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BIBLIOLOGY INSPIRATION I. Meaning A. Etymological Derived from 2 Tim. 3:16 Comes from the Greek word "theo-pneustos" - "God-breathed" refers to God's creative act, therefore it is a creation of God. B. Theological Erickson, "The supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit upon the Scripture writers which rendered their writing an accurate record of the revelation or which resulted in what they wrote as actually the Word of God." Geisler, "That mysterious process by which the divine causality worked through the human prophets without destroying their individual personalities and styles to produce divinely authoritative writings." 3 Elements/Components of Inspiration according to Geisler's definition 1. Divine Causality 2. Prophetic Agency 3. Scriptural Authority II. Theories 1. Intuition Theory -largely a high degree of insights -it is the functioning of a high gift like an artistic ability 2. Illumination -the influence of the Holy Spirit which only involved the heightening of the author's normal powers >no communication of truth nor guidance in what was written >there is only increased sensitivity to spiritual matters. 3. Dynamic -the Holy Spirit directs the writer to the thoughts or concepts he should have, then allows the writer to the choice of words and expressions 4. Verbal -the influence of the Holy Spirit extends beyond thoughts to the selection of words. Each word is the exact word God wants. 5. Dictation -God actually dictated the Bible to the writers III. Pertinent Characteristics/Components of the Biblical Claim on Inspiration A. Verbal Inspiration -Inspiration extends to the very words or language. In other words, the Bible as a deposit of language is God's Word (original) B. Plenary Inspiration -Inspiration extends to all parts or the whole of the Scripture, including the soteric and non-soteric, doctrinal and historical C. The Bible is Confluent -There is the divine and human interaction flowing together; >the Scripture/Bible has dual authorship >the Bible is the product of the divine breath and human pen IV. Content/Scope/Extent of Inspiration 1. Use of Variety of Expressions -Peter's Confession of Christ >Matt 16:16 >Mark 8:29 >Luke 9:20 2. Use of Individualities/Personalities -literary styles -idiosyncrasies *** Isaiah - Powerful Jeremiah - Mournful Luke - Medical Interest James -Practical Paul - Theological and Polemical John - Simplicity Moses - Lawgiver Joshua - Military general Samuel and others - prophets David and Solomon - Kings Asaph - Musician Ezra - Priest 3. User of Non-biblical Documents >Luke and Acts 1-4 - testimonies and traditions >Joshua 10:13 - Book of Jashar >Acts 17: 28 - Poets of that place (Athens) >Jude 14 - Book of Enoch ______________________________________ >Genesis 3: 4-5 - serpent >Job 1:7 – Satan V. Proofs/Evidences/Arguments for the Inspiration of the Bible A. Internal/Scriptural Arguments 'The Bible claims its inspiration' 1. Claim of the Bible as a whole >2 Tim 3:16 >2 Pet 1:20-21 2. Claim of the OT a. Specific: Joshua 1:8 -Books -Law and Prophets -OT as a whole b. Supporting -NT references >2 Tim 3:16 >2 Pet 1:20-21 -Testimony of Christ >John 10:35 >Matt 5:17-18 3. Claims of the NT a. Specific -NT writers were spirit-directed >Christ's Promises +John 14:26 +John 16:13 >Apostles' teaching or doctrine + Acts 2:42 -NT writings were spirit-directed >Paul's writings are inspired like the other +2 Pet 3:16 >Rev 1:3 >Rev 22:18 >Gal 1:12 -Early Church Fathers B. External/Rational Evidences 1. Self-Vindicating Authority of the Bible 'The Bible is its own proof' 2. Dynamic Ability/Power of the Bible 'Bible's Transforming Power' 3. Integrity of Jesus and The Gospel Record 4. Moral Superiority of the Bible 'The Bible shines through among other books' 5. Universality of the Bible 'For all races and ages' 6. Historicity of the Bible INERRANCY Of the Bible "The Bible is inspired" "Inerrancy is corollary of the Inspiration of the Bible Genesis 3:4 and Joshua 2:4 - statements