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Poser 11 Reference Manual 558 Chapter 22: The Sketch Designer Chapter 22: The Sketch Designer Poser’s Sketch Designer renders scenes as sketch-like drawings using black-and-white or colored brush strokes that you can tailor to your liking. Simulate pen, pencil, pastel, charcoal, and even watercolors and paintings without ever having to pick up a pencil or brush! The Sketch Designer. You can save Sketch Designer renders and reload them later for further work. The Sketch Designer also lets you create amazing animations that look like hand-drawn movies. For best results, try rendering scenes using plenty of detail (hair, clothing, etc.) and dramatic lighting. To access the Sketch Designer, select Window > Sketch Designer. Alternately, you can access the Sketch Designer via the Sketch tab in the Render Settings dialog, which also contains other render and movie settings. Sketch Elements The Sketch Designer recognizes three distinct divisions within your scene: Poser 11 Reference Manual 559 Chapter 22: The Sketch Designer • Objects: Checking the Objects radio button allows you to determine the sketch style for objects and figures in your scene. • Background: Checking the Background radio button allows you to determine the sketch style for your scene’s background. • Edges: Checking the Edges radio button allows you to determine the sketch style for the edges of objects and figures in your scene. Presets You can use the Presets pop-up window above the preview tab to select one of the available preset sketch styles. You can also use the sliders and other options to create an almost infinite variety of styles. The Presets pop-up also allows you to create and remove sketch presets. To create a preset, adjust the sketch style to your desired settings, then select Presets > Create Preset. Enter a name for your preset and click OK. Your new preset will appear in the Presets menu. To delete a preset, select the preset you wish to delete using the Presets menu, then select Presets > Delete Preset. The Delete Preset option allows you to remove the sketch presets included with Poser. Once deleted, you must reinstall Poser to restore your factory default sketch presets. Checkboxes The Sketch Designer has three checkboxes: • Over Black: Checking the Over Black checkbox renders your scene over a black background with white strokes. When disabled, the background is white with black strokes. • Auto Density: Checking the Auto Density checkbox causes stroke density to reach an automatic density based on the current scene, ignoring the Density slider setting (see below). When disabled, the density is calculated based on the Density slider setting. • Colored Strokes: Checking the Colored Strokes checkbox causes sketches to be rendered in color. When disabled, sketches are rendered in black and white. Brushes The Sketch Designer includes several predefined brushes, available using the Brushes pull-down menu. For maximum effect, try using these brushes with both the Min Width and Max Width sliders set to higher values. Poser 11 Reference Manual 560 Chapter 22: The Sketch Designer Brush Presets. Sketch Parameters The Sketch Designer includes the following parameters, controllable using sliders. Moving a slider to the right increases the selected value, and vice versa. These parameters customize many characteristics of the sketched lines. Your sketch redraws each time you adjust a value, allowing you to see the results of your changes. • Density: The Density slider controls the density of lines in the sketch. • Line Length: The Line Length slider defines the length of strokes. • Min Width: The Min Width slider defines the width of the edge of each stroke, which affects the brightness of the original image. • Max Width: The Max Width slider defines the width of the center of each stroke, which affects the brightness of the original image. • Lo Brightness: The Lo Brightness slider determines the band of tone. A low setting only draws lines in the darkest parts of your scene. If the Over Black option is disabled, setting this control to 0 produces the best results. • Hi Brightness: The Hi Brightness slider determines the band of tone. A lower setting only draws lines in the darkest parts of your scene. If the Over Black option is enabled, setting this control to 1 produces the best results. • Stroke Head: The Stroke Head slider determines the amount of taper at the stroke’s head. • Stroke Tail: The Stroke Tail slider determines the amount of taper at the stroke’s tail. • Line Random: The Line Random slider controls line randomizations. Higher settings result in more randomly shaped lines. • Color Random: The Color Random slider controls color randomizations. Higher settings result in more random colorization. Poser 11 Reference Manual 561 Chapter 22: The Sketch Designer • Opacity: The Opacity slider determines the clarity of lines. Lower values create more transparent strokes. • Cross Hatch: The Cross Hatch slider controls the frequency of cross-hatching in the strokes. • Total Angle: The Total Angle slider determines the total amount of angle change that a stroke can have before it stops drawing. Higher values darken the image. Lower this value when you have lower Density settings. • Color Cutoff: The Color Cutoff slider determines the threshold of color changes allowed for a stroke. Use this slider in conjunction with Total Angle. • Light 1, 2, and 3: The Light 1, Light 2, and Light 3 sliders determine the extent to which the first three lights in your scene contribute to the direction of strokes. Higher values make the strokes go in the direction of the selected light(s). • BG Direction: The BG Direction slider defines the direction of the background strokes. • Auto Spacing: The Auto Spacing slider controls the amount of space between strokes if the Auto Density option is enabled. • Color Blend: The Color Blend slider determines how much color in the Document window will be blended into the sketch. Rendering Sketches After setting up your sketch, you can render it to the Document window. This is useful if you want to export a movie rendered using the Sketch Designer renderer. To render to the Document window, select Render > Sketch Style Render. Exporting Painter Scripts Clicking the Export Painter Script button in the lower left corner of the Sketch Designer exports the current Sketch Designer settings to Corel Painter. This has been tested to work with Painter 6 and previous versions, and is not supported for later versions though it may work with them. Poser 11 Reference Manual 562 Chapter 22: The Sketch Designer Part 5: Animating Poser 11 Reference Manual 563 Chapter 23: The Animation Menu Chapter 23: The Animation Menu The Animation pull-down menu lets you control various aspects of your Poser animations. Make Movie Setting Animation > Make Movie opens the Make movie window. Please refer to “Chapter 26: Rendering Animations” on page 623 for more information on rendering animations in Poser. Recalculate Dynamics Choose one of the options in the Animation > Recalculate submenu to recalculate all cloth dynamics, all hair dynamics, all physics dynamics, or all dynamics. For more information about dynamics, see “Chapter 28: The Hair Room” on page 648, “Chapter 29: The Cloth Room” on page 666, and “Chapter 25: Using Bullet Physics” on page 606. Retime Animation Selecting Animation > Retime Animation allows you to adjust the timing of your animations. Please refer to “Retiming Keyframes” on page 585 for more information. Resample Key Frames Selecting Animation > Resample Key Frames opens the Resample Keys window, which allows you to increase or decrease the number of keyframes in your animation: Please refer to “Resampling Key Frames” on page 586. Loop Interpolation If your animation contains looping cycles (such as a walk) that do not match evenly (causing jerky motions between the end of one loop and the start of the next), toggling Animation > Loop Interpolation on can smooth out your animation. Quaternion Interpolation Quaternion interpolation is a mathematical formula that can smooth rough animations. If your animation remains jerky after editing keyframes and all other efforts at smoothing it out, selecting Animation > Quaternion Interpolation can possibly help. This option should be toggled on as a last resort. Poser 11 Reference Manual 564 Chapter 23: The Animation Menu Skip Frames Selecting Animation > Skip Frames toggles skipping frames on and off. This option can help speed playback. Mute Sound Selecting Animation > Mute Sound toggles sound muting during animation playback. A check mark appears when muting is enabled, and vice versa. Clear Sound Selecting Animation > Clear Sound deletes the sound previously imported into your Poser scene. Play Movie File Selecting Animation > Play Movie File allows you to open a movie file for playback within Poser. A standard Open dialog appears, allowing you to browse to your desired movie file. Poser 11 Reference Manual 565 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Poser allows you to animate figures and props, giving life to your scenes. You can use your work in multimedia projects, on the Web, and in videos by exporting rendered results to Windows AVI, Macintosh QuickTime, or Flash movie format. AVI movies are rendered in 32-bit color, which by default includes an alpha channel (mask) for each frame. This can aid in compositing the animation with other movie footage. QuickTime movies can also contain an Alpha channel if set to render at millions of colors. Once rendered, exported animations can be opened and edited in post-production tools such as Adobe Premiere and Adobe After Effects, where you can edit sequences and add special effects. While you can create long animations, we recommend creating a series of shorter animations and piecing your scenes together using an editing application. Real movies follow this guideline as well: Each time a camera angle changes, you’re seeing a new take of a scene or a different scene altogether. This includes cases such as conversations, where the camera is switching back and forth between the participants. Poser includes many powerful tools designed to help you create stunningly realistic animations. Animation is easy to learn but hard to master. Start with short simple movies and work up as your skills improve. The results may surprise you! Animation Overview At its simplest, the animation process is as follows: 1. Decide how many frames you want in your animation. One way to do this is to decide how long your animation will be in seconds, then multiply that by the your desired number of frames per second (frame rate). 2. Create a starting pose. 3. Select your next keyframe. 