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Final Exam Review 12/14/15
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Parietal cells are essential because they secrete intrinsic factor. This intrinsic factor binds to the large, charged molecule of vitamin B12 which is then:
Absorbed via secondary active transport with glucose
Absorbed via passive diffusion with the epithelial cells of the small intestine
Absorbed via endocytosis at in the small intestine
Bound into micelles and diffused into epithelial cells
You decided to try the Kylie Jenner lip challenge and you got severe bruising on and around your lips. You then realize you have a job interview tomorrow and you start freaking out! What affects will your sympathetic nervous system on your digestive system?
Decreased secretions from your salivary glands
Decreased gastric motility
Increased gastric motility
Tightening of the pyloric sphincter
Increase gastric emptying
This/These extrinsic salivary glands produce secretions that contain the salivary amylase enzyme.
A and B
All of the above
Water is being produced in a ____________ reaction.
None of the above
Pepsinogen requires which components to become active pepsin?
More than one of these
All of the following are brush border enzymes except:
All of the above are brush border enzymes
Enteropeptidase is an enzyme that _________.
Digests proteins in the mouth
Is a brush border enzyme that digests short peptides
Activates trypsinogen to trypsin
Is produced by chief cells
The _______ phase of digestion can be stimulated by the sight of food.
None of the above
_______ causes the secretion bicarbonate – rich pancreatic juice by duct cells.
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1:
Is stimulated by a meal of protein
Inhibits gastric emptying and gastric secretions
Initiates the absorptive state controlled by insulin
What hormone is indicative of a positive pregnancy test?
All of the above
What is the Chromosome number of a Secondary Spermatocyte?
2n = 46
1n = 23
2n = 23
4n = 46
A woman with a regular 28 day cycle is at day 17 in her cycle, what would you expect to see in her ovaries and uterus?
The corpus luteum; A full thickness endometrium
Primary Follicles forming; The breakdown of the endometrium (menstruation)
One large Graafian follicle; A medium thickness endometrium
An ovulating secondary oocyte; A full thickness endometrium
True or False. Oogonium undergo mitosis throughout the lifespan of a woman.
LH has which of the following functions?
Production of Testosterone from the Leydig cells
Stimulation of Ovulation
Production of androgens from the theca cells in ovarian follicles
Which Gland is not correctly paired with its secretion in the male reproductive tract?
Seminal vesicles – alkaline fluid containing fructose and prostoglandins
Bulbourethral bland – lubricating mucus
Prostate gland – milky fluid, aids in sperm activation
Prostate gland - alkaline fluid containing fructose and prostoglandins
Which chemical, released due to parasympathetic stimulation, vasodilates arterioles in the corpora cavernosa, leading to engorgement from increased blood flow and decreased venous return
What differs from smooth muscle contraction when compared to both skeletal and cardiac?
Calcium binding to troponin
Troponin removing the tropomyosin block from actin
Calcium binding to calmodulin
Myosin heads binding to actin sub-units
Calcium in muscle contraction
Skeletal and Cardiac muscle
Myosin-binding sites on actin covered by tropomyosin block
Calcium binds to troponin, removing tropomyosin block
Myosin heads bind to actin to begin the cross-bridge cycle
Calcium binds to and activates calmodulin
Calmodulin activates myosin light-chain kinase enzyme
Myosin light-chain kinase enzyme phosphorylates myosin to activate it
Activated myosin heads participate in cross-bridge cycle
Which of the following can the nephron use to increase blood pressure?
Release Renin from granular cells
Sympathetic stimulation of granular cells
Increase aquaporins on collecting ducts through ADH
Increased Na+ absorption at distal tubules by Aldosterone
Decreasing glomerular filtration rate
Constriction of afferent arterioles
Renal regulation of Blood Pressure
Glomerular filtration rate
Sympathetic stimulation → Constriction of afferent arteriole → decreases glomerular flow and GFR → increases blood volume → increase blood pressure
Sympathetic stimulation promotes renin release (for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system)
Increases Na+ absorption at DCT, and therefore water reabsorption (osmotically) → increases blood volume → increase blood pressure
Increase water absorption at collecting duct through facilitated diffusion by aquaporins → increases blood volume → increase blood pressure
Which cell type determines if phototransduction is happening in the Light On or Off pathway
Glutamate – always released from rods in the absence of light
Light On pathway
Bipolar cells have spontaneous depolarization
Glutamate binds to inhibitory receptors on these bipolar cells
More signals from light on pathway in the light, inhibited in the dark
Light Off pathway
Bipolar cells have non-spontaneous depolarization
Glutamate binds to excitatory receptors on these bipolar cells
More signals from light off pathway in the dark, inhibited in the light
A failure to repolarize the ventricular myocardium would be represented with an absent _________.
ECG – diagnostic tool for reading electrical activity of entire heart (autorhythmic AND contractile cells)
P wave – atrial depolarization (from SA node)
QRS–complex – Ventricular depolarization (from Bundle branches) and atrial repolarization
T-wave – Ventricular repolarization
PR-interval – SA node to 0.1second delay in AV node
ST segment – time the ventricles are completely depolarized (calcium plateau)
QT segment – time from ventricular contraction to relaxation
Acetylcholine bind to ___________ on dendrites of neurons, which are __________ for Na+ and K+, classifying the function of these receptors as ____________.
Nicotinic Cholinergic, Ligand-gated channels, metabotropic
Nicotinic Cholinergic, Ligand-gated channels, ionotropic
Nicotinic Cholinergic, Voltage-gated channels, ionotropic
Muscarinic Cholinergic, Voltage-gated channels, metabotropic
Muscarinic Cholinergic, Voltage-gated channels, ionotropic
Muscarinic Cholinergic, Ligand-gated channels, ionotropic
Based on neurotransmitter
Cholinergic – for acetylcholine
Muscarinic – for parasympathetics (autonomic), on gland, smooth muscle, heart,
Nicotinic – for neuronal (somatic and autonomic) and neuromuscular junctions (somatic)
Adrenergic – for epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
- for sympathetics, found on smooth muscle of arterioles
β – for sympathetics , found on heart and smooth muscle of bronchioles
Ionotropic – open as a channel for ion transport
Metabotropic – start intracellular signaling pathway (e.g. G-coupled protein pathways)
Ion channels and neurons