which are not true Luke 18:1-8 - Partial Truthfulness or even untruthfulness from the illustrations used in the Bible Inerrancy of the Bible -The Bible always tell and it always tells the truth concerning everything it talks about -It does not mean that the Bible tells us every fact there is to know about anyone's subject but it affirms that what it does say about any subject is true. -Bruce Mells, "Whenever it prescribes the content of our belief (doctrine) or pattern of our being (ethics) or records actual events (history) it speaks the truth. Truthfulness-applies to what the Bible ultimately teaches and to historical/factual matters which are inseparably connected with spiritual and doctrinal teachings. Examples: Historicity of Characters - Adam, Cain, Abel, Noah Historicity of Events - Creation, flood, Bondage in Egypt Scriptural Claim for the Truthfulness of the Bible: Psalm 119 AUTHORITY/INFALLIBILITY/POWER of God's Word Bruce Mells, "Authority is an inevitable concomitant of inspiration" Grudem, "All the words of/in Scripture are God's word in such a way that to disbelieve/disobey any word of Scripture is to disbelieve/disobey God." Thiessen, "The Bible carries with it the divine authority of God. It is binding upon man on his mind, conscience, will, and heart requiring submission." Erickson, "The Bible as the expression of God's will possesses the right supremely to define what to believe and how to conduct one's self." Key Passages: >2 Tim 3:16 >Joshua 1:8 CANONIZATION Why 66 Books? I. Definition of "Canon" A. Literally Greek word "kanon" - "a rod, a ruler, a staff, or measuring rod" B. Metaphorically It is used metaphorically in the Bible -Standard or Norm >2 Cor 10:13-16 >Gal 6:16 C. Theologically -Early Christian Usage *Rule of Faith *Normative Writings *Authoritative Writings -Church Fathers Usage *Canon of the Church *Canon of the Truth *Canon of the Faith Definition of Canonization -refers to the discovering, recognition and collection of the God-inspired, authoritative books of Sacred Scripture II. Description of Canonicity A. Sacred Writings B. Authoritative Writings C. Books that Defile the Hands D. Books from the Prophetic Period III. Determination of Canonicity Basic Questions: How did these books receive their canonicity? What determines the canonicity of a book? A. Insufficient Views/Factors 1. Age or Antiquity Old books which were not included: >Numbers 21:14 -Book of the Wars of the Lord >Joshua 10:13 -Book of Jashar New books which are included: >Deut 31:24-26 -Book of the Law >Dan 9:2 -Book of Jeremiah 2. Hebrew Language Ecclesiasticus-written in Hebrew, but not included Daniel and Ezra - not totally written in Hebrew but included 3. Agreement with the Torah >2 Chronicles 12:15 - Records of Shemaiah (Prophet) and Iddo (Seer) >2 Chronicles 21:12 - Letter of Elijah 4. Religious value Ecclesiasticus B. A more sufficient view 1. A book is valuable because it is canonical not the other way around 2. A book is canonical because it is inspired "Inspiration determines Canonization" IV. Discovery of Canonicity A. The Principles/Earmarks of Inspiration *Is it Authoritative? -Did it come with the authority of God? -Does it speak with authority as Jesus did? -Does it come with a divine "Thus saith the Lord"? -Does it command attention/obedience? *Is it Prophetic? -Was it written by a man of God? Proposition/Presumption: The Word of God inspired by the Spirit of God for the People of God would not be given to anyone other than the man of God. >2 Pet 1:20 >Hebrews 1:1 *Is it Authentic? -Does the book tell the truth about God, man, etc as shown/known through previous and other revelation? -Is it a record of facts as they actually recorded? Proposition/Presumption: A book cannot contradict truth and still be truly God's *Is it Dynamic? -Does it come or did it come with the life-transforming power of God? >Hebrews 4:12 The Word of God is living and active, consequently having a transforming power/ evangelization and edification >2 Tim 3:15-17 +Salvation +Sanctification +Service Proposition: The Message is backed by the might of God *Was it Received? -Has this book been accepted generally by the people of God? 3 Stages of Acceptance 1. Initial - first audience/receiver like Philippian believers who first received Paul's letter 2. Subsequent - many but all 3. Final and Universal - all B. Classification/Categories of Books/Writings Under the Canonization Process 4 CATEGORIES: 1. Homologoumena (one-word agreement) -refers to books accepted by all OT: ALL except -Songs of Solomon -Ecclesiastes -Esther -Ezekiel -Proverbs NT: ALL except -Hebrews -James -2 Peter -2 John -3 John -Jude -Revelation 2. Antilegoumena (Spoken Against) -refers to books disputed by some Though, generally and ultimately considered canonical, for one reason or another, disputed by some of the rabbis OT: Songs of Solomon - it seemed sensual Ecclesiastes - it seemed skeptical Esther - it seemed unspiritual because of the absence of the word "God" Ezekiel - it seemed anti-Mosaical Proverbs - it seemed contradictory (contradicting itself) >Proverb 26:4-5 NT: Hebrews – anonymity James – Authenticity (teaching)-it seemed advocating salvation by works 2 Peter – Genuineness (authorship)-it seemed has different style of writing 2 & 3 John – Genuineness (authorship)-the author introduced himself as an elder Jude – it referred to Book of Enoch Revelation – Authenticity (Teaching) 3. Pseudepigrapha (false/spurious writings) -refers to Books rejected by all OT: Book of Jubilee Letter of Aristeas Book of Adam and Eve NT: Gospel of Thomas Gospel of Ebionites Gospel of Peter 4. Apocrypha -refers to books accepted by some OT: Wisdom of Solomon Ecclesiasticus Tobith Judith Maccabees NT: Epistle to the Corinthians Shepherd of Hermas Epistle of Pseudo-Barnabas 2 CANONS: 1. Palestinian Canon/Hebrew Canon – Palestine – Protestant 2. Alexandrian Canon/Greek Canon – Alexandria, Egypt – Roman Catholic Arguments in Favor of Palestinian Canon, therefore, rejecting the Apoocrypha 1. Some of the Books have Unbiblical/Heretical Teachings Examples: Prayer for the dead (2 Maccabees 12:45-46) Salvation by Works (Tobith 12:9) 2. Some of the apocryphal stories are Extra-biblical and Fanciful Example: Story of Bel and The Dragon 3. Some of the Teachings are Immoral Example: Judith was assisted by God in falsehood (Judith 9:10-13) Expedience-“the end justifies the means” – Ecclesiasticus, Book of wisdom 4. Most of the Old Testament Apocrypha were written in the post-biblical period/intertestamental period/silent years 5. None of the Apocryphal was accepted by the people of God Prepared by: Tusi, Aljun G. February 01, 2012 Records of Shemaiah (Prophet) and Iddo (Seer) >2 Chronicles 21:12 - Letter of Elijah 4. Religious value Ecclesiasticus B. A more sufficient view 1. A book is valuable because it is canonical not the other way around 2. A book is canonical because it is inspired "Inspiration determines Canonization" IV. Discovery of Canonicity A. The Principles/Earmarks of Inspiration *Is it Authoritative? -Did it come with the authority of God? -Does it speak with authority as Jesus did? -Does it come with a divine "Thus saith the Lord"? -Does it command attention/obedience? *Is it Prophetic? -Was it written by a man of God? Proposition/Presumption: The Word of God inspired by the Spirit of God for the People of God would not be given to anyone other than the man of God. >2 Pet 1:20 >Hebrews 1:1 *Is it Authentic? -Does the book tell the truth about God, man, etc as shown/known through previous and other revelation? -Is it a record of facts as they actually recorded? Proposition/Presumption: A book cannot contradict truth and still be truly God's *Is it Dynamic? -Does it come or did it come with the life-transforming power of God? >Hebrews 4:12 The Word of God is living and active, consequently having a transforming power/ evangelization and edification >2 Tim 3:15-17 +Salvation +Sanctification +Service Proposition: The Message is backed by the might of God *Was it Received? -Has this book been a