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What are ethics?
Ethics is a (rational) study of moral dilemmas in (human) action. Morals are shortly defined as codes or guides of conduct (implicit or explicit) that are based on personal long-lasting beliefs and values or those of surrounding society. A personal act can be considered moral, immoral or amoral from the point of view of ethical studies:
Moral - an act or though that is in line with personal and societal moral codes
Immoral - an act or thought that is against personal or societal moral codes
Amoral - an act or thought that does not reflect choice based on moral codes
It is very easy to understand that almost any act or thought can be considered both moral and immoral at the same time, if one considers proper points of view. However, this does not make the study of ethics (i.e. The study of moral dilemmas) any less significant: just like in design there are no single right solutions – only choices that have pros and cons attached to them
Explain the following
Ethical Trade: Ethical trade is the assumption of responsibility of retailers, brands, and suppliers to improve the working conditions of the disadvantaged people in its supply chains.
Fair Trade: Trade between companies in developed countries and producers in developing countries in which fair prices are paid to the producers.
Ethical Design: A designer who follows ethics and their products are ethically fair.
Professional Responsibility includes those responsibilities that professionals should undertake because of their special knowledge and skill, their association with others who share that knowledge and skill, and the trust that society places in them because of that knowledge and skill
Typically, professional behaviour conforms to the guidelines and aspirations delineated by various codes of professional practice set forth by professional associations or employers.
Australia is a culturally diverse country, populated by people from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and culture is a major influence on a person’s consumption patterns. Growing up in a particular society, people learn basic values, perceptions, wants and responses from the family unit and other institutions such as schools. These form the person’s cultural identity. Western culture encourages people to value achievement, success, efficiency, practicality, progress, material comfort, humanitarianism, youthfulness, fitness and health.
Define the term ‘culture’
The ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society.
Define the term ‘cultural diversity’
The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society.
Define the term ‘cultural sensitivity’
Cultural Sensitivity is a set of skills that enables you to learn about and get to know people who are different from you, thereby coming to understand how to serve them better within their own communities.
Within any culture there are subcultures or smaller groups of people with similar values. Catholics, teenagers and surfiest are all examples of subcultures whose member often share common beliefs, preferences and behaviours. Whilst primary values have not really changed over the years, there have been many shifts in secondary values. Pop music, movies, celebrities, technology and economic circumstances have influenced values. Changes in values are reflected in areas such as sexual norms, the way people dress and the way people treat each other.
How has your cultural influences impacted on your life when selecting clothes? Give examples
Find pictures of how the following subcultures have influenced today’s designers.
clothing, what celebrities wear
-high wasted jeans
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Burkini?
Let’s Muslims surf and swim whilst still following their religion
Doesn't just have to be for Muslims
Different colours and designs
Gives women a sense of empowerment
No longer a sense of isolation
Don't feel as free as other swimmers
Heavier than other swim wear
Not aesthetically pleasing to the Muslim eye
Research is a thorough investigation into a subject in order to discover information or facts.
“Research is not a stage that should be rushed through as it will turn you, the designer, from a person who may know little about the area you are responding to, into an expert in your area”
Types of Research
Formal research: involves systematically gathering and analysing information from primary and secondary sources relating to a product, or even the industry in general
Informal research: is not as structured or time consuming as formal research. It involves the collection of information from sources that have already been formally researched. Informal research can also include Internet, books, magazines, report, observations, testing and experimenting
Primary source: information collected through interviewing, surveys questionnaires or controlled experiments (In the first person)
Secondary source: information gathered from already published data e.g. books, magazines, websites, newspapers, video, and reference materials
Recycling means to take an existing product that has become waste and reprocess the material for use in a new product. Recycling is probably the most familiar of the 6Rs as it is something they or their family, may already do at home.
What else could we recycle?
Every year, 65 million pairs of trainers are sold in the UK. What do you do with your old ones? Did you know that your trainers can be recycled?
Complete the table by writing a sentence about, or drawing, what you think could happen next.
My trainers go...
What could happen next?
In the bin.
Under my bed.
To my younger brother.
The choices that we make and the impact these choices have on the environment. In particular, it aims to encourage students to refuse to accept products and actions that are unsustainable. The definition of sustainable in this context includes both environmentally friendly materials and processes and ethical issues such as fair trade, organic products and discouraging the support of child labour.
Consumers often have a choice about what products the buy. Before buying a product, check if there is a version available that has less impact on the environment.
By using a reusable bag when shopping at super markets and grocery stores, you are reducing the amount of plastic going into landfill. It is also beneficial to the ocean, as a lot of plastic ends up there and becomes hazardous and dangerous for sea creatures, especially turtles, who mistake it for jellyfish and often die as a result of eating it.
The term ‘reuse’ means to take an existing product that is obsolete or waste and use it or parts of it for another purpose without processing it (processing refers to recycling and turning the material into something else). In design and technology, products are often reused by disassembling them and using their parts for another project.
