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Embed code for: Intro to Political Geography
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Gerrymandering (Internal Borders) Found within states The intentional manipulation of borders to benefit one political group or organization Based on voting records, race, and anticipated future voting Using the two blank maps provided you will complete each map as noted. Each district must contain five (5) voters each Map 1 – Majority Republican Map 2 – Majority Democrat Follow Up Questions What impact does Gerrymandering have on legislative districts? Is this fair to voters? Why or why not? What is a realistic solution to Gerrymandering? Gerrymandering Exercise Part 1 - Answer the following questions once your group has been formed: Choose what your nation will be Industrial – needs coal, iron ore, timber Military – gold, population to recruit, areas for bases Trade – anything that can be traded of value Part 2 – Build your nation, Name, Flag, Slogan – should represent the idea from above Part 3 – Chose up to 6 territories that you want to claim for your nation Part 4 – Turn in maps Borders and Boundaries Game Wallerstine’s World-System’s Theory Assumes that all nations are a part of a world economic system void of independent economies and based on capitalism Create a world-economy of control and dependency Core: High wealth, political and economic control Semi-Periphery: economically strong and growing, influence over the periphery but follows the core Periphery: Dependent and responsive economically and politically to core and, to an extent, semi-periphery nations Three Tier Structure Core Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology * Generate more wealth in the world economy Semi-periphery Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring. Places that are exploited by the core but then exploit the periphery. * Serves as a buffer between core and periphery Periphery Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology * Generate less wealth in the world economy * * * Core=US, Canada, Western Europe, Australia and Japan Semi-Periphery-Mexico, Venezuela, Argentina, Uraguay, Brazil, South Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, India and China-exploited by Core and in turn exploit the Periphery Periphery=rest of Africa, rest of South American and Central America, Central and Asia and most of Middle East-exploited by everyone * Landlocked Non-Landlocked A State that borders on any type of water system (river, ocean, lake) that allows them access to large seas or the oceans A State that has no access to water and must go through another State in order to reach a port UNCLOS United Nations Law of the Sea which determines territorial vs international waters Territorial Waters Up to 12 nautical miles out from the coast Contiguous Zone Up to 12 nautical miles from the edge of territorial waters Exclusive Economic Zones Up to 200 nautical miles, states determine what economic activity may or may not take place International Waters Water outside of a specific nations control which is shared by all nations without limitations A border above the basic surface of the earth and extending into the upper atmosphere Territorial Airspace Airspace up to 12 nautical miles from the designated coast line that is exclusively controlled by a specific nation with a vertical ceiling that is undefined (depends on the county and ranges from 19-99 miles) International Airspace Airspace outside of a specific nations control which is shared by all nations without limitations Air Space Sovereignty - Complete control over a territory’s political & military affairs Territoriality – The attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area Territorial Integrity – A government has the right to keep the borders and territory of a state intact and free from attack Statehood Vocabulary A separate entity composed of three or more States that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit in pursuit of shared goals. An alliance system that binds political decisions and economies together. History: Created Post-WWII to rebuild Europe economically, Counter the Soviet threat, and create a place to hold a dialogue to settle disputes Modern Threats: Donald Trump – NATO, NAFTA, TPP Brexit – EU Supranationalism Economic An agreement between States that offers all parties economic opportunity through trade and commerce Examples OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – controls oil prices by controlling production WTO – World Trade Organization – set trade rules for member nations NAFTA – North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement – removes tariffs (import taxes) in North America (Mexico, United States and Canada) on agreed upon products Military An agreement whereby two or more States pledge to aid each other if attacked or to share military material and technology Examples NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization – member nations pledge to protect each other in case of attack (counters the Warsaw Pact which did the same for Communist Eastern Europe) UN – United Nations – Can authorize the use of member nations military forces to act as peace keepers or an aggressive force AU – African Union – Same as UN, except only in Africa Political An agreement whereby two or more States work together for economic and military benefits – a pledge to help each other Examples UN – United Nations – A world forum to discuss global issues AL – Arab League (also has military powers like the UN and AU) – North African and Middle Eastern states working to promote growth and stability G20 – Global 20 – The 20 largest economies discussing political and economic issues Genetic Boundary Classification Antecedent - physical landscape defined the boundary without any human modification Ex: Mongolia and China (Desert) Subsequent – A boundary that has undergone a regular modification process Ex: China and Vietnam Superimposed-forcibly drawn