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In this steam power plant we used coal (sub bituminous) which has les humidity and efficient , Easily available in Sindh areas such as THAR and LAKHRA.
SINDH: The Sindh province has total coal resources of 184 billion tonnes. The quality of coal is mostly lignite-B to sub-bituminous A-C.
THAR: A large coal-field, having a resource potential of about 175 billion tonnes, has been discovered at Thar in the eastern part of the province, about 400 km South East of Karachi.
BOILER: We have selected benson water tube boiler instead of fire tube boiler to minimize the pressure loss.
Boiler pressure :12 mpa
Super Heater Tmperature : 600 degree C
Turbine Exhaust Temperature : 90 Degree C
Mass flow rate of steam : 150 kg/sec
Steam Boiler Efficiency
The percentage of total heat exported by outlet steam in the total heat supplied by the fuel (coal) is called steam boiler efficiency.
It includes with thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency & fuel to steam efficiency. Steam boiler efficiency depends upon the size of boiler used. A typical efficiency of steam boiler is 80% to 88%. Actually there are some losses occur like incomplete combustion, radiating loss occurs from steam boiler surrounding wall, defective combustion gas etc. Hence, efficiency of steam boiler gives this result.
No of closed feed water heater: 2
No of open feed water heater: 1
No of reheaters : 3
Today, most of the electricity produced throughout the world is from Steam Power Plants .Steam Power Plant continuously converts the energy stored in fossil fuels (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas) into shaft work and ultimately into electricity .Steam has the advantage that, it can be raised from water which is available in abundance . it does not react much with the materials of the equipment of power plant o is stable at the temperature required in the plant.
Energy released by burning of fuel Q1 is transferred to water in Boiler Steam is generated (H2O(g)) at high pressure and Temperature .Steam expands in the Turbine (T) to a low pressure to produce shaft work WT .Steam leaving the Turbine (T) is condensed into water in the condenser (C)
In Condenser (C), Cooling water from a river or sea circulates carrying away the heat released during condensation Q2 .Water (Condensate) is fed back to the boiler by the pump (P) requiring power WP and cycle repeats .Working substance (Water)is undergoing a Cyclic Process → No change in its Internal Energy over the cycle: ∫ dE =0
A steam power plant is a power station in which the electric generator is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser. The greatest variation in the design of steam- electric power plants is due to the different fuel sources. Almost all coal, nuclear, geothermal, solar thermal electric power plants, waste incineration plants as well as many natural gas power plants are steam-electric. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam, in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. Worldwide, most electric power is produced by steam-electric power plants, which produce about 86% of all electric generation. The only other types of plants that currently have a significant contribution are hydroelectric and gas turbine plants, which can burn natural gas or diesel. Photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and binary cycle geothermal plants are also non- steam electric, but currently do not produce much electricity. Reciprocating steam engines have been used for mechanical power sources since the 18th Century, with notable improvements being made by James Watt. The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in New York and London, in 1882, also used reciprocating steam engines. As generator sizes increased, eventually turbines took over due to higher efficiency and lower cost of construction. By the 1920s any central station larger than a few thousand kilowatts would use a turbine prime mover. After electricity is generated, it has to be moved to customers that use the electricity. This involves two basic steps: transmission (moving electricity at high voltages from generating plants to local communities) and distribution (moving power to individual customers). The transmission system carries electricity from the power plant to local communities, often over long distances. Electricity does not travel easily. Transmission lines have some resistance to the flow of electricity (this is similar to the friction caused by the flow of water in a pipe). This causes them to lose a portion of the electricity they transport. Early in the history of electricity transmission systems energy developers discovered that the higher the voltage in electricity lines, the less resistance and, therefore, the less wasted electricity. That’s why when electricity travels long distances, it is better to have it at higher voltages.
Heat transfer in Steam Generator normally takes place in 3 steps
Economiser : Sensible heating in liquid Phase till it becomes saturated Liquid.
Evaporator : Phase change by absorbing Latent Heat of Vaporization.
Superheater : Sensible heating of vapor to become Super Heated Vapor.
Flue gas is the
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasgas exiting to the atmosphere via a
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flueflue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler_(steam_generator)steam generator. Quite often, the flue gas refers to the
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustioncombustion exhaust gas produced at
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_plantspower plants. Its composition depends on what is being burned, but it will usually consist of mostly
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogennitrogen (typically more than two-thirds) derived from the combustion of air,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxidecarbon dioxide (CO2), and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_vaporwater vapor as well as excess
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygenoxygen (also derived from the combustion air). It further contains a small percentage of a number of pollutants, such as
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_particulate_matterparticulate matter (like
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_oxidesnitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides.
For environmental safety when ashes are produced these ashes are in two forms, the wet ash will settle down while the other fly ash and flue gases will be passed through economizer which will send them forward towards Electro static precipitator which will direct them towards chimney , In chimney with a spray of water these gases can be conducted which will not let them go to environment .
If these gases goes to environment can cause many problems such as ozone depletion etc.
Coal fired thermal power plants meet the growing energy demand, and hencespecial attention must be given to define a strategy for the optimization of thesesystems. Energy analysis presented for a coal fired thermal power plant hasprovided information on the irreversibilities of each process.
This steam power plant gives us efficiency of 47% ,This steam power plant is friendly to our environment , This steam power plant has a capacity of 249 MW , In Sindh this steam power plant is is being under construction by Chinese company which will be fully constructed to next year , and that power plant will have the capacity to cover 1 whole city. The very first commercial central electrical generating stations in New York and London, in 1882, also used reciprocating steam engines. As generator siz