4. Create a new pose. 5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until your animation is complete. Poser uses a technique called keyframe animation to simulate motion based on a series of still poses. You set up a series of poses at different points in time. These are the keyframes. Poser fills in the gaps, interpolating between keyframes to create the illusion of motion. This keeps you from having to move your figure each time you want to create a motion, such as is done in stop-frame animation, where each frame is individually positioned (many “Claymation” movies use stop-frame animation). What You Can Animate What can you animate using Poser? Just about everything! Here are some examples: • Figures (humans, animals, clothing, etc.): If you can imagine a motion, you can create it using Poser! Please refer to “Chapter 8: Posing Figures” on page 194 for Poser 11 Reference Manual 566 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser information about posing human figures, and to “Posing Animals” on page 241 for some information about posing animals. • Hands: Gestures and small motions add incredible realism to videos. Many amateur animators ignore hands when animating, which subtly detracts from your scene’s realism. Please refer to “Posing Hands” on page 239 for information about posing hands. • Faces: Animating faces can add emotion and power to your scene and can also mimic speech. Please refer to “Posing Faces with Morphs” on page 233 for more information about posing faces. • Props: You can animate props by moving them about the Poser workspace, parenting them to other actors, etc. Please refer to “About Props” on page 251 for more information about props. • Lights and Cameras: Change color and position of lights and zoom, pan, or bank cameras over time. • Deformers: You can animate magnets, waves, morph targets, and parameters. Please refer to “Using Deformers” on page 735 for more information about deformers. • Force Fields: You can animate Force Fields to create realistic wind effects for strand-based hair and dynamic cloth. Please refer to “Wind Force Fields” on page 753 for more information about force fields. • Materials: You can animate material shaders as described in “Part 3: Materials” on page 335. • Walk Paths: You can create paths that your figures walk along, as described in “Creating a Walk Path” on page 596. • Background: You can animate the background using the Material room. Please refer to “Part 3: Materials” on page 335 for more information about the Material room. • Movie nodes: You can play movies on any object using movie nodes in the Material room. By default, your animation moves over the Document window’s background. You can have still or animated backgrounds in your scenes. Please refer to “Importing Background Pictures” on page 928 and to “Importing Movies” on page 928 for more information about backgrounds in Poser scenes. Inverse Kinematics You can use IK or not in your animations, however it is a global setting. If enabled on a figure’s limbs, it’s on for the duration of your animation, and vice versa. You can turn it on or off while you work, but the final state is what will “stick” in your final animation. Toggling IK on and off can affect your animation; it’s best to pick an option before starting to animate and stay with it to avoid having unexpected changes occur in your animation. Please refer to “Inverse Kinematics (IK)” on page 195 for more information about Inverse Kinematics. Poser 11 Reference Manual 567 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Animation Tools Poser has five animation tools: • Animation controls: The simple, single channel Animation controls allow you to create quick click-and-drag animations as well as preview your work. Access the Animation controls by clicking the handle at the bottom of your Poser workspace. See “Using the Animation Controls” on page 567 for more information. If not displayed, choose Window > Animation Controls to show the Animation Controls. They will dock or float depending on how you last used them. • Animation Palette: The Animation palette contains the advanced editing features, with which you can create more complex animations. Among other things, you can edit keyframes, animation layers and individual actors, and create Animation Sets. Access the Animation palette by selecting Window > Animation Palette. Please refer to “Using the Animation Palette” on page 571 for more information about the Animation palette. • Graph: Each actor in your scene has a Graph for each of its possible motions, allowing you to exercise minute control over your animations. Access the Graph for any parameter by using the desired parameter dial’s menu as described in “Parameters Palette” on page 219. Please refer to “Using Graphs” on page 577 for more information about the Graph. • Walk Designer: Creating realistic walking movements is a very time consuming animation task to get right. Poser’s Walk Designer takes the effort out of this process and lets you quickly create realistic walks (for human figures only). Access the Walk Designer by selecting Window > Walk Designer. Please refer to “Using the Walk Designer” on page 592 for more information about the Walk Designer. • Talk Designer: Speech is one of the most important aspects of many animations; due to the complexity of the human face, it is also one of the most challenging things to animate realistically. Poser’s Talk Designer animates facial expressions, eye and head movements to create realistic lip sync animations based upon speech sound files that you import. Access the Talk Designer by selecting Window > Talk Designer. Please refer to “Using the Talk Designer” on page 600 for more information about the Talk Designer. Using the Animation Controls The Animation controls are dockable and floatable. This palette contains the tools most commonly used when creating animations. They allow you to add and edit keyframes and preview your animation. If the Animation controls do not appear on your screen, choose Window > Animation Controls and place them where you find it most convenient (generally the top or bottom of your document window is the common location). The Animation controls appear as follows, and consists of the controls described in the following sections: Poser 11 Reference Manual 568 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Animation Controls. Timeline/Frame Indicator The center portion of the Animation controls displays the Timeline, which represents the total time of your animation in Poser. This timeline contains a pointer (Scrubber) representing the location of the current frame relative to the entire animation, which is visible in the Document window. The Scrubber is very commonly used to quickly find specific points within animations. Click and drag the Scrubber to quickly navigate your animation. Just above the Scrubber is the Frame Indicator, which indicates both the total number of frames in your animation and your current position within that timeline, with the left field indicating position and the right indicating animation length. For example, if the two numbers read 60 and 120, that means that you are viewing the 60th frame of an animation that is 120 frames long. You can jump to a specific frame by clicking the left number field and entering the frame number you wish to jump to. You can also add or remove frames by clicking the right number field and entering the number of frames you wish in your animation. Entering a larger number lengthens your animation and vice versa. Shortening animations will cut the excess frames from the end. For example, if you reduce an animation from 120 to 90 frames, you will lose the final 30 frames. Recording Keyframes Poser records changes made to figures, props, materials, etc. as keyframes. Create keyframes by moving the scrubber to a new point on the timeline and making your desired change(s) to your scene. Recorded keyframes store new body part positions, new prop positions, material settings, etc. for each figure and prop within your scene. You can only record one set of position parameter settings for any given keyframe. For example, if you select a frame and move a figure’s arm up then change your mind and move the arm down again, the downward position is what will be “remembered” and what will affect your animation. To make a figure’s arm wave up and down: 1. Select a starting pose. 2. Move the scrubber to the point in time/frame number you wish to edit. 3. Raise the arm using the Editing tools. Poser 11 Reference Manual 569 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser 4. Move the scrubber to a later point in time/frame number. 5. Lower the arm, again using the Editing tools. 6. Continue creating keyframes until the motion sequence is complete. Camera animation must be enabled for the currently selected camera In order to automatically record keyframes. If animation is disabled, you can add keyframes manually (see following subsection). Play Controls The Play controls appear on the left side of the Animation controls and allow you to preview your animation using VCR-like controls. From left to right, the Play controls are as follows: The Play Controls. • First Frame: Clicking the First Frame button moves to the first frame in your animation. • End Frame: Clicking the End Frame button moves to the last frame in your animation. • Stop: Clicking the Stop button stops animation playback at the current frame. • Play/Pause: Clicking the Play button plays your animation at normal speed, including background movies and sounds (if any). While your animation is playing, this button becomes the Pause button. Clicking it freezes the animation at the current frame. • Step Backward: Clicking the Step Backward button moves back to the previous frame (i.e., the frame before the current one). • Step Forward: Clicking the Step Forward button moves forward one frame (i.e., the frame after the current one). • Loop: Checking the Loop radio button causes your animation to repeat itself continuously when playing until you click the Stop button. Poser 11 Reference Manual 570 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser • Animation previews run in the Document window. Be sure to select the appropriate tracking mode (see “Tracking Mode” on page 105). Keyframe Controls In most cases, Poser’s automatic animation engine records keyframes as you create animations. Sometimes, however, you’ll want to manually add keyframes, such as when camera animation is disabled. It is important for you to track the status of camera animation, as you could create a series of keyframes without realizing that the animation is off. As mentioned above, if camera animation is disabled, you must manually add keyframes in order to record them. You may also need to fine-tune animations, which may necessitate recording additional keyframes. For example, you could position the figure’s left foot at Frames 10 and 20, with Poser calculating its position for the tween frames. If you wanted to refine this, you could add a keyframe at Frame 15. The Keyframe controls allow you to quickly and easily add, preview, and remove keyframes within your animation. From left to right, the Keyframe controls are: The Keyframe Controls. • Previous Keyframe: The Previous Keyframe button returns to the previous keyframe. • Next Keyframe: The Next Keyframe button advances to the next keyframe. • Edit Keyframes: Clicking the Edit Keyframes button opens the Animation Palette, discussed next. • Add Key Frames: Clicking the Add Key Frames button adds a keyframe at the current frame number. For example, if you have existing keyframes at Frames 15 and 30, you could drag the Scrubber to Frame 22 and insert a keyframe by clicking the Add Key Frames button. You can also insert a keyframe by moving to any frame in your animation and making a change in your scene. This change