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Embed code for: 4 Succession
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Notes taken on 10/18-10/19
Succession and Life
Life in a community
What is living in this picture?
So what is stopping everything from growing here?
Various Combinations of abiotic and biotic factors are going to limit growth
Factors that affect an organism’s ability to survive in its environment are called limiting factors and consist of any abiotic and biotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers reproduction or distribution of organisms in an area.
Examples can be: sunlight, climate, atmospheric gases, temperature, water, nutrients, fire, soil, space, other organisms
Limiting factors can have an indirect effect on another: food web, Example?
Ranges of Tolerance
Tolerance: the ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors
Organisms will live in an area if the conditions are less than favorable, but there will be a downfall to that.
Succession: Changes over time
4. thirty years later, the area is a forest.
Succession occurs in stages, and is the orderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem
Often hard to observe
Two types: primary and secondary
What would happen if you stopped cutting your grass?
1. grass grows taller, weeds start to grow
2. bushes grow, trees appear and different animals enter the area
3. the bushes and trees change the envrionment, less light reaches the ground
Succession occurs in stages
Each has different species of plants and animals and they continually die out and repopulate
Difficult to observe because it can take decades to centuries
Primary succession: the colonization of barren land by communities
From some catastrophic event
Takes place where there are no living organisms
First species that are there are called pioneer species, which eventually die out
These decaying and decomposing organisms build up in the soil and develop good nutrition
After a while, growth settles and a stable community develops
Climax community: a stable, mature that undergoes little or no change in species
Stability doesn’t mean that new species stop coming, it just means that it is now a stable environment
Secondary succession is the sequence of changes that takes place after an existing community is severely disrupted in some way
The community of organisms varies again
Differs from primary succession in that there was life there once and still contains soil
Doesn’t take as much time to reach a climax community than primary succession
Example: Mount St. Helens