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SDSU - BIOL-325 Human Physiology SI
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Hypothalamus and Pituitary Hormones
Regulation of Pituitary Hormones
Pineal and Parathyroid Hormones
True or False. For a molecule to be considered a hormone, it has to travel in the bloodstream.
True or False. Epinephrine is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone.
Which of the following pathways is correct?
Protein based hormone → travels freely in plasma → binds to intracellular receptors
Steroid based hormone → travels bound to plasma protein → binds to membrane receptors
Protein based hormone → travels freely in the plasma → binds to membrane receptors
Steroid-based hormone → travels freely in the plasma → binds to membrane receptors
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland (Hormones)
Target Organ (effect or hormones)
All “Tropic”… what kind of stimulus?
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)
Prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH) also called Dopamine
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH) also called somatostatin
…All influence the anterior pituitary gland.
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
Anterior Pituitary Gland Posterior Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland hormones -Anterior Lobe
Pituitary Gland hormones -Anterior Lobe
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Growth Hormone (GH)
All made and released from endocrine cells inside the APG
Follicle Stimulating Hormone & Luteinizing Hormone
Also called gonadotropins
What hypothalamic hormone stimulates their release?
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
What is their target organ?
Testis and Ovaries (gonads)
What do they do?
LH – stimulate sex hormones (testosterone, estrogens), ovulation
FSH – stimulate spermatogenesis and oogenesis
Also called Corticotropin
What hypothalamic hormone stimulates its release?
Cortocotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)
What is its target organ?
Adrenal Cortex (Outside)
What does it do?
Releases Corticosteroids (Cortisol is ONE of them)…
More on this Friday..
Thyroid Stimulation Hormone
Also called thyrotropin
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone
Releases T3 and T4… more on this Friday
What hypothalamic hormone regulates its release?
Prolactin Inhibiting hormone (Dopamine)
Breasts (mammary glands)
What do it do?
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone
Skeletal Muscle, Bone, others
INDIRECT affects on growth: Stimulates IFGs (hormones that tell things to grow)
DIRECT affects on growth: break down fat, build proteins, use more sugar for energy
Regulation of APG hormones
An increase in plasma T3 and T4 levels will have what homeostatic effects?
Negative feedback to TSH release
Positive feedback to TSH release
Negative feedback to TRH release
A & C
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
____________ and ______________
Oxytocin and Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Made in the hypothalamus, travels down nerve to PPG for release into bloodstream
What is it for?
Increases uterine contraction strength
Milk release (breastfeeding)
What stimulates it?
Great example of Positive Feedback!
Also Called Vasopressin
Low blood pressure
What is it used for?
Saving water, tells kidneys to stop making urine
Vasoconstricts blood vessels to increase blood pressure
Helps regulate _______ cycles
Regulated by ________
Helps regulate Sleep cycles
Regulated by Light
Hormone: Parathyroid Hormone
Regulates Calcium Levels (homeostasis)
Stimulated by low calcium
Increases Calcium levels by…
Breaking down bone
Activating Vitamin D (needed to absorb dietary calcium)
Reabsorbing from kidney filtrate
Problems with Hormone levels
Too much: Gigantism and Acromegaly
Too little: dwarfism
Too much: Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Too little: Diabetes Insipidus
More to come Friday…
Which hormone is correctly linked with its stimulus?
Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH), Humoral
Growth Hormone (GH), Hormonal
Parathyroid hormone, Neural
INDIRECT affects on growth: Stimulates IFGs (hormon