will automatically be recorded as a new keyframe. • Remove Key Frames: Clicking the Remove Key Frames button removes the currently selected keyframe. For example, if your character’s arm is over his head in Frame 1, down at Frame 15 and out to the side in Frame 30 and you remove the keyframe in Frame 15, the figure’s arm will move out to the side position specified in Frame 30 without dropping to the figure’s side. To delete a keyframe, use the Poser 11 Reference Manual 571 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Next Keyframe or Previous Keyframe buttons to locate your desired keyframe, then click the Remove Keyframe button. • Skip Frames: Check this radio button to skip frames during playback. This helps conserve system resources while previewing your animation before you render it. Using the Animation Palette The Animation palette contains three tabs: the Keyframes tab, the Layers tab, and the Animation Sets tab. Each of these tabs will be described in detail in the following sections. To display the Animation palette, you can either select Window > Animation Palette, or click the Display Animation Palette button in the Animation controls as described above. To close the palette, either select Window > Animation Palette again, or click the small box in the upper left corner. The upper section of the Animation palette contains several controls that appear on all three tabs. These are as follows: Common Controls Several controls and options are common to all of the tabs in the Animation Palette. These options are discussed below. Poser 11 Reference Manual 572 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser The Animation Palette. You can resize the grid in the Animation Palette, making the keyframes wider or narrower, by clicking and dragging the resize button (below the text that reads Play Range as shown in the following figure). Drag left to make the grid narrower, or toward the right to make the grid wider. Poser 11 Reference Manual 573 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Resizing the grid. Current Layer The Current Layer pop-up menu appears at the very top of the Animation palette. This menu allows you to select a specific animation layer within the current animation. Please refer to “Layers Tab” on page 586 for more information about animation layers. Frame Rate The frame rate specifies the number of frames played per second. To change the scene frame rate, you can either click the current frame rate and enter your desired number in the text box that appears or click the arrow to the left of the current frame rate and make your selection from the Frame Rate pull-down menu. Choices are 12, 15, 18, 24, 25, 30, 50, and 60 frames per second. Some common frame rate settings are: • NTSC: 30 • PAL: 25 • Film: 24 • Flash: 12 (recommended) or 15 For Poser integration into other apps, the user will need to determine the frame rate to match that of the hosting software. The default frame rate in Poser is 30 fps, but other applications might use 24 fps. Users will need to create a file with the same frame rate. This needs to be handled specially for each app. Poser 11 Reference Manual 574 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser You can also set the output frame rate using the Movie Settings window ( “Chapter 26: Rendering Animations” on page 623). This setting is independent from your scene frame rate, as specified in the Animation palette (see above). Additionally, you can generate a quick preview render by specifying the Every N-th Frame setting in the Movie Settings window. Again, this setting is for output purposes only, and is independent of your scene frame rate. Time The Time control displays the amount of time in your animation between the first frame and the currently selected frame. Time is displayed in SMTPE format (Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Frame). You can jump to a specific point in time by entering your desired numbers in the fields. For example, if you jump to 1 minute in an animation using 24 frames per second, you’ll arrive at Frame 1440 (24 frames/sec times 60 seconds). Frame The Frame Indicator is identical to its counterpart in the Animation controls. You can jump to a specified frame and add or remove frames from your animation as described in “Timeline/Frame Indicator” on page 568. Play Controls The Play controls are identical to their counterparts in the Animation controls. See “Play Controls” on page 569 for more information. Play Range By default, the entire animation plays when previewing animations using the Play controls. You can, however, opt to view only a portion of your animation during preview. This feature is useful if you have a long animation and only want to focus on small portions at a time. The Play Range indicator appears at the bottom of all three tabs on the Animation palette. To adjust the play range, drag the beginning and/or end point to your desired starting and ending frames, respectively. Animation Palette Options Menu Clicking the Options arrow at the top right of the Animation Palette opens the Animation palette Options menu, which contains the following options: Animation Palette options menu. Poser 11 Reference Manual 575 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser • Display Frames: Selecting the Display Frames option toggles the Timeline columns to display using animation frames. • Display Time Code: Selecting the Display Time Code option toggles the Timeline columns to display, representing your animation’s running time. • Loop Interpolation: Selecting the Loop Interpolation option toggles loop interpolation on and off. Please refer to “Loop Interpolation” on page 563 for more information. • Quaternion Interpolation: Selecting the Quaternion Interpolation option toggles quaternion interpolation on and off. Please refer to “Quaternion Interpolation” on page 563 for more information. Keyframes View The Keyframes view is where you edit the keyframes in your animation. It shows the layout of the keyframes and allows you to set and move between them. You can also play animations directly from this palette. The Keyframes tab appears as follows: The Keyframes view of the Animation Palette. Poser 11 Reference Manual 576 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser When you first display this tab, it shows any keyframes you previously created using the Animation controls, for the currently selected animation layer. Please refer to “Layers Tab” on page 586 for more information about animation layers. If you wish to see the keyframes contained within a different animation layer, select the name of the new layer from the Current Layer pop-up menu. In addition to the controls described above, the Keyframes tab contains the following elements: Keyframe Controls The Keyframe controls are almost identical to their counterparts in the Animation controls. The main difference is that the keyframe controls in the Keyframes palette feature a button that allows you to open the Graph palette. Keyframe Controls. • Previous Keyframe: The Previous Keyframe button returns to the previous keyframe. • Next Keyframe: The Next Keyframe button advances to the next keyframe. • Show Graph Display: Clicking the Show Graph Display button opens the Graph, discussed in “Using Graphs” on page 577. • Add Key Frames: Clicking the Add Key Frames button adds a keyframe at the current frame number. For example, if you have existing keyframes at Frames 15 and 30, you could drag the Scrubber to Frame 22 and insert a keyframe by clicking the Add Key Frames button. You can also insert a keyframe by moving to any frame in your animation and making a change in your scene. This change will automatically be recorded as a new keyframe. • Remove Key Frames: Clicking the Remove Key Frames button removes the currently selected keyframe. For example, if your character’s arm is over his head in Frame 1, down at Frame 15 and out to the side in Frame 30 and you remove the keyframe in Frame 15, the figure’s arm will move out to the side position specified in Frame 30 without dropping to the figure’s side. To delete a keyframe, use the Next Keyframe or Previous Keyframe buttons to locate your desired keyframe, then click the Remove Keyframe button. Poser 11 Reference Manual 577 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser • Skip Frames: Check this radio button to skip frames during playback. This helps conserve system resources while previewing your animation before you render it. Using Graphs When you double-click a keyframe, the Graph palette for that keyframe appears. An element’s Graph palette allows you to perform precise edits on keyframes and modify the interpolation methods used in your animation. The Graph palette contains the following functions: The Graph Palette. • Current Actor: Displays the actor that was controlled by the keyframe that you double-clicked to open the graph..You can expand the menu to select any other figure or actor in your scene. • Animatable Properties: The Animation Properties pull-down menu allows you to select one of the animatable properties for the currently selected element. • Selection Sync: Graphs are no longer locked to a single actor. When Selection Sync is enabled, the graph palette will change to the actor/parameter that you select in the scene or the animation palette. When disabled, the graph palette will not change to another parameter when you select one. When Selection Sync is enabled, the actor/parameter popups in the graph palette will be disabled. • Interpolation Methods: See “Selecting Interpolation Types” on page 578. • Keyframe Controls: See “Keyframe Controls” on page 576. • Work Area: See below. Poser 11 Reference Manual 578 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser The following subsections describe the Graph’s functionality in further detail. About the Graph Palette The Graph Work Area consists of two axes and a graph. The horizontal axis represents time in frame numbers. The vertical axis’ values change depending on the selected attribute. If you choose a position attribute such as xTrans, the values represent positions in 3D space (Cartesian coordinates). If you select an editing property such as Bend, the axis represents degrees. A morph parameter’s values are measured in percentages. The Graph itself shows the actual change in the attribute over the course of your animation. Its shape indicates the type of interpolation being used. You can also use the Graph palette for synchronizing sound to motion, as described in “Syncing Sound & Motion” on page 600. You will be given the option to save graph palettes when you save content to the Library, or when you save projects. . Selecting Interpolation Types The Graph contains controls allowing you to specify interpolation methods, which can be specified on both the element and frame range levels. The Interpolation controls appear as follows: Interpolation Controls. To choose an interpolation method, select the elements and frame range to modify, then click your desired Interpolation button. The Animation palette uses color codes to depict varying interpolation methods. • Spline: Green Splines can sometimes go beyond and exceed the maximum keyframed values depending on the slope created by tightly- spaced keyframes. Adding additional keyframes