M. M., Lack, K. A., & Nygren, T. I. (2014). Interactive Learning Online at Public Universities: Evidence from a Six‐Campus Randomized Trial. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 33(1), 94-111. Feldstein, A., Martin, M., Hudson, A., Warren, K., Hilton, J., & Wiley, D. (2012). Open textbooks and increased student access and outcomes. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. Retrieved from http://www.eurodl.org/index.php?p=archives&year=2012&halfyear=2&article=533. Gil, P., Candelas, F., Jara, C., Garcia, G., Torres, F (2013). Web-based OERs in Computer Networks. International Journal of Engineering Education, 29(6), 1537-1550. (OA preprint) Hilton, J., Gaudet, D., Clark, P., Robinson, J., & Wiley, D. (2013). The adoption of open educational resources by one community college math department. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(4), 37–50. Hilton, J., & Laman, C. (2012). One college’s use of an open psychology textbook. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 27(3), 201–217. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02680513.2012.716657. (Open Repository Preprint). Lovett, M., Meyer, O., & Thille, C. (2008). The open learning initiative: Measuring the effectiveness of the OLI statistics course in accelerating student learning. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2008 (1). Pawlyshyn, Braddlee, Casper and Miller (2013). Adopting OER: A Case Study of Cross-Institutional Collaboration and Innovation. Educause Review. Robinson, T.J. (2015). Open Textbooks: The Effects of Open Educational Resource Adoption on Measures of Post-secondary Student Success (Doctoral dissertation). Robinson T. J., Fischer, L., Wiley, D. A., & Hilton, J. (2014). The impact of open textbooks on secondary science learning outcomes. Educational Researcher, 43(7): 341-351. Wiley, D., Hilton, J. Ellington, S., and Hall, T. (2012). “A preliminary examination of the cost savings and learning impacts of using open textbooks in middle and high school science classes.” International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 13 (3), pp. 261-276.
person icon by Ferran Brown from the Noun Project
In terms of student and teacher perceptions of OER, 2,366 students and 2,144 faculty members were surveyed across the nine peer-reviewed studies. Approximately 50% said that the OER resources were as good as traditional resources, 35% said the OER were superior and 15% said they were inferior.
Allen, I., Seaman, J. (2014). Opening the Curriculum: Open Educational Resources in U.S. Higher Education, 2014. Bliss, T., Robinson, T. J., Hilton, J., & Wiley, D. (2013). An OER COUP: College teacher and student perceptions of Open Educational Resources. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 1–25. Bliss, T., Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Thanos, K. (2013). The cost and quality of open textbooks: Perceptions of community college faculty and students. First Monday, 18:1. Feldstein, A., Martin, M., Hudson, A., Warren, K., Hilton, J., & Wiley, D. (2012). Open textbooks and increased student access and outcomes. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. Retrieved from http://www.eurodl.org/index.php?p=archives&year=2012&halfyear=2&article=533. Gil, P., Candelas, F., Jara, C., Garcia, G., Torres, F (2013). Web-based OERs in Computer Networks. International Journal of Engineering Education, 29(6), 1537-1550. (OA preprint). Hilton, J., Gaudet, D., Clark, P., Robinson, J., & Wiley, D. (2013). The adoption of open educational resources by one community college math department. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(4), 37–50. Lindshield, B., & Adhikari, K. (2013). Online and campus college students like using an open educational resource instead of a traditional textbook. Journal of Online Learning & Teaching, 9(1), 1–7. Petrides, L., Jimes, C., Middleton‐Detzner, C., Walling, J., & Weiss, S. (2011). Open textbook adoption and use: Implications for teachers and learners. Open learning, 26(1), 39-49, Pitt, R., Ebrahimi, N., McAndrew, P., & Coughlan, T. (2013). Assessing OER impact across organisations and learners: experiences from the Bridge to Success project. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2013(3).
White House Public Access Policy
Effort to return scholarly publishing to its original purpose: to spread knowledge and allow that knowledge to be built upon.
policy introduced Feb 22, 2013
allowable embargo 12 months
19 federal agencies
agencies must coordinate and have plans in place by Aug 22, 2013
John Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, “has directed Federal agencies with more than $100M in R&D expenditures to develop plans to make the published results of federally funded research freely available to the public within one year of publication and requiring researchers to better account for and manage the digital data resulting from federally funded scientific research.”
legislation introduced Feb 14, 2013
public access to publicly funded research after allowable 6 month embargo
federal agencies with extramural research over $100M/year
passed Assembly, now debated in Senate
12 month embargo
new U.S. GAO report shows textbooks becoming increasingly expensive (textbook costs to students at higher education institutions are rising 6% per year on average, and have risen 82% over the last decade). Openly licensed textbooks can be a piece of the solution.
California Senate Bill 520 - http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201320140SB520
This bill would establish the California Online Student Access Incentive Grant program. The bill would require the online courses supported by incentive grant funds to be placed in the California Virtual Campus. Online courses means educational materials that been released with an intellectual property license that permits their free use or repurposing by others.
Obama Executive Order on Open Data
Project Open Data
Open licenses (aligned with Open Knowledge Definition) may be used by agencies for data outside of that in public domain under Section 105
National STEM Consortia:
Affordable for student: open and free materials in lieu of textbook
More Effective (science, evidence, design, data)
NSC reports 7x retention improvement. Extra tuition from retained students allowed them to hire 2 new staff to support project
Department of Education
Education voted (unanimous vote of support in a senior policy committee) to require the products of all Education grants to be licensed under the most current version of the Creative Commons Attribution license. There will be a public rule-making process in September / October to collect public feedback on this proposal.
First in the World Program-Development Grants (requires equivalent of CC BY)
Supplemental Priorities and Definitions for Discretionary Grant Programs (OER is highlighted)
"Technology can accelerate or enhance the implementation of the other priorities proposed in this document by: Accessing open educational resources (as defined in this notice) aligned with internationally benchmarked college- and career-ready standards"
A closing thought, in the 21st century…
Attribution: John Wilbanks
ineering Education, 29(6), 1537-1550. (OA preprint). Hilton, J., Gaudet, D., Clark, P., Robinson, J., & Wiley, D. (2013). The adoption of open educational resources by one community college math department. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(4), 37–50. Lindshield, B., & Adhikari, K. (2013). Online and campus college students like using an open educational resource instead of a traditional textbook. Journal of Online Learning & Teaching, 9(1), 1–7. Petrides, L., Jimes, C., Middleton‐Detzner, C., Walling, J., & Weiss, S. (2011). Open textbook adoption and use: Implications for teachers and learners. Open learning, 26(1), 39-49, Pitt, R., Ebrahimi, N., McAndrew, P., & Coughlan, T. (2013). Assessing OER impact across organisations and learners: experiences from the Bridge to Success project. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2013(3).
More Effective (scienc