boundary that cuts across a unified cultural boundary Ex: Kurds and the modern Middle East Relict boundary – A boundary no longer serves a purpose but still affects the lives of people living there Ex: East-West Germany Movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state. Conflicts within a State (centrifugal forces) cause friction among the population which leads to the break in unity of the State’s government and potentially to the breaking up of the State itself Examples Scotland-England-Wales-Northern Ireland: Autonomy within the United Kingdom Italy – Sardinia has some economic independence USSR – post 1991, breaks into 13 separate States Devolution Examples of Devolution - Economic Brazil – Southern Brazil attempted (unsuccessfully) to break away from the north. Wealth in the south supports poverty in the north United States – Northern manufacturing and Southern agriculture lead to conflicts on wealth distribution and slavery European Union – Great Britain refuses to use the Euro. They maintain their own currency and economic independence and have currently voted to leave the EU Israel-Palestine Cause: Superimposed Borders Issues: As per British mandate in 1948, a territory is created for Jewish settlement. Palestinian (Muslim) settlement already exist leading to continuous conflict between these two sides still today Ukraine and Russia Cause: Cultural Devolution Issues: Protests in Ukraine removed the democratically elected pro-Ruissian president and replaced him with a pro-western president. Crimea – invaded and absorbed by Russia, Eastern Ukraine – war between Russian separatists and Ukrainians Basque Region in Spain Cause: Cultural Devolution Issues: Basque separatists have fought (physically and politically) to separate from Spain. Basque’s speak their own language and have a culture separate from Spain proper Conflicts within States United Nations Peace Keepers – Soldiers under the control of the United Nations move into an area to act as local police and prevent future conflicts Example: Golan Heights in Syria Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) – An area that separates two groups (usually States) where no military personnel or weaponry is allowed to be placed thus separating the militaries Example: North and South Korea No Fly Zone – Air space restriction for military aircraft to prevent the use of them against groups within a nation Example – Iraq post-1991 UN attack Responses to Devolution Reading Quiz #1 Nov 21st/22nd – Ch. 8, Sec 1-2, pg. 261-275 Reading Quiz #2 Nov 30th/Dec 1st – Ch. 8, Sec 3-4, pg. 276-295 Unit Essay Exam and Map Quiz December 12th (Odd) – December 13th (Even) Multiple Choice/End of Unit December 14th (Odd) – December 15th (Even) Final Review December 19th (Even) – December 21st (Odd) Final Exam December 20th (Even) – December 22nd (Odd) Unit 4 and End of Semester Calendar A State is a politically organized territory that is run by an independent government and is recognized by a large portion of the world Ex: The United States, Mexico, Russia, Syria State A political entity within a State. A way of dividing up a State into smaller sections. Ex: Nebraska and Iowa in the United States or Quebec in Canada State/Province The state has a governor who works in unison with the state’s legislature to pass laws within the framework of the federal and state’s constitution The negotiated treaty between the two states will allow for joint military exercises to help the two states be prepared to counter any threats, both internal and external, in the region state vs. state (Its all in the context) Nation - Refers to a group of people with similar cultural traits whose boundaries may or may not follow political lines Nation-State – A major portion of the state’s population share a common culture Multinational State –A state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities Multiethnic State – A state containing multiple ethnic groups Stateless Nation – A state with a nation of people with no political or cultural control Political - A separation based on a negotiated settlement between two different States or states Ex: Manmade lines such as latitude and longitude. Straight lines don’t exist in nature Physical – A boundary based on a geographical barrier Ex: Lake, river, ocean, mountain range Cultural – A boundary based on cultural grouping Ex: Mongolia and China, Kosovo and Serbia Compact A small, condensed shape where no single point is far from the center of the nation Ex: Poland, Belgium Fragmented A nation that is broken into multiple pieces and may or may not be spread out over distances. Most nations are separated because of water Ex: Denmark, Indonesia Elongated A nation whose territory is significantly longer than it is wide Ex: Vietnam, Chile Perforated A nation whose territory contains another territory that it completely surrounds Ex: South Africa – Lesotho, Italy – San Marino and Vatican City Protruded A nation where a portion of its territory extends in an elongated fashion from the main territory. Sometimes referred to as a panhandle Ex: Thailand, Oklahoma, Nebraska Enclave Exclave A country or part of a country that is surrounded by another country A territory legally or politically attached to a territory with which it is not touching * * * Core=US, Canada, Western Europe, Australia and Japan Semi-Periphery-Mexico, Venezuela, Argentina, Uraguay, Brazil, South Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, India and China-exploited by Core and in turn exploit the Periphery Periphery=rest of Africa, rest of South American and Central America, Central and Asia and most of Middle East-exploited by everyone * (physically and politically) to separate from Spain. Basque’s speak their own language and have a culture separate from Spain proper Conflicts within States United Nations Peace Keepers – Soldiers under the control of the United Nations move into an area to act as local police and prevent future conflicts Example: Golan Heights in Syria Demilit