can constrain the slope into more pleasing levels. • Linear: Red • Constant: Grayed out • Break Spline: A hash mark appears where Break Spline has been applied. Editing the Graph You can edit the graph to achieve varying degrees of interpolation. For example, to decrease the amount of Spline interpolation, straighten the curve. You can set the curve’s shape using preset interpolation methods or by dragging the curve’s points to obtain your desired shape. You can also apply different interpolation methods to different parts of the graph using the Break Spline function. Poser 11 Reference Manual 579 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Be aware that changing the graph’s shape affects the selected element’s motion. To edit the graph, use the Animation Properties pull-down menu or select Graph from the Parameters palette (see “Using Graphs” on page 577) to select the attribute to be edited. Next, drag any point on the graph in the direction you want to move the curve. The curve will reshape itself based on your chosen interpolation method(s). Use the scrollbar to view parts of the graph that are not currently being displayed. To change the type of interpolation applied to a portion of the graph, click and drag to select the frames you wish to change. Your selected area will become highlighted. Next, click one of the Interpolation buttons at the bottom of the palette. This can add keyframes to your animation. Vertical lines on the graph denote keyframes. You can move these points to change when keyframes occur, and can also add keyframes by clicking the point on the line where you want to insert the keyframe. The Current Frame indicator is a visual reminder of the frame you’re currently working on. To select a keyframe, click the Next Keyframe or Previous Keyframe button, as appropriate, click a keyframe indicator, or drag the Current Frame indicator to the frame you wish to edit. Click and drag a rectangle to select a range of frames. Keyframes displayed in the Graph. You can also perform the following functions using the Graph: • To move keyframes, select the keyframe(s) you want to move, and drag forward or backward in the timeline to a new location. • To add a keyframe, drag the Current Frame indicator to your desired location and click the Add Key Frames button. • To delete a keyframe, move the Current Frame indicator to the desired keyframe and click the Delete Key Frames button. • To cut, copy, and paste, use the editing hotkeys ([COMMAND]/[CTRL]+[X], [COMMAND]/[CTRL]+[C], and [COMMAND]/[CTRL]+[V], respectively) or choose the appropriate command from the Edit menu. • To close the Graph palette, click the small box in the upper left corner. Poser 11 Reference Manual 580 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Using the Graph With the Animation Palette If you open the Animation palette, you can access the Graph palette for the currently selected scene element by clicking the Display Graph Palette button, or by double- clicking a keyframe in the Animation palette. With both palettes open, you have the following options: • Double-click any element in the Animation palette’s Element list to switch the current Graph palette to the selected element. The element list will be disabled when the Selection Sync option is checked in the graph palette. • Double-click any element in the Animation palette’s Element list to open a new Graph palette for the selected element. You can open as many Graph palettes as you like at one time, which can greatly speed up your animation work. You can even open more than one Graph palette for each element, allowing you to (for example) adjust the Right Forearm’s Twist and Bend at once to achieve smooth realistic movement. When you have more than one Graph palette open at once, changing elements by double-clicking them will update all Graph palettes that have those elements selected, or that have the Selection Sync option enabled. All other Graph palettes will retain their current settings. If you need to change more than one graph palette, close out all unneeded palettes, then re-open them by selecting your currently needed elements. Interpolation Controls The process of filling in the blanks between keyframes (the area known as tween frames) is called interpolation, and the frames between keyframes are called tweens. Interpolation determines how intermediate poses are created. Poser supports four types of interpolation, which allows you to make subtle changes to your animations. Interpolation settings apply to a range of frames, meaning that you can use different interpolation methods at different intervals in your animation. The Interpolation controls allow you to specify the interpolation method. Interpolation Controls. From left to right, the buttons are: • Spline: Places tween poses and settings on a curve. Motion begins at one keyframe, accelerates to full velocity, and gradually slows down as it approaches the next keyframe. For example, if the first keyframe has an arm by a figure’s side Poser 11 Reference Manual 581 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser and the second one has it raised, the arm will begin moving slowly, accelerate to a constant velocity, and slow as it reaches the second keyframe. This is not to say that the movement will be fast; actual speed of motion depends on the amount of change between keyframes and the number of tween frames. In our above example, having the second keyframe 5 frames from the first would make a very rapid motion, while having 100 frames would make a very slow motion. The key thing to remember is that this type of animation resembles a smooth curve and is normally the most realistic. Spline Interpolation. • Linear: Takes the two keyframes and divides the motion between them equally with no acceleration or deceleration of the moving items. In the above example, the arm would move at a constant velocity from keyframe to keyframe. If you created a third keyframe with the arm back down, the change direction at the second keyframe would be abrupt. Linear Interpolation. • Constant: This has no intermediate poses. If you set a series of poses with different keyframes, the first pose will be maintained until the second keyframe, at which point it will instantly change to the second pose, which will be maintained until the third keyframe, and so on. Constant Interpolation. • Break Spline: Stops interpolation at the selected point so you can begin a new interpolation style. This is useful for blending different interpolation styles. For example, a bouncing ball moves in a smooth arc until it hits the floor, at which point it undergoes an abrupt change in direction and speed. This is one scenario where changing interpolation styles can aid your animating work. Poser 11 Reference Manual 582 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Breaking interpolation. Skip Frames Clicking the Skip Frames radio button enabling this option drops frames when previewing your animation, speeding up playback. Click the button again to toggle its functionality off. Loop Clicking the Loop radio button causes your animation to repeat itself continuously when playing until you click the Stop button. Click the button again to toggle its functionality off. This Element/All Elements This option selects whether changes made using the Keyframes tab (interpolation type, keyframe changes, etc.) apply to the entire scene or just to the selected element. Click the This Element or All Elements radio button, as appropriate, to make your selection. Selecting elements to change. Elements List/Timeline The Elements List displays a list of all elements in your scene. The Timeline Area displays your animation frames and all of the keyframes stored for each body part/prop/ material/etc. Keyframes appear in red, with tween (interpolated) frames appearing in different colors according to their interpolation type (see “Selecting Interpolation Types” on page 578). You can expand and collapse element listings by clicking the triangles next to elements in the list. Each element can be further expanded to display its properties and parameters that can be animated. For example, you can view the Scale and Transition elements for a figure’s forearm. The following image displays a portion of the Elements List for a scene. Poser 11 Reference Manual 583 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser The Element List. To select an element, click it in the Element List. This selects the desired element in the same manner as clicking it in the Document window, using the Current Actor menu or selecting it using any of the other available selection methods. Poser highlights the currently selected element in the Elements List as well as that element’s row in the Timeline. Use the vertical scroll bar on the right of the Elements List and expand and collapse branches to view all of the elements in your scene. Collapsing branches saves space in the display. When you collapse an entire figure in the Elements List, the keyframes displayed will only be those pertaining to that figure’s location in the Poser workspace. You’ll need to expand the Elements List to show posing/parameter changes. Double-clicking an element in the list, or selecting an element and clicking the Show Graph button, opens the Graph for the selected item. Please see “Using Graphs” on page 577. Editing Keyframes on the Timeline You can use the Timeline to select, add, edit, or delete keyframes. The Timeline appears as a grid that displays keyframes for each element in your scene. Columns indicate time, with each column corresponding to a single animation frame or point in time (See “Elements List/Timeline” on page 582). The Ruler at the top of this area indicates whether the columns indicate frames or points in time. Each row corresponds to an element in your scene. As described above, the Timeline presents information using color codes. Use the horizontal and/or vertical scrollbars to navigate the Timeline if necessary. Selecting Keyframes By default, Poser selects the first frame in your animation (Frame 1) when you open the Animation palette. You can select any frame by clicking in or above its column. You can also enter a number in the Frame field. When you select a keyframe, Poser displays the current element’s row and time column, creating an intersection. Selecting a different keyframe moves the intersection to the newly selected point. To select a keyframe, click any one of the light green squares on the Timeline grid. Poser 11 Reference Manual 584 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Selecting Keyframes. Adding & Removing Keyframes Adding keyframes stores a specific pose and/or saves a Poser-created interpolation (tween) frame. You can add keyframes for the entire scene or the selected element by checking either the This Element or All Elements radio button as described in “This Element/All Elements” on page 582. When This Element is selected, keyframes are only recorded for your currently selected element. When All Elements is selected, keyframes are recorded for every element in your scene. To add a keyframe: 1. Select This Element or All Elements, as appropriate. 2. Select the frame or point in time where you wish to add the keyframe. 