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http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 37 firstname.lastname@example.org International Journal of Management (IJM) Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2015, pp.37-46, Article ID: 10120150607005 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/currentissue.asp?JType=IJM&VType=6&IType=7 ISSN Print: 0976-6502 and ISSN Online: 0976-6510 © IAEME Publication ___________________________________________________________________________ A STUDY ON RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, ECONOMIC APPROACH, LEADERSHIP QUALITY IN VARIOUSE ORGANISATION IN THE WORLD Dr. V. Antony Joe Raja HOD, Department of Management, Sri Muthukumaran Institute of Technology, Near Mangadu, Kunrathur Rd, Chikkarayapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 069 ABSTRACT In organizational studies , resource management is the efficient and effective deployment of an organization's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology. As is the case with the larger discipline of project management , there are resource management software tools available that automate and assist the process of resource allocation to projects and portfolio resource transparency including supply and demand of resources. The goal of these tools typically is to ensure that: (i) there are employees within our organization with required specific skill set and desired profile required for a project, (ii) decide the number and skill sets of new employees to hire, and (iii) allocate the workforce to various projects. Key Words: Organization Resource, Management, Human Resource Cite This Article: Dr. Antony Joe Raja. V., A Study on Resource Management, Economic Approach, Leadership Quality In Variouse Organisation In The World. International Journal of Management , 6(7), 2015, pp. 37-46. http://www.iaeme.com/currentissue.asp?JType=IJM&VType=6&IType=7 INTRODUCTION Resource management is the efficient and effective deployment and allocation of an organization’s resources when and where they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology. Resource management includes planning, allocating and scheduling of resources to tasks, which typically include manpower, machines, money Dr. V. Antony Joe Raja http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 38 email@example.com and materials. Resource management has an impact on schedules and budgets as well as resource leveling and smoothing. In order to effectively manage resources, organizations must have data on resource demands forecasted by time period into the future, the resource configurations that will be required to meet those demands and the supply of resources, again forecasted into the future. Forecasts should be as far out as is reasonable. Resource leveling, as it relates to inventory, is a resource management technique aimed at keeping the stock of resources on hand level, reducing both excess inventories and shortages. In project management, resource leveling is scheduling decisions, which are driven by resource management concerns, such as limited resource availability. As opposed to leveling, resource smoothing may not delay the project completion date, only particular activities within their float. Many organizations use professional services automation software tools to make resource management tasks more efficient and effective. The automated tools may include timesheet software and employee time tracking software, which calculate skill sets, experience and workload in selecting the most skilled employee in an organization to handle any specific project. This enables the organization to forecast future staffing requirements prior to project implementation. In businesses where revenues are not dependent on product sales, such as legal, consulting, and engineering, organizations strive for minimal bench time. In these organizations, time and expenses are carefully tracked and billed to clients. In order to be sustainable, resources must be maximally utilized on billable time and activities. Effective resource management will optimize organization efficiency, minimize bench time and improve the bottom line. Effective, proactive resource management delivers the utmost level of optimization and efficiency by enabling proactive allocation of resources based on business policies. At this level, implementation of business-policy oriented resource provisioning ensures that resources are provisioned in advance of business needs and in alignment with overall business priorities and objectives. This drives the highest possible resource utilization rates, while simultaneously minimizing business service and availability risk. Several scientists are working on natural resource management. Here, we mention two groups that are linked to two research associations, the International Society of Ecological Economics (ISEE) and the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP). The former association conducts research with a view to integrating ecological systems within economic frameworks. The latter is involved in the management of common property, particularly renewable natural resources. ECONOMIC APPROACH The economics of natural resources and the environment provides a set of theories and conceptual tools to monitor, analyse, evaluate, and regulate (Dales, 1968; Arrow and Fisher, 1974; Bromley, 1991). In particular, economics provides a model for the sustainable use of renewable natural resources in the form of management tools, such as taxes, quotas, grants, subsidies, standards, licences, permits, property rights, and market rights. In addition, environmental economics relies on a representation of the circular interaction between humans and nature. The environment provides services