Most people are very aware of the need to recycle as a way of being environmentally friendly, but they also need to be aware of the need to reduce waste at the beginning of a project in order to have a more positive effect on the environment in the long run. This can be done by encouraging people to rethink their work during the initial stages of a project by considering how products are used, where materials are sourced from and how products are assembled.
Ways to rethink
There are many ways in which we can rethink products to reduce the impact they have on the environment.
Can it be made so it uses less energy?
Can it be made from locally sourced materials?
Can it be manufactured in a different way?
Can it be made so it can be reused or recycled at the end of its life?
Can it be made in such a way that it minimizes waste?
Can it be made from sustainable materials?
For example, an item such as sweetcorn is not just for eating! It can be made into items that are environmentally friendly, such as a bioplastic pen.
The importance of reducing in relation to the 6Rs cannot be stressed enough. Some products lifecycles from retail shelves to landfill sites occur daily, for example, packaged sandwiches appliances and clothes. In some cases, consumers are persuaded to buy the latest must-have product, but do we really need to buy expensive bottled water when we can get drinking water from a tap? By questioning the impact of the production of products and their disposal, students will be able to identify the futile life cycles of some products and look creatively at possible solutions that could make a difference.
Can we use less? Write or draw what you think happens to each of the following examples. Then write or draw an idea about what could be done to reduce waste. An example has been given to help you.
A good choice?
What happens next?
What could be done to reduce waste?
A bottle of water
The bottle goes in the bin
Drink tap water
A packaged sandwich
The plastic wrapper goes into landfill
Pack lunch in a container that can be reused instead of buying one that comes in plastic
A mobile phone
It gets thrown away
Get it repaired at the shop or donate it to a charity that collects phones
Making short journeys
The greenhouse gas emissions go into the atmosphere
Walk or take public transport
What is Innovation? The act or process of introducing new ideas, devices, or methods to solve existing problems, e.g. Dyson (hand driers), Apple (phones) and Volvo (self-driving cars).
Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower. - Steve Jobs
Learning and innovation go hand in hand. The arrogance of success is to think that what you did yesterday will be sufficient for tomorrow. - William Pollard
What do you think these famous designers are saying about innovation?
How important innovation is and it is replaced over and over, as the designs are changed and innovated. You have to adapt and keep on striving to come up with different ideas. You can never be satisfied with what you have achieved, you always want to get better and better and create something newer and better, that works better than the last.
I like the functionality of this jug, providing convenience for pouring multiple glasses at once
It could be difficult and possibly result in spills of the water/liquid being poured
It would take too long to tie the bag, making it pointless
It is also just more to wash and can be impractical
Products that have been recreated
Dyson air blade
Applying a new technology to an existing situation – communication technology is an outstanding example as we move through infrared, Bluetooth and Blackberry wireless technologies. E.g. applications, computers, cars etc.
Applying green principles – reduce the environmental impact at all stages of the product life cycle through the use of recyclable materials and green manufacturing techniques. E.g.
Exploring new shapes – Many of the products which we are familiar with maintain a form that closely resembles the ones developed many years ago under conditions that limited materials’ use and manufacturing possibilities. E.g. new coke bottle ergonomically designed with a grip and Olympic Super bike was a radical departure from traditional bike design, being driven by the dictates of ergonomics for maximum energy transfer and reduced aerodynamic resistance.
Find two example of a product that has be reshape:
Cochlear ear plant
Cochlear bionic eye
Engaging new user groups – the majority of designers and products are aimed at addressing the needs of the general population. Often through adaption or in some cases specific redesign, products are made available to meet the needs of smaller markets. E.g. cutlery for people with arthritis.
Miniaturisation – Some products benefit from the process of miniaturisation. Electrical components have reduced in size and weight over recent years, while improving their capabilities. However, smaller is not always better, particularly when the product has an interface that must be operated by humans. E.g. mobile phones have reached a point where there will be very little reduction in size using current technologies, not because it is not possible but simply because people would be unable to use the keypads and read the screen comfortably, e.g. Discman to iPod.
Down-teching – These products reduce our reliance on high-end technologies for even simple tasks. Appropriate technologies take into account the circumstances surrounding the user and apply a low-tech solution where possible. Sometimes this involves the use of alternative materials, such as bamboo, for structural components, e.g. the bamboo bike.
Combining functions – Products that combine a range of functions are not always successful because society often perceives them as gimmick products that often do not consider aesthetics. e.g. power tools (most successful design area of this kind), where a single motor and body unit has a number of interchangeable heads that perform different functions.
Redefining the Problem – Involves shifting the focus of the problem and is perhaps the most difficult and comprehensive approach to innovation, e.g. if housing is changed from having a main focus style and comfort to an environmental focus where energy consumption is reduced and environmental impact minimised, the design of the house and the features within it would be heavily influenced.