3. Click the Add Keyframes button. Removing Individual Keyframes Removing keyframes can modify how your animation appears. You can clear a keyframe for a specific element or your entire scene by selecting This Element or All Elements, as appropriate. Removing a keyframe does not delete the frame, but removes the saved information. To remove a keyframe: 1. Select This Element or All Elements, as appropriate. 2. Select the frame or point in time where you wish to remove the keyframe. 3. Click the Delete Keyframes button. Removing Multiple Keyframes To remove an entire range of keyframes, click and drag over the keyframes you wish to delete in the Timeline and press [DEL]. To remove multiple specific keyframes, press and hold Shift while selecting individual keyframes, then press [DEL]. Moving Keyframes While creating animations, you may decide to have one or more keyframes occur earlier or later than your present settings. You may also want to apply the settings in some keyframes to others. Poser allows you to move both individual and multiple keyframes. To do this, click the keyframe you wish to move and drag the colored cell horizontally to its new location. To move multiple keyframes, select them and drag your selection to its new location on the timeline. Poser 11 Reference Manual 585 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Copying Keyframes You can copy keyframes, figure parts, and parameters appearing in the Element List. By doing this, you can (for example) have several Poser figures marching in perfect step. Although Poser does not limit how you copy and paste keyframes, you should avoid mixing data (such as copying Scale parameter settings to a Rotation parameter). You can also obtain unexpected results by copying movements from one side of a body to another. If you do copy parameters from side to side, you will need to make the affected parameters negative on the side you copied to. Choose Edit > Copy or press [COMMAND]/[CTRL]+[C] to copy frames to your clipboard. When you reach your destination, select Edit > Paste or press [COMMAND]/[CTRL]+[V]. Alternatively, you can click the desired keyframe then press and hold Opt/ALT while dragging the keyframe to its new location. You can move multiple keyframes by selecting them and Opt/ALT+dragging your selection to its new location. Retiming Keyframes Selecting Animation > Retime Animation opens the Retime Keys dialog, which allows you to adjust keyframe timing in your animation. The Retime Animation dialog. By specifying source and destination frame ranges, you can change the amount of time a motion or motions take to occur. This command does not destroy any keyframes, meaning that you can use it to repeat motions by copying them from one time to another. Selecting a motion in one area and selecting a non-overlapping destination re-maps the motion to another time without deleting the original motion. To retime keyframes: 1. Open the Retime Keys dialog box. 2. Enter the start and end frames for the section of animation you want to retime in the Source Frames fields. 3. Enter the range of frames to retime the animation to in the Destination Frames fields. If the destination range is longer than the source range, the animation is expanded or slows down, and vice versa. 4. Click OK when finished. When using this command, all existing keyframes in the Destination Range are deleted. Poser 11 Reference Manual 586 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Resampling Key Frames Selecting Animation > Resample Key Frames opens the Resample Keys window, which allows you to increase or decrease the number of keyframes in your animation. This window has the following options: The Resample Keys dialog. • Modify: Check the appropriate radio button to sample keyframes for the Current Element (prop, body part, etc.), Current Figure (entire figure), or Everything (entire scene). • Resample Method: You have two options for resampling keyframes: Analyze Curvature: Causes Poser to examine the amount of curvature (change over time) in your animation and automatically assign new keyframes. Make key frame every X frames: Check this radio button and enter a value in the Frames field to create a keyframe every X frames, where X is the value you entered in the field. • Frame Range: If you want to resample key frames in a specific portion of your animation, enter the start frame and end frame in the Frame Range fields. Layers Tab Animation layers, also known as non-linear animation, provide you with the ability to separate different parts of an animation into independent pieces, which can be individually edited, moved, or even hidden, with respect to the entire animation. At render time, the various layers are composited together into a single animation, according to your specifications. The Layers tab on the Animation palette contains the controls that allow you to create, configure, move and delete animation layers. Poser 11 Reference Manual 587 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Layers tab in the Animation Palette. If you switch from the Layers tab to the Keyframes tab, you will see any keyframes that exist in the currently selected animation layer. If you wish to see keyframes from another layer, use the Current Layer pop-up menu at the top of the Animation palette to select any existing layers, without having to return to the Layers tab. Base Layer When you first begin to create an animation, only one layer will exist; this is known as the Base layer. The Base layer is always present, and if you wish, you can create your entire animation just in this single layer. The frame count of the Base layer is equivalent to the length of the entire animation. The Start frame of the Base layer is always Frame 1, and the End frame is the last frame in the entire animation. Thus, changing the End frame of the Base layer changes the length of your animation, which will affect any other layers whose End frames coincide with the End frame of the Base layer. You cannot change any properties of a Base Layer other than the End frame. Poser 11 Reference Manual 588 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Creating, Deleting & Previewing Animation Layers In addition to the shared controls common to all three tabs on the Animation palette (see “Using the Animation Palette” on page 571 for a description of these controls), the upper section of the Layers tab also contains three buttons: • New: Click the New button to create a new animation layer. • Delete: Click the Delete button to delete the currently selected animation layer. This feature is disabled when the Base layer is selected. • Collapse Layers: Click the Collapse Layers button to combine all layers with the base layer/ • Current Layer Only: Click the Current Layer Only radio button to temporarily exclude all other animation layers from the playback. Doing so allows you to isolate the specific animation contained within the current layer, which can be helpful in scenes with multiple layers. Current Layer Only option. Animation Layer Controls The lower portion of the Layers tab contains additional controls that allow you to configure a selected layer, and the Timeline Area, which displays the various layers in editable segments, allowing you to see the hierarchy of the layers as well as where each layer is placed in the timeline of the entire animation. The Layer controls are as follows: Poser 11 Reference Manual 589 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Layer Controls. • Layer Name: Once you have created a new layer, you can change its default name to anything you want. Simply select the layer in the Timeline display, and type the new name in the text field. • Include in Playback: Check or uncheck this option to include or exclude the selected clip when you preview your animation. • Start/End Frame: The Start frame and End frame controls allow you to specify the Start and End frames for the selected layer. While the Base layer always equals the length of the entire animation, other layers can be of any length up to the entire animation length, and can start and end at any point within the duration of the animation. You can change the Start and End frames by clicking on the frame number and typing a new value into the field. Alternately, you can click on the layer segment in the Timeline Area and drag it to a new position; the segment length will remain constant, but the Start and End frames will change. Clicking and dragging on either the beginning or the end of the layer segment will change the Start or End frame respectively, without moving the position of the segment within the animation timeline. The length of the layer segment will adjust to accommodate the new Start or End frame number. • Blend In/Out Frames: The Blend In/Out feature allows you to gradually blend an animation layer into, or out of, the full animation. This feature could be used, for example, to create the effect of wind gradually picking up or fading away. The Blend in frames and Blend out frames settings allow to you specify over how many frames the linear blend will occur. The Blend In/Out frame count is indicated on Poser 11 Reference Manual 590 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser the layer segment display as an additional shaded segment attached to either the beginning or end of the layer segment. If the animation contained within a specific layer is a gradual movement, then the Blend feature may not be effective, particularly if the Blend In/Out frame counts are set too low. • Composite Method: While compositing the full animation, Poser begins with the Base layer, and works upwards through the layer hierarchy incorporating each layer one by one. The Composite method setting allows you to specify the manner in which the individual layers will be composited. The two options for compositing animation layers are Replace and Add. Replace: This is the default composite method for animation layers. Selecting Replace means that any action on a given parameter for a specific actor will replace any actions on the same parameter, on all layers below the selected layer. For example, let’s suppose that Layer1 is below Layer2 in the animation layer hierarchy. Let’s also suppose that in Layer1 James’ chest is twisted twenty degrees to the left, but in Layer2 his chest is twisted only ten degrees to the left. With the Replace option, the Layer2 setting will replace the setting from Layer1. Add: Selecting Add means that the values for all rotation and translation parameters will be added to one another as Poser composites each layer into the animation. Using the above example, the twenty degrees of Twist from Layer1 would be added to the ten degrees from Layer2, resulting in a greater effect of thirty degrees of Twist. However, if Layer1 had included a twist of negative twenty degrees, while Layer2 had included a twist of positive ten degrees, then the Add option would result in a final twist effect of negative ten degrees. • Move Up/Down: If you select the Replace composite method, the specific order of the layers within the layer hierarchy will be very important, as parameter settings in higher layers replace those in lower layers (see above for additional explanation). You can change the order of layers within the hierarchy by clicking the Move up or Move down button to move the selected layer either up or down one