to society which can be quantified. In return, Man transforms the environment-this action constitutes an externality-and by so doing, restricts the decisions that can be made by A Study On Resource Management, Economic Approach, Leadership Quality In Variouse Organisation In The World http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 39 firstname.lastname@example.org other agents. Appropriate policies and management tools can be used to ensure that natural services are used efficiently and to compensate for the externalities. Economic methods of monetary evaluation can be applied to both services and externalities. Thus, different possible uses of an ecosystem or a landscape can be compared. Economic methods of evaluation-based on the capacity to clarify representations-can be applied to several types of problems. They are presented as negotiation methods for stakeholders. One of the weaknesses of the economic approach is its failure to account for the temporal dimension when it comes to finding a balance between resources and society. Ecological economics has improved on this by adding the concept of the co- adaptation between the natural and social worlds. In addition, the dynamics differ from a series of balanced situations. Systemic models that represent the dynamics using stocks-flux relationships are often used (Clark, 1990). COMMON POOL RESOURCES APPROACH An international association for the study of common property (IASCP) was set up in the late 1980s. However, its origins date back to the publication in 1968 of G. Hardin's theory of the failure of the commons. In fact, the author expressed the view that a common resource exploited by rational economic agents is bound to disappear because of over-exploitation. Different solutions have subsequently been put forward to solve the problem: privatization or the establishment of a central authority responsible for managing the access to resources, i.e. to control it by using economic or administrative management tools. The most outspoken critics of Hardin's article have demonstrated that the failure is not due to the common nature of the resources but to the fact that there is free access. There are numerous examples to show that a community can manage a common resource sustainably. Several authors, such as Ostrom (1990; 1999), Berkes et al (1989), and Stevenson (1991) disagree with Hardin's view that successful collective action is impossible. They present the principles of an institutional approach based on formal or informal regulatory mechanisms that govern the viability of ecosystems. This governance makes reference to stakeholder representations and is based on the principle of negotiation. Local approaches tend to be ineffective because of interference from external actors or constraints beyond the locality (at different scales). Research is now focusing on the concept of co-management (McCay and Jones, 1997). If co-management can be applied when different stakeholders use a given resource for the same purpose (for example, fishermen or members of an association of catchment areas), then the issue now is to extend it to resources with multiple uses. This requires other forms of arbitration and collective decisions. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS Resource management under NIMS is based on: Providing a uniform method of identifying, acquiring, allocating, and tracking resources. Classifying kinds and types of resources required to support incident management. Using a credentialing system tied to uniform training and certification standards. Incorporating resources contributed by private sector and nongovernmental organizations. Dr. V. Antony Joe Raja http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 40 email@example.com Resource Management Principles Five key principles underlie effective resource management: 1. Advance planning: Preparedness organizations working together before an incident to develop plans for managing and using resources 2. Resource identification and ordering: Using standard processes and methods to identify, order, mobilize, dispatch, and track resources 3. Resource categorization: Categorizing by size, capacity, capability, skill, or other characteristics to make resource ordering and dispatch more efficient 4. Use of agreements: Developing preincident agreements for providing or requesting resources 5. Effective management: Using validated practices to perform key resource management tasks Managing Resources Resource management involves the coordination and oversight of tools, processes, and systems that provide Incident Commanders with the resources that they need during an incident. To assist local managers, NIMS includes standard procedures, methods, and functions in its resource management processes. By following the standards established by NIMS, resource managers are able to identify, order, mobilize, dispatch, and track resources more efficiently. Resource “typing” involves categorizing resources by capability based on measurable standards of capability and performance—for example, a 500-kilowatt generator. Resource typing defines more precisely the resource capabilities needed to meet specific requirements—and is designed to be as simple as possible to facilitate frequent use and accuracy in obtaining resources. Certification and credentialing help ensure that all personnel possess a minimum level of training, experience, physical and medical fitness, or capability for the position they are tasked to fill. NIMS also ensures that training material is current. Resource managers use various resource inventory systems to assess the availability of assets provided by public, private, and volunteer organizations. And resource managers identify, refine, and validate resource requirements