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http://www.who2.com/job/revolutionary-war-figure/Revolutionary War Figure
Crispus Attucks is remembered as the first American to die in the colonists’ fight for freedom from Britain.
Shirley Chisholm was the first African-American woman to be elected to the U.S. Congress. She served seven terms as a representative from New York’s 12th district, from 1969 until her retirement in 1982. Chisholm grew up in Barbados and also in New York City, where she earned a graduate degree from Columbia University in 1952. In 1972, she became the first African-American woman to run for president.
Alice Walker wrote The Color Purple, the 1982 novel that won the
http://www.who2.com/bio/joseph-pulitzer/Pulitzer Prize and was made into a
http://www.who2.com/bio/steven-spielberg/Steven Spielberg movie starring
http://www.who2.com/bio/oprah-winfrey/Oprah Winfrey and
http://www.who2.com/bio/whoopi-goldberg/Whoopi Goldberg. Walker was a civil rights activist as a young woman in the American south, and an editor at Ms. magazine in the 1970s.
Mahalia Jackson grew up singing in church, moved from New Orleans to Chicago when she was a teenager, and eventually went into business in real estate and as a shop owner. All the while she continued to sing gospel, turning down offers to perform professionally. She finally began recording in the 1930s, and a decade later her own "Move On Up A Little Higher" became a million-seller. She toured the world, appeared in films and on television, and performed at the inauguration of U.S. president
http://www.who2.com/bio/john-f-kennedy/John F. Kennedy. She is considered one of America’s greatest gospel singers.
Name at birth: John Birks Gillespie
Born in Cheraw, South Carolina, he was easily recognized by his puffed-out cheeks and unusual angular trumpet, Dizzie Gillespie was one of the key figures in the birth of “bebop” jazz. Nicknamed "Dizzy" because of his comical antics, Gillespie played trumpet in the 1930s in bands led by Teddy Hill and
http://www.who2.com/bio/lionel-hampton/Lionel Hampton. Throughout the ’40s and ’50s Gillespie led his own bands, both big and small, and toured the world playing his complex and upbeat music.
Name at birth: James Cleveland Owens
Jesse Owens is remembered for one stunning week in 1936, when he won four track and field gold medals at a single Olympics. The Summer Games that year were held in Berlin, where Nazi leader
http://www.who2.com/bio/adolf-hitler/Adolf Hitler seemed determined to display the superiority of the German “Aryan” race. Owens, an African-American, put that notion to rest with victories in the 100- and 200-meter dash, the broad jump and the 4×100-meter relay. The performance made him both an Olympic hero and a lasting symbol of black pride. In 1976, President
http://www.who2.com/bio/gerald-ford/Gerald Ford awarded Owens the prestigious Medal of Freedom
Dr. Charles Drew is the father of the modern blood bank. In 1940 he published a paper showing that when plasma is separated from the rest of human blood, it can be stored for much longer periods of time. This discovery allowed the creation of blood banks, where donated plasma could be kept until urgently needed. Drew became the medical director of the first Red Cross blood bank in 1941, and his discovery saved uncounted lives during World War II. Drew spent much of his later career teaching at Howard University in Washington, D.C.,; he also became chief of staff and medical director at nearby Freedman’s Hospital. He died after a 1950 car crash.
Desmond Tutu received the 1984 Nobel peace prize for his nonviolent work against apartheid, the South African government’s policy of racial separateness. Raised in several communities in the Transvaal region, he was educated at a Pretoria teachers’ college, a Johannesburg seminary and King’s College, London. He was ordained a priest in the Anglican Church in 1961, became Bishop of Lesotho in 1976, and by 1986 was his country’s highest Anglican official as Archbishop of Cape Town. In the 1970s and ’80s he urged global economic pressure against South Africa and led a “defiance campaign” against a government ban on anti-apartheid demonstrations. He and other members of the clergy often intervened in confrontations between demonstrators and police or between mobs and informants. Tutu retired as archbishop in 1996 but remained outspoken in domestic and world affairs until 2010, when he announced he was “slowing down” his public activity.
W. E. B. Du Bois
Name at birth: William Edward Burghardt DuBois
Scholar and political activist W.E.B. Du Bois helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). DuBois attended Harvard University and in 1895 became the first African-American to receive a doctorate from the school. He became a university professor, a prolific writer and a pioneering social scientist on the topic of black culture. W.E.B. DuBois particularly disagreed with black leaders such as
http://www.who2.com/bio/booker-t-washington/Booker T. Washington who urged integration into white society; Du Bois championed global African unity and (especially in later years) separatism. He distilled his views in his famous 1903 book The Souls of Black Folk. In 1909 he was a founding member of the NAACP, an organization promoting progress and social equality for blacks. Du Bois continued for decades as a strong public voice on behalf of African-Americans.
Name at birth: Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey
Frederick Douglass was a former slave who became one of the great American anti-slavery leaders of the 1800s. Frederick Douglass was born into slavery in Maryland but in 1838, at age 20, he escaped to freedom in New York. A few years later he went to work for abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, travelling and speaking on behalf of Garrison’s paper The Liberator. Douglass published his memoir Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave in 1845. Eloquent, smart and determined, Douglass gained fame as a speaker, began his own anti-slavery publications and became a ‘conductor’ on the Underground Railroad.
Marguerite Annie Johnson; (April 4, 1928 – May 28, 2014) was an American poet, memoirist, and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_rights_activistcivil rights activist. She published seven autobiographies, three books of essays, several books of poetry, and was credited with a list of plays, movies, and television shows spanning over 50 years. She received dozens of awards and more than 50 honorary degrees.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_Angelou Angelou is best known for her series of seven autobiographies, which focus on her childhood and early adult experiences. The first,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_Know_Why_the_Caged_Bird_SingsI Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), tells of her life up to the age of 17 and brought her international recognition and acclaim.
Madam C. J. Walker
Sarah Breedlove, known as Madam C. J. Walker, was an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and a political and social activist. Eulogized as the first female self-made millionaire in America, she became one of the wealthiest African American women in the country, "the world's most successful female entrepreneur of her Between 1911 and 1919, during the height of her career, Walker and her company employed several thousand women as sales agents for its products.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madam_C._J._Walker By 1917 the company claimed to have trained nearly 20,000 women.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madam_C._J._Walker Dressed in a characteristic uniform of white shirts and black skirts and carrying black satchels, they visited houses around the United States and in the
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CaribbeanCaribbean offering Walker's hair pomade and other products packaged in tin containers carrying her image. Walker understood the power of advertising and brand awareness. Heavy advertising, primarily in African American newspapers and magazines, in addition to Walker's frequent travels to promote her products, helped make Walker and her products well known in the United States. Walker became even more widely known by the 1920s as her business market expanded beyond the United States to
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madam_C._J._Walker[time," and one of the most successful African-American business owners ever.iversity and in 1895 became the first African-American to receive a doctorate from the school. He became a university professor, a prolific writer and a pioneering social scientist on the topic of black culture. W.E.B. DuBois particularly disagreed with black leaders such as
Sarah Breedlove, known as Madam C. J. Walker, was an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and a political and social activist. Eulogized as the first female self-made millionaire in America, she became one of the wealthiest African American women in the country, "the world's most successful female entrepreneur of her Between 1911 and 1919, during the height of her career, Walker and her company employed se