level. Clicking the button a second time will repeat the action. Animation Sets Tab Animation sets allow you to store a series of animation clips that are frequently used in combination. For example, you could animate a figure raising its arm above its head and save the limb’s movements to a named animation set. Creating & Editing Animation Sets To work with animation sets, open the Animation palette by selecting Window > Animation Palette. Click the Animation Sets tab to open the Animation Sets palette, as shown. The Frame Rate, Time control, Frame Indicator, Play controls, and Skip Frames button all function as described in previous sections of this chapter. Poser 11 Reference Manual 591 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Creating an Animation Set. • To create a new animation set, click the New button and name your new set. Doing so will populate the Animation Sets tab with additional editing controls. • To delete an animation set, select the set from the pop-up menu to the right of the Attributes button, and click the Delete button. • To add selected items and/or frames to your animation set, click and drag to make your selection and click the + button. You can select any combination of items/frames. The start and end frames will be made identical for all items in the animation set. • To remove selected item(s) and/or frame(s), make your selection and click the – button. Several buttons allow you to add, remove, and set attributes for your animation set items and frames. • To save an animation set, you will need to save the pose to the Library. To save an animation set pose, first open the Pose library. Click the Save to Library button Poser 11 Reference Manual 592 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser at the bottom of the Library palette to display the New Set dialog. Next, click the Select Subset button at the bottom of the dialog to open the Select Objects dialog. Click the Select from Animation Set button to display a list of the available animation sets. Choose one of the sets, and click OK to save the animation set to the library. Repeat for additional sets you want to save. Setting Animation Set Attributes The Attributes button is for use with Python scripts. You can add any arbitrarily named attribute with an associated value. Using Python scripts, you can use these attributes any way you wish. For example, you could create a Python script that causes a figure to blink their eyes repeatedly. For more information on using Python scripts with Poser, please refer to “Chapter 41: Using PoserPython” on page 1009, or to the PoserPython Methods Manual that accompanied your Poser installation. Applying Animation Sets to Figures You can also apply animation sets to figures. For example, if you create an animation set of an arm being raised, applying that set to your current figure will cause its arm to raise in the exact way specified by the animation set. This feature can help you save time by allowing you to reuse complex animations over and over. Using the Walk Designer Of the wide range of human motions, walking is among the hardest to simulate with any degree of accuracy. Walking looks simple: just place one foot in front of the other. In reality, however, it is an incredibly complex motion involving a variety of muscles in the legs, torso, arms– practically the entire body. Thus, creating an accurate walk simulation entails a great deal of precision posing. Poser’s Walk Designer allows you to bypass most of this and create a realistic walk using just a few simple steps. Poser 11 Reference Manual 593 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser The Walk Designer. Creating the Walk To open the Walk Designer, select the figure you’d like to animate in the Poser scene, then choose the Window > Walk Designer menu command. Unless you want your figure to walk in place (without a walk path), create a walk as follows: 1. Create a walk path (your figure will follow this path when walking) 2. Create a walk using the Walk Designer. The Walk Designer has two sections. The upper set of controls creates the walk’s larger motions, while the lower set lets you set up the walk’s secondary motions. To preview a walk, click the Walk button at any time while using the Walk Designer. The preview will loop indefinitely and the button will change to Stop. Views As you can see in the previous graphic, the Walk Designer includes a real-time preview of the walk being created. As you change the parameters, the walk changes to reflect your updates. You can specify the angle from which to preview your walk by checking the appropriate radio button underneath the Preview tab: • (default): Checking the radio button looks at the figure on an angle. Poser 11 Reference Manual 594 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser • Side: Checking the Side radio button looks at the figure’s side. • Front: Checking the Front radio button looks at the figure’s front. • Top: Checking the Top radio button looks down from the top. The Walk Designer reflects your current Poser workspace’s foreground, background, and shadow colors, as well as tracking mode. Figure Types This step is optional, however it can address potential issues such as irregular or jerky motions in generated walks. To load a figure type, click the Load button in the Walk Designer and use the standard Open dialog to locate your desired character (*.CR2) file. Please see “Appendix B: Poser File Structure” on page 1018 for more information about Poser file types, including CR2 files. Try loading the same figure you’re working on. For example, if creating a walk for the Don figure, load him into the Walk Designer for best results. Blend & Tweak Styles Once you’ve loaded your figure type, you can begin designing your walk. By default, the sliders are all in the middle of their ranges. This combination applies a workable default walk. Dragging a slide to the right increases its value and effect, and vice versa. To create a walk: 1. Drag the Blend sliders to create the large motions. Use the preview to view all of the available settings. Try using combinations of several settings, and remember that small changes can produce dramatic results. 2. Adjust the Tweak sliders to fine-tune the walk. 3. When your walk looks the way you want it to, click the Done button to open the Apply Walk dialog (see below). Clicking the Defaults button restores all sliders to their default positions. Loading & Saving Walks You can load and save walk files using the Walk Designer. This is not the same as saving animated poses to the Library palette. To save a walk, create it, then click the Save button to open a standard dialog box allowing you to specify the name and location for the saved walk. Select your desired path, enter a name for the saved walk, and click OK. To load a walk, click the Load button to open a standard Open dialog, allowing you to specify a path and filename for the walk file to load. Poser 11 Reference Manual 595 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser For greatest realism, load walks created using the same figure type. Applying Walks Once you’ve created your walk, you need to apply it to the figure’s walk path (see “Creating a Walk Path” on page 596 for instructions on creating walk paths). The Walk Apply dialog allows you to specify various options for applying your newly created walk. If you want your figure to walk in place, you can use this dialog without having a walk path. You have the following options when applying walks: The Apply Walk dialog. • Figure: If your scene has more than one figure in it, the Figure pull-down menu allows you to select the figure to apply the walk to. • Walk in Place/Follow Path: Clicking the Walk in Place radio button causes the selected figure to walk in place without going anywhere. You can use this option to create a walk without a walk path. Alternately, if you wish your figure to follow a walk path, click the Follow Path radio button. • Path: If your scene has more than one walk path, you can use the Path pull-down menu to specify the walk path to use. Poser 11 Reference Manual 596 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser • Align Head to: Checking the Align Head to box lets you control how the figure’s head acts as it moves along the walk path. One Step Ahead keeps the head aligned with the body and produces the most head movements. End of Path keeps the figure’s head looking at the end of the walk path no matter where it leads. Next Sharp Turn aligns the head to the turns in the walk path, the head only moving when the path curves. • Always Complete Last Step: Checking the Always complete last step box forces the walk animation to complete within the allotted time. This is useful if the walk ends in mid-stride at the end. • Transition From/To Pose at Start/End Frames: The Transition from pose at start and Transition from pose at end options allow your figure to smoothly transition into and out of the walk at the beginning and end of the walk cycle, respectively. When enabled, Poser interpolates between the figure’s pose at the start of the walk and the settings you specified in the Walk Designer, and vice versa at the end of the cycle. For example, you can use this feature to quickly set up a runner by posing the figure in the crouched starting position, designing a run, and specifying a realistic transition time. When you play your animation, the runner will come off the starting blocks and begin the run. Checking one or both boxes enables the specified option(s). Once enabled, enter the number of frames to be used for the transition. Longer time periods (more frames) allow more realistic movements and vice versa. • Start Frame: Enter the frame in your animation where the walk will begin in the Start Frame field. • End Frame: Enter the frame in your animation where the walk will end in the End Frame field. Poser suggests a value that is expected to yield a natural walk speed. The more frames allocated, the more time a figure will take to walk along the specified path. • Create Keyframes in: The Create Keyframes in setting allows you to select either a new or existing animation layer for your walk keyframes. Animation layers allow you to organize your animations, save and reuse specific aspects of a larger animation. We recommend that you create the keyframes in a new animation layer; click the “New animation layer” radio button to select this option. Alternately, you can choose to use an existing animation layer by clicking the “Layer” radio button, and selecting the name of the layer from the pop-up menu. If you do not wish to use animation layers, you can simply write all keyframes to the Base Layer. For more information about animation layers, please see “Layers Tab” on page 586. Creating a Walk Path Creating a walking figure is a two-step process. The first step entails creating a walk path for your selected figure that defines where s/he is going to walk. The figure can walk in place or along a path. Walk paths are designed to work with the Walk Designer (see “Using the Walk Designer” on page 592). While the Walk Designer specifies how your figure walks, a walk path specifies where. The path is a curve drawn in the Document window that sets the figure’s course as it moves about the Poser workspace. Create