throughout the incident using a process to identify: What and how much are needed. Where and when it is needed. Who will be receiving it. Because resource requirements and availability will change as the incident evolves, all entities must coordinate closely beginning at the earliest possible point in the incident. Requests for items that the Incident Commander cannot obtain locally must be submitted through the EOC or Multiagency Coordination Entity using standardized resource ordering procedures. Resource managers use established procedures to track resources continuously from mobilization through demobilization. Resource tracking and mobilization are directly linked. When resources arrive on-scene, they must check in to start on-scene in- processing and validate the order requirements. Managers should plan for demobilization at the same time that they begin the mobilization process. Early planning for demobilization facilitates accountability and makes transportation of resources as efficient as possible. Recovery involves the final disposition of all resources. During recovery, resources are rehabilitated, replenished, disposed of, or retrograded. Reimbursement provides a mechanism for funding critical needs that arise from incidentspecific activities. Processes and procedures must be in place to ensure that resource providers are reimbursed in a timely manner. Together, each of these A Study On Resource Management, Economic Approach, Leadership Quality In Variouse Organisation In The World http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 41 firstname.lastname@example.org resource management processes create an integrated, efficient resource management system. In the present document provides a summary of some of the methodologies Sinapsys Business Solutions, SL uses in its consulting services to solve such problems. Any change initiative must develop the necessary direction and leadership with a commitment to continuity. Initiate change and create expectations that are not met can cause frustrations and worsen the situation. The implementation should be done professionally and after a proper diagnosis to select the right tools to each individual case (single or combination of several of them). LEADERSHIP Leadership can be defined as the ability of an individual to develop the potential of a team in pursuit of a common interest. There are different leadership styles (authoritarian, participatory, consultative, ...). Each style may be appropriate to the context and characteristics of employees. The source of leadership may be the charisma, the hierarchical power, the power of knowledge or behavior. Through education and training, people who have responsibility for others can develop optimal leadership style. A leader does not command it runs, does not impose, but seeks consensus, not divide but unites. Example: In a food business problems were identified by marking their authoritarian style of leadership. In a leadership course were explained leadership styles. Participants were able to assess your leadership style by completing a questionnaire. In addition, each participant learned to evaluate the pros and cons of each style and know how to apply the most appropriate in each circumstance. MENTORING The mentoring (mentoring) is a process by which a person (mentor) teaches, advises, and guides to another (the mentee) in their personal and professional development. It is the traditional "sponsorship" that currently is used primarily in high positions in organizations. Mentoring should not be improvised requires setting goals, planning and monitoring of results. Although there are similarities, mentoring differs from coaching in the mentor must have expertise in the field in which you want to start the mentee, while the coach does not have to have an experience in this field. Some advantages of mentoring: • Mentoring is a powerful tool that facilitates the retention and transmission of knowledge in the enterprise • Increase satisfaction guardian and the ward • Increase staff retention and commitment of these with the company. Example: A director of a company in the construction sector, with no time or discipline to study for a master, hired a mentor to learn what I needed from a practical (less formal) and personal assistance. This training helped her improve her leadership style and management techniques are people in your company. Dr. V. Antony Joe Raja http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 42 email@example.com EDUCATION CLIMATE ASSESSMENT Diagnostic technique allows for an objective assessment of the degree of satisfaction of people in an organization, understand their needs and expectations at work and their perception of existing problems. There are circumstances that may hinder the effectiveness and objectivity of an evaluation process work climate, including: • Labor disputes • job dissatisfaction • Lack of communication Must be taken into account these conditions, so before starting the survey process may have to be a media campaign upon, to explain what, why and what it intends to carry out this diagnosis. If there is union representation in the enterprise should plan this process with their collaboration and consensus. The evaluation should be completely anonymous and the results published at all levels. The assessment should be followed by an improvement plan aimed at resolving conflicts and problems have been detected. COMPETENCE MANAGEMENT/ KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION This methodology allows to reconcile the interests of the company with the interests of each individual. While comparing the knowledge and skills required by the organization to those who reside in people. we define competence as the ability or quality which makes a person is