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DNA informational packet begun on 3/24/17
DNA - The Double Helix
Recall that the nucleus is a small spherical, dense body in a cell. It is often called the "control center" because it controls all the activities of the cell including cell reproduction, and heredity. Chromosomes are microscopic, threadlike strands composed of the chemical DNA (short for deoxyribonucleic acid). In simple terms, DNA controls the production of proteins within the cell. These proteins in turn, form the structural units of cells and control all chemical processes within the cell. Think of proteins as the building blocks for an organism, proteins make up your skin, your hair, and parts of individual cells. The proteins that are made largely determine how you look. The proteins that will be made for your body are determined by the sequence of DNA in the nucleus. What important polymer is located in the nucleus? ______ is the instructions for making a cell's _ Chromosomes are composed of genes, which is a segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein, which in turn codes for a trait. Hence you hear it commonly referred to as the gene for baldness or the gene for blue eyes. Meanwhile, DNA is the chemical that genes and chromosomes are made of. DNA is called a nucleic acid because it was first found in the nucleus. We now know that DNA is also found in some organelles such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is the DNA in the nucleus that actually controls the cell I s workings. ____ on chromosomes code for specific in a cell. DNA is also found in and _ In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick established the structure of DNA. The shape of DNA is a double helix, which is like a twisted ladder. The sides of the ladder are made of alternating sugar and phosphate 1
molecules. The sugar is a pentose called deoxyribose. Color all the phosphates pink (one is labeled with a "p"). Color all the deoxyribose sugars blue (one is labeled with a "D"). What is meant by a double helix? Name a pentose sugar. _ The sides of DNA are made of and _ The rungs of the ladder are pairs of 4 types of nitrogen bases. The bases are known by their coded letters --- A, G, T, and C. These bases always bond in a certain way. Adenine will only bond to thymine. Guanine will only bond with cytosine. This is known as the "Base-Pair Rule." The bases can occur in any order along a strand of DNA. The order of these bases is the code that contains the instructions. For instance, ATGCACATA would code for a different gene than AATTACGGA. A strand of DNA contains millions of bases. (For simplicity, the image only contains a few.) What makes up the II rungs" of DNA? What will pair with adenine? Color the thymines orange. <==:J Color the adeni nes green. I '( Color the guanines purple.) I Color the cytosines yellow. I ) Note that that the bases attach to the sides of the ladder at the sugars and not the phosphate. The DNA helix is actually made of repeating units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three molecules: a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate, which links the sugars together, and then one of the four bases. Two of the bases are purines - adenine and guanine. The pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine. Note that the pyrimidines are 2
single ringed and the purines are double ringed. Color the nucleotides using the same colors as you colored them in the double helix. Nucleotides are made of a pentose , a , and a nitrogen-containing _ Name 2 bases with double C-N rings. The two sides of the DNA ladder are held together loosely by hydrogen bonds. The DNA can actually "unzip" when it needs to replicate or make a copy of itself. DNA needs to copy itself when a cell divides, so that the new cells each contain a copy of the DNA. Without these instructions, the new cells wouldn't have the correct information. The hydrogen bonds are represented by small circles. Color the hydrogen bonds grey. ______ bonds between bases must be broken to copy DNA. Copying DNA to make two, identical DNA molecule is called Messenger RNA So, now, we know the nucleus controls the cell's activities through the chemical DNA, but how? It is the sequence of bases that determine which protein is to be made. The sequence is like a code that we can now interpret. The sequence determines which proteins are made clnd the proteins determine which activities will be performed. This is how the nucleus is the control center of the cell. The only problem is that the DNA is too big to go through the nuclear pores so a chemical is used to read the DNA in the nucleus. That chemical is messenger RNA (mRNA). The messenger RNA (mRNA) is small enough to go through the nuclear pores. It takes the "message" of the DNA to the ribosomes and "tells them" what proteins are to be made. Recall that proteins are the body's building blocks. Imagine that the code taken to the ribosomes is telling the ribosome what is needed - like a recipe. 3
Messenger RNA is similar to DNA, except that it is a single strand, and it has NO thymine. Instead of thymine, mRNA contains the base Uracil. In addition to that difference, mRNA has the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose. RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid. Color the mRNA as you did the DNA, except Color the ribose a DARKER BLUE, and the uracil brown. ~ mRNA has a strand of nucleotides. _____ replaces on RNA. _____ is the pentose sugar on RNA. _____, not DNA can leave the nucleus through in the nuclear envelope. Proteins are made at the _ The Blueprint of Life Every cell in your body has the same "blueprint" or the same DNA. Like the blueprints of a house tell the builders how to construct a house, the cellular DNA "blueprint" tells the cell how to build the organism. Yet, how can a heart be so different from a brain if all the cells contain the same instructions? Although much work remains in genetics, it has become apparent that a cell has the abi!ity to turn off most genes and only work with the genes necessary to do a job. We also know that a lot of DNA apparently is nonsense and codes for nothing. These regions of DNA that do not code for proteins are called "introns, II or sometimes "junk DNA." The sections of DNA that do actually code for proteins are called "exons. II _____ are non-coding segments of DNA. Questions: 1. Write out the full name for DNA. 4 2. What is a gene? 3. Where in the cell are chromosomes located 4. DNA can be found in what organelles in the cell? 5. What two scientists established the structure of DNA? 6. What is the shape of DNA? 7. The sides of the DNA ladder are composed of what? 8. The "rungs" of the DNA ladder are made of what? 9. What sugar is found in DNA? In RNA? 10. How do the bases bond together? A bonds with G bonds with 11. The two purines in DNA are, and _ 12. DNA is made of repeating units called _ 13. Why is RNA necessary to act as a messenger? Why can't the code be taken directly from the DNA? 14. Proteins are made where in the cell? 15. How do some cells become brain cells and others become skin cells, when the DNA in ALL the cells is exactly the same? 16. Why is the DNA molecule referred to as the "blueprint of life"? Cv NUCLEOTIDES
DNA Molecule Messenger -NA p R 6
then one of the four bases. Two of the bases are purines - adenine and guanine. The pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine. Note that the pyrimidines are 2
single ringed and the purines are double ringed. Color the nucleotides using the same colors as you colored them in the double helix. Nucleotides are made of a pentose , a , and a nitrogen-containing _ Name 2 bases with double C-N rings. The two sides of the DNA ladder are held together loosely by hydrogen bonds. The DNA can actually "unzip" when it needs to replicate or make a copy of itself. DNA needs to copy itself when a cell divides, so that the new cells each contain a copy of the DNA. Without these instructions, the new cells wouldn't have the correct information. The hydrogen bonds are represented by small circles. Color the hydrogen bonds grey. ______ bonds between bases must be broken to copy DNA. Copying DNA to make two, identical DNA molecule is called Messenger RNA So, now, we know the nucleus controls the cell's activities through the chemica