the path, design the walk, and the figure walks along the path from start to end, stopping at the end. Poser 11 Reference Manual 597 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser To create a walk path, Select Figure > Create Walk Path. A default path appears in the Poser workspace. We recommend shifting to the Top camera and zooming out to get the best view of your scene and walk path, but you can work using any camera you like. The following image shows a default walk path. Default walk path. Walk paths must be created on the ground plane. Shaping Curves The curve’s position is defined using control points. Click and drag control points to shape your path any way you like. Drag a control point to reshape the curve. You can position the beginning and end of the walk path by dragging the end control points. You can also reposition the entire walk path by selecting the ring that appears when your cursor is near the walk path, which functions like the Figure Ring discussed in “Selecting Body Parts” on page 199. Poser 11 Reference Manual 598 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Adding and Removing Control Points To add control points, simply click anywhere along the line. Your new control points appear. Adding control points can add detail and/or lengthen your walk path. You can add or remove points on the walk path. To delete control points, press and hold Opt/ALT while clicking the point you wish to remove. Once you have completed your walk path, use the Walk Designer to design a walk for your figure. Please refer to “Using the Walk Designer” on page 592 for more information about the Walk Designer. A reshaped walk path. Because of the nature of the spline used for walk paths, it is impossible to create a hard right-angle turn. These and other abrupt direction changes can result in unnatural-looking walks. Poser 11 Reference Manual 599 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Once you have created a walk using the Walk Designer, you can delete the walk path. The figure will still behave as though the walk path was present. Sound Poser allows you to import sounds, which play when your animation plays. This is a great way for you to add soundtracks, speech, etc. to your animations. To import a sound clip, select File > Import > Sound and use the standard Open dialog that appears to locate your desired sound file. If you wish to import a speech sound clip for use with the Talk Designer, select File > Import > Lip Sync Audio (see below for information on the Talk Designer). Imported sounds attach to your animations at the first frame and play whenever the animation is played. Also, you can only import one sound file. If your animation calls for more than one sound, edit your desired sounds together in an audio editing application and create a new sound file for importing into Poser. Importing sounds files will add keyframes based on the current frame rate selected. For example a two second long sound file will expand the default animation to 60 frames if a frame rate of 30 frames per second has been selected for the animation. Editing Sound Sound duration appears in the Sound Range bar at the bottom of the Animation Palette. You can clip imported sounds by shortening the sound bar. However, if sound playback begins at any frame other than 1, the beginning of the sound will be clipped. The sound range is displayed at the bottom of the Animation Palette. To specify start and end frames for the sound, drag arrows on either side of the sound bar. Poser 11 Reference Manual 600 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Syncing Sound & Motion The Graph palette displays a graphic representation of the sound file called a waveform, which lets you see where changes in sound occur. You can use this information to position keyframes in your animation. Simulate speech by matching peaks in the waveform with changes in mouth position, as shown above. To display waveforms in the Graph palette, open it as described in “Using Graphs” on page 577 and click the Toggle Sound Display button to toggle waveform display on and off. A sound appears as a waveform in the Graph palette. Using the Talk Designer Poser’s Talk Designer automates the task of animating facial features for speech. The Talk Designer synchronizes morph targets, Emotional Tweak controls, and powerful eye and head motion modelling algorithms with your sound file, making it much easier to animate realistic facial expressions for speech. The Talk Designer is configured using the Talk Designer palette. Choose Window > Talk Designer to open the palette. Select File > Import > Lip Sync Audio to import a sound file, as described above. At the end of the import process, the Talk Designer palette will automatically open with your imported audio file selected. Poser 11 Reference Manual 601 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser The Talk Designer. Select Window > Talk Designer to open the Talk Designer palette at any time. Configuring the Talk Designer The Talk Designer palette settings are described in the following sections. When you have configured the Talk Designer to your satisfaction, click the Apply button at the bottom of the palette to generate a lipsync animation based upon the settings you specified. Input Files • Sound file: Clicking the “...” button next to the Sound file setting allows you to browse to the location of the sound file you wish to use for your lipsync animation. Poser supports WAV file, as well as AIFF files on the Macintosh. Poser 11 Reference Manual 602 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser Sounds used in the Talk Designer must be uncompressed, single- channel (mono) audio files in WAV (Windows) or AIFF (Mac) format. 22050 and 44100 kHz files are supported. • Supplemental text: For better accuracy, we recommend that you include the text of the spoken words in the Supplemental text field. Text entries in this field will be required if you need to specify an alternative language. You can click the “...” button to browse to a text document, or click on the “+” button to open a text box and enter the text directly. • Language: If you add supplemental text, use the Language pull-down menu to specify the language used. In order to select another option from the Language menu, you must have text entered in the Supplemental Text field. After entering your text, you will have the option to select English, French, German, or Japanese. • Viseme map file: A viseme map file provides information about which phonemes (speech sounds) are matched to which specific visemes, or facial expressions. These viseme map files are directly linked to the morph target setup of the individual figure. If you are working with any of the newer figures included with Poser, you can simply use the default viseme map file for the figure. If you wish to use a figure from a previous version of Poser, please make sure that a viseme map is provided in the associated pop-up menu. If you use a figure from a third- party source that was created with a different morph target setup, you will need to provide the viseme map file that accompanies the figure. We recommend that you place the viseme map file into the \Runtime\LipSync\ folder that accompanies your Poser installation. Doing so will add the file to the pop-up menu in the Talk Designer palette. Alternately, you can click the “...” button to browse to the location of the viseme map file, if you wish to keep it in another location. If you are unsure whether or not your custom figure was created following the morph target standards for included Poser figures, you can try your animation using the default viseme map file. Smith Micro cannot support third-party figures. If you are dissatisfied with the results, you will need to contact the content creator. Configuration • Figure: Specify which figure in the scene you wish to use for the lipsync animation, by selecting the name of the figure from the pop-up menu. • Start frame: Specify the Start Frame number for the actual lipsync animation. By default, the Start Frame setting is set to the Start Frame of the entire scene animation (frame 1). • End frame: Specify the End Frame number for the actual lipsync animation. By default, the End Frame setting is set to the End Frame of the entire scene animation (generally frame 30, unless you have specified a different scene End Frame). Once you load a sound file, the End Frame setting will default to match the length of the sound file. Poser 11 Reference Manual 603 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser If the End Frame number specified in the Talk Designer is greater than the End Frame for the entire scene animation (as specified on the Base Layer), then additional frames will be appended to the scene to accommodate the difference. • Create Keyframes in: The Create Keyframes in setting allows you to select either a new or existing animation layer for your lipsync animation keyframes. Animation layers allow you to organize your animations, save and reuse specific aspects of a larger animation. We recommend that you create the keyframes in a new animation layer; click the “New animation layer” radio button to select this option. You will be asked to name the new layer. Alternately, you can choose to use an existing animation layer by clicking the “Layer” radio button, and selecting the name of the layer from the pop-up menu. If you do not wish to use animation layers, you can simply write all keyframes to the Base Layer. For more information about animation layers, please see “Layers Tab” on page 586. • Enunciation: The Enunciation slider allows you to configure the degree to which the Talk Designer will adjust a figure’s visemes, or facial morphs, in response to changes in the audio file’s perceived energy. Poser automatically adjusts visemes to correlate to the energy of the selected sound file. However, you can use the Enunciation slider to raise or lower the degree of reaction, to counteract or supplement the automatic viseme adjustment. Move the slider to the right to increase enunciation, or to the left to decrease. Head Motions • Eye Blink Rate: The Talk Designer can add intermittent eye blinks that have been modeled on studies of actual human blink rates, in order to animate blinks realistically in relation to the animation of speech. The Eye Blink Rate slider allows you to specify an average blink rate, measured in blinks per minute (BPM). To change the average blink rate, simply click and drag the slider, or click on the numerical value in the text box and enter a number directly. The default value is 12.5 BPM. A setting of zero (0 BPM) disables the automatic blink feature, which means that with this setting you must animate all eye blinks manually. • Create eye motion: When people speak, their eyes generally look in different directions with relation to their subject matter and surroundings. Adding eye movements can result in a more realistic animation. Check the Create eye motion checkbox to have Poser add eye movements to your lipsync animation. • Create head motion: People naturally move their heads during speech, which means that adding head motion to your animation can yield more realistic results. Check the Create head motion checkbox to have Poser add head motion to your lipsync animation for you. Emotional Tweaks The Talk Designer includes six Emotional Tweaks, which are morph targets that can be used in conjunction with speech. These morph targets are based upon facial expressions associated with the following emotions: Poser 11 Reference Manual 604 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser • Anger • Disgust • Fear • Joy • Sadness • Surprise Each of these Emotional Tweaks is adjusted by a slider, which ranges between -100% and 100%. The values within this range represent the degree to which each particular emotion will manifest in the facial expressions of the figure during the lipsync animation. Feel free to mix and match the Emotional Tweaks slider values to suit your specific needs. To adjust the values, you can either move the sliders to the right or left, or you can click on the numerical value to the right of the slider and enter a number directly. Advanced Animation Techniques This section is where we stop talking about technical details for a moment and focus on a few artistic considerations. Editing animations is pretty easy work in and of itself. Getting your animation to look just the way you want it and adding realism are the hard parts. A jerky movement can turn smooth and flowing or an unrealistic motion can become realistic if you keep a few simple techniques in mind. Keyframes and Timing How should you space keyframes? Begin by considering time and frame rate. Space keyframes so that the motion looks natural at the selected frame rate. For example, if you have a motion that requires 4/5 of a second, you’ll need 24 frames at 30fps, 20 frames at 24fps, 9 frames at 12fps, etc. The basic formula is frame rate (in frames per second) times motion duration in seconds = number of frames required. Creating Realistic Motion Now that you’ve gotten the number of frames required for a motion down, what’s next? Break down the motion into component parts. For example, look at a baseball player swinging a bat. At first glance, it may look like the arms are moving. Upon closer inspection, however, you see that the entire body is in motion. Some movements, like the arms and legs, are more pronounced that others. So, begin with the large movements then go back and work on the finer adjustments. Using our baseball player example, you could start with two keyframes: One at the beginning of the swing, the other at the end. Previewing this animation with only two keyframes would probably give you a pretty good result, however the details are where your animations will shine. Now that the major motions are roughed in, let’s add some detail. For example, add the hip swings, shoulder tilts, etc. The subtle details may not be overly noticeable, but your viewers will pick up their presence or absence though they may not be able to tell you what’s wrong with your animation if these elements are not present. Poser’s Animation palette and graph (described in the previous sections) are ideal for this Poser 11 Reference Manual 605 Chapter 24: Animating with Poser fine-tuning. Smooth transitions don’t occur in all movements. For example, when a bat strikes a fast-moving baseball, there is an immediate change in direction. This is an animation where linear interpolation might be better suited. You can adjust splines in the Graph palette, or change interpolation types to create motions. You can adjust splines or change interpolation types in the Graph palette. By working this way, you can create any kind of action and can make that animation look as realistic as possible. Long/Complex Animations If you are trying to make a long movie or one that incorporates changing cameras, you should create small clips and edit them together in a video editing application such as Adobe Premiere. Saving Animations to the Library You can save animations to the Library palette as still (single-frame) or animated (multiple frame) poses for use with other figures/props. See “Adding Items to the Library” on page 182 for more information on saving still or animated poses to the Library. Poser 11 Reference Manual 606 Chapter 25: Using Bullet Physics Chapter 25: Using Bullet Physics The Physics Simulation palette allows you to incorporate Bullet physics into your Poser animations. To open the palette, choose Window > Bullet Physics Controls. After you create a simulation, the objects in your simulation can be assigned one of three object types, which are detailed further in the sections that follow: Creating a Simulation The Physics Simulation palette allows you to create one or more physics simulations in your Poser project. Each simulation defines the following: • The objects that will be included in that physics simulation. • The frames in your animation project in which the physics calculations will be applied to the defined objects • Settings that will be applied to all of the objects included in that simulation. To create a new simulation, follow these steps: 1. From the Physics Simulation palette, click the New button to create a new simulation. 2. The Simulation Name dialog will prompt you to enter a name for the simulation. After you enter the name, click OK to create the simulation. 3. To limit your simulation to certain frames in your project, enter the starting and ending frames of the desired frame range in the Start Frame and End Frame fields. Setting up a new simulation. Using Live Simulation As you configure the settings and constraints that you apply to the physics objects in your scene, you can view the effects of those settings in real time. Check the Live Simulation option to preview how your simulation settings and weight painting affect the physics objects in your scene. The live previews are especially helpful while you paint constraint maps that control how the objects respond to gravity, motion, and collision with other objects. Live simulations do not add keyframes to the Animation Palette. Poser 11 Reference Manual 607 Chapter 25: Using Bullet Physics The Live Simulation button will be disabled until after you set up the simulation objects in your scene. Pressing the Clear Simulation button will return the objects to their default state. You will need to uncheck the Live Simulation option before clearing the simulation. Calculating Simulations Click the Calculate Simulation button to calculate your simulation frame by frame for the currently selected simulation. Keyframes will be added to the Animation palette for each object in the current simulation. Keyframes that are added to the Animation Palette after calculating a simulation will be removed when you click the Clear Simulation button. Use the Animation > Recalculate Dynamics > All Physics menu command to calculate all of the physics simulations in your current project. Object Types After you create a new simulation, you need to set up the simulation objects in your scene. Click the Objects button to open the Select Objects dialog. Click the Objects button to define your physics objects. The Select Objects dialog displays three tabs: Choreographed, Rigid Dynamic, and Soft Dynamic. As you switch from one tab to the next, you place a check beside each of the objects in your scene that you want to designate as that object type. • Choreographed is used to define stationary or animated objects in your scene that the dynamic objects will collide with. See “Physics Object Types.” on page 608. • Rigid Dynamic is used for hard-bodied objects that will have physics applied to them. These objects will maintain their shape when they interact with other objects in the scene. See “Rigid Dynamic Objects” on page 609. Poser 11 Reference Manual 608 Chapter 25: Using Bullet Physics • Soft Dynamic is used for soft-bodied objects that will have physics applied to them. The shape of these objects are affected by collision with other objects in the scene. See “Soft Dynamic Objects” on page 610. The Select Objects dialog allows you to assign the objects in your scene to one of three types of objects. When you assign physics objects in your scene, keep in mind that you don’t have to assign every object in your scene as a physics object. For example, if your scene is composed of many walls and furnishings inside a room, the only objects that you need to assign to the current physics simulation are those that will directly come into contact with each other in the simulation that you are configuring. Physics Object Types. Poser 11 Reference Manual 609 Chapter 25: Using Bullet Physics Choreographed Objects Choreographed objects are those which either remain stationary or are animated manually with keyframes. When assigning choreographed objects, you only need to assign the objects that you expect the other physics objects to collide with. A simple example is shown in the figure that follows. There are five objects in the scene: the ground, a large box, two balls, and a cloth plane. Only two objects in the scene are assigned as choreographed objects: the ground, and the large box in the center. These two items will not move, and the other objects in the scene will collide against them. Choreographed objects are those that other physics objects collide against. Rigid Dynamic Objects Rigid dynamic objects are those which will interact with other objects, but which will maintain their shape when they collide with other objects in the scene. The figure shown below shows two balls that are selected as rigid body objects. They will maintain their shape when they collide against the other objects in the scene. constraints that you apply to the physics objects in your scene, you can view the effects of those settings in real time. Check the Live Simulation option to preview how your simulation settings and weight painting affect the physics objects in your scene. The live previews are especially helpful while you paint constraint maps that control how the objects respond to gravity, motion, and collision with other objects. Live simulations do not add keyframes to the Animation Palette. Poser 11 Reference Manual 607 Chapter 25: Using Bullet Physics The Live Simulation button will be disabled until after you set up the simulation objects in your scene. Pressing the Clear Simulation button will return the objects to their default state. You will need to uncheck the Live Simulation option before clearing the simulation. Calculating Simulations Click the Calculate Simulation button to calculate your simulation frame by frame for the currently selected simulation. Keyframes will be added to the Animation palette for each object in the current simulation. Keyframes that are added to the Animation Palette after calculating a simulation will be removed when you click the Clear Simulation button. Use the Animation > Recalculate Dynamics > All Physics menu command to calculate all of the physics simulations in your current project. Object Types After you create a new simulation, you need to set up the simulation objects in your scene. Click the Objects button to open the Select Objects dialog. Click the Objects button to define your physics objects. The Select Objects dialog displays three tabs: Choreographed, Rigid Dynamic, and Soft Dynamic. As you switch from one tab to the next, you place a check beside each of the objects in your scene that you want to designate as that object type. • Choreographed is used to define stationary or animat