able to play a role. management skills, involves identifying all you need for people to know, willing and able to provide full value for the benefit of the organization. skills management, requires: • An identification of the skills necessary for achieving the objectives of the organization (strategic, tactical and operational) • skills assessment in the Members of the organization • A plan to bring existing powers with the necessary • Setting and monitoring targets both individual and collective performance. These goals should be possible to verify the use of these skills Example: In a private agency established a competence management system, identified the functions of each position were defined quantitative targets for each position and each department and set up a training plan that took into account the training needs of each person. INCENTIVE SYSTEMS An incentive system is to facilitate the reconciliation of the interests of each person with the interests of the company. Incentives should be established objectively, based on agreed targets and indicators. The incentive system should be transparent, clear and concise. A Study On Resource Management, Economic Approach, Leadership Quality In Variouse Organisation In The World http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 43 firstname.lastname@example.org Incentives must be aligned with individual goals, but also with collective goals, so as to encourage teamwork versus individualistic attitudes. One of the basic requirements for the proper functioning of the incentive system is internal communication: • On the objectives of the company • on individual goals • The degree of fulfillment of the objectives on time, so that deviations can be corrected Example: In the same company in the private agency that established the system of performance appraisal, incentives based on the degree of fulfillment of the objectives of productivity, quality and ideas contributed by each person and equipment. ANALYTICAL AND PROBLEM SOLVING TEAMWORK The competitiveness of an organization depends largely on his ability to turn problems into opportunities. To deploy this policy, we must educate the staff, encourage, lead it, promote internal communication ... but also implement techniques for analyzing problems, identifying causes, possible solutions and implementing them in the most efficient. These techniques are based on data analysis and teamwork. Among other noteworthy: • Herringbone (Ishikawa diagram) • Pareto Chart • Histograms • Data Collection Sheet • Modal Analysis Failure Mode and Effects (FMEA) • Affinity Diagram • Relationship Map • Force Field Analysis • Brainstorming (brainstorming) • Stratification data • Correlation chart • Statistical Process Control It is not only master the proper technique, but also knowing how to choose and chained to each other, since they are complementary. A usual sequence of a process of problem solving could be next: • Problem Definition • Data Collection • Data Analysis Research Dr. V. Antony Joe Raja http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 44 email@example.com • Causes • Proposed Solutions • assessment of alternative solutions • Implementation of Solutions Verification • Effectiveness At each stage, you can apply various techniques, eg: • Problem Definition • Data Collection (Collection of Data Sheet) • Data Analysis (Histogram, Pareto Chart, Diagram of Correlation, ...) • Research Causes (Brainstorming Diagram Ishikawa Diagram Relations, Affinity Diagram, FMEA, ...) • Proposed Solutions (brainstorming) • assessment of alternative solutions (Force Field Analysis) • Implementation of Solutions • Verification of Effectiveness (Pareto Chart, Histogram) Example: In a company manufacturing laminated furniture were detected many quality and productivity problems (lack of inventory turnover, delivery failure, failure of product quality, ...). After investigating the results using Ishikawa diagrams and Pareto, it was concluded that these failures could be avoided by taking the following steps. • Change tooling design, so that assembly is faster and with fewer adjustments. • Minimize tooling changes, each production line specializing in less product • establish a system of statistical process control • Improve staff training and awareness in relation to quality issues, establishing a training matrix and versatility. MEETINGS MANAGEMENT At the end of many meetings, participants have the feeling of having wasted time and no concrete objectives or actions without analyzing deeply enough problems without creating the required commitment to address changes. The efficient management of meetings require a protocol establishing practical rules of conduct in all three phases of the meeting: • Preparation (collection of information, convening the meeting, ...) • Implementation Meeting (time management, agenda management, formalization of the record ...) • Monitoring (monitoring of the agreements of the meeting) One can distinguish various types of meetings by its target: • Reports • decision A Study On Resource Management, Economic Approach, Leadership Quality In Variouse Organisation In The World http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 45 firstname.lastname@example.org • planning and coordination • analysis At any meeting is crucial the role of moderator. Among other functions, the moderator must: • ensure continued item • Ensure that each case is treated with depth and rigor • Ensure that all involved have had the opportunity to participate • Detect and resolve any conflict of interest • ensure that decisions are made by the mechanism previously agreed (preferably by consensus) • Detect and avoid bias in the analysis and decisions Example: In a precast concrete company, were generated problems of quality and productivity by poor communication between the technical department (responsible for the design of the pieces) and production. Weekly meetings were established planning and coordinating work with officials of both departments. These meetings contributed greatly to avoid many problems. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION Internal communication (horizontal and vertical upward and downward) is a prerequisite for improving the work environment, encourage engagement, providing leadership and coordination of all people in an organization. Internal communication should not be left "random", but must be planned, implemented and verified in a manner that ensures that for, Who, When and How to contact. Avoid common errors such as: consider the communication is a one-way and down (as it must be bidirectional and both ascending and descending) • Allow communication free will (since in these cases, communication is distorted and fails to ensure that information reaches to whom, when and how to get there). This is a breeding ground for rumors. • Lack of consistency or alignment between what is communicated and business objectives • Communication at the wrong is not right that the channels of communication "informal" anticipate and meet communication channels "formal" • Communication exception: it is not appropriate reporting only bad news, it must also provide positive feedback. Example: In a training consulting firm identified communication problems. It established an internal communications plan that included, among others, a management improvement proposals channel allowing dozens of suggestions for all staff which resulted in improved organizational performance and satisfaction of people. Dr. V. Antony Joe Raja http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 46 email@example.com REFERENCES  Arrow K.J. et Fisher A. 1974. Environmental Preservation, Uncertainty, and Irresversibility. Quaterly Journal of Economics, 88: 312-319.  Berkes F., Feeny D., McCay B.J. et Acheson J.M. 1989. The benefits of the commons. Nature, 340: 91-93  Bromley D.W. 1991. Environment and Economy, Property Rights and Public Policy. Blackwell, Cambridge.  Clark C.W. 1990. Mathematical Bioeconomics; The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York..  Dales J.H. 1968. Pollution, Property and Prices, An Essay in Policy Making and Economics. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.  Hardin G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243-1248.  McCay B.J. et Jones B. 1997. Proceedings of the Workshop on Future Directions for Common Property Theory and Research. Ecopolicy Center for Agricultural, Environmental and Resource Issues, New Jersey.  Ostrom E. 1990. Governing the Commons. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Ostrom, E. 1999. Coping with tragedies of the commons. American Review of Political Science, 2: 493-535.  Stevenson G.G. 1991. Common Property Economics. A General Theory and Land Use Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge  http://www.usda.gov/documents/NIMLesson06.pdf  http://www.sinap-sys.com/en/content/techniques-improving-human-resource- management-enterprise • Implementation Meeting (time management, agenda management, formalization of the record ...) • Monitoring (monitoring of the agreements of the meeting) One can distinguish various types of meetings by its target: • Reports • decision A Study On Resource Management, Economic Approach, Leadership Quality In Variouse Organisation In The World http://www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp 45 firstname.lastname@example.org • planning and coordination • analysis At any meeting is crucial the role of moderator. Among other functions, the moderator must: • ensure continued item • Ensure that each case is treated with depth and rigor • Ensure that all involved have had the opportunity to participate • Detect and resolve any conflict of interest • ensure that decisions are made by the mechanism previously agreed (preferably by consensus) • Detect and avoid bias in the analysis and decisions Example: In a precast concrete company, were generated problems of quality and productivity by poor communication between the technical department (responsible for the design of the pieces) and production. Weekly meetings were established planning and coordinating work with officials of both departments. These meetings contributed greatly to avoid many problems. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION Internal communication (horizontal and vertical upward and downward) is a prerequisite for improving the work environment, encourage engagement, providing leadership and coordination of all people in an organization. Internal communication should not be left "random", but must be planned, implemented and verified in a manner that ensures that for, Who, When and How to contact. Avoid common errors such as: consider the communication is a one-way and down (as it must be bidirectional and both ascending and descending) • Allow communication free will (since in these cases, communication is distorted and fails to ensure that information reaches to whom, when and how to get there). This is a breeding ground for rumors. • Lack of consistency or alignment between what is communicated and business objectives • Communication at the wrong is not right that the channels of communication "informal" anticipate and meet communication channels "formal" • Communication exception: it is not appropriate reporting only bad news, it must also provide positive feedback. Example: In a training consulting firm identified communication problems. It established an internal communications plan that included, among others, a management improvement proposals channel allowing dozens of suggestions for all