Children’s wooden toys designer
An enterprise activity is anything that is difficult, complicated or risky, often involving many people.
Vivien Rink is classic contemporary designer, based in Coffs Harbour on the Coffs Coast. She designs and hand crafts wooden children’s toys, designer furniture and wooden homewares. She completed a Master Degree in Industrial Design in 2005 at the University of Art and Design – Halle Germany.
Vivien focuses on quality and fine detail in her work. She works under sustainable practices and all of her products meet Australian standards, are 100% recyclable, non-toxic and finished with child safe Oregon oil. Her furniture products are lacquered to enhance the timber’s natural beauty and longevity. Vivien creates unique and ergonomically and environmental friendly products for everyday use. She designs and makes interactive and educational toys, mostly for the pre-school age group, inspired by the nature and children’s needs.
I believe Vivien Rink is enterprising because she creates her products from scratch, to be ergonomic, education and useful. She designs and makes everything herself and puts love and effort into her products to ensure they are sustainable and of a high quality, as well as being useful and aesthetic.
Vivien has created numerous innovative products, including furniture, children’s toys and homewares. Some of her most innovative designs include her MIA chair. MIA stands for motion, inspiration, action. It is a multifunctional contemporary chair with a sculptural aspect and design to it. The aesthetic chair can be used and placed in many different ways, to become a chair, stool, side table and more. It was a finalist at The Edge – Sydney design competition in 2013 and 2014. Another innovative design of Vivien is her stamp set, which includes a box with holes and different stamps fit into the holes. This is a way of storing the stamps, but also allows kids to enhance their gross motor skills when placing the stamps into the holes. It is an aesthetic, useful, ergonomic educational toy for children.
Some of the entrepreneur qualities displayed by this designer include perseverance, self-discipline, passion, confidence, managing time, communicating, open-mindedness and a constant flow of ideas.
Social issue is an umbrella term that encompasses subtopics such as multiculturalism social class, egalitarianism and social consciences. As we consider each of these more closely we will come to understand the importance and relevance of social trends that their impact on design
To react to social change and new technology by being innovative – trends, when animals or their products are used in products
Social class- is the product disadvantaging any other social class e.g. is it assessable to all or just a few? Is it accessible to third world countries? Should computers in schools be compulsory or should you just give them away, especially for the less advantaged.
Does the product cater to the needs of ethnic group or will it offend? e.g. Burkini
Will the product affect the labour market? Are jobs going to be loss or do you need more skilled workers to do the job? Low skilled workers and robotics in factories, losing jobs, leaves a sub-culture of people behind. Video shops, DVDs, records, factory workers, book shops.
Is the product relevant or is it just another consumable product that nobody really needs? Is the product made for the product, marketing and product redundancy e.g. iPhones and consumerism?
What is the cost to society-does it prevent deaths and or medial cost? Does it promote social awareness? Does it promote women or another cause? Medical cost, prescription drug dependency e.g. EpiPens, social aware – environmentally friendly.
Is it Sustainable? (exploiting natural resources without destroying the ecological balance of an area) Palm Oil and fossil fuels.
Does it pollute? Or prevent pollution? Plastic, chemical run-off, can’t fish in the Harbour, petrol – spills and effects on birds/wildlife/humans, oil drilling,
Is it recyclable? Electronics recycling
Will it affect the environment? Does it use toxic or environmentally friendly chemicals?
Are there issues when disposing the product e.g. e-waste Where is it put? Asbestos is highly toxic.
What problem did the Hippo Roller solve? Transporting water from different locations in developing and third world countries, making it safer, easier and more efficient. They have to collect water three times a day. Social impact is allowing kids to go to school because they are the ones who normally are in charge of getting the water. It lessens the injuries to the neck, especially the women. It also gives them more time to stay at home and look after children, cook food, make money and grow crops etc. It is also very dangerous to stop children getting harmed on the way to get the water. It stores water and transports it.
Explain how the Hippo Roller work?
How has this invention made a social impact on society?
What are the environmental benefits of the Hippo Roller? Reuses of plastic, doesn’t leave a trail, when they break they get repurposed, less impact on the group when they are being rolled.
What are the societal and environmental impacts of these innovations?
Watch the video:
Social Impacts: (negative)
using conflict minerals (e.g. Congo)
disassociating from face to face communication
over reliance on computers
anxiety and stress
taking away your privacy
takes away independence
Social Impacts: (advantages)
incorporated into everyday society
trend and status symbol
Environmental: (positive impacts)
Over 90% of the materials used in mobiles and accessories can be recovered
Read the following article before answering-
Before you have made any conclusion you must do some research. What are smart TV’s and what can they do
Answer bs going to be loss or do you need more skilled workers to do the job? Low skilled workers and robotics in factories, losing jobs, leaves a sub-culture of people behind. Video shops, DVDs, records, factory workers, book shops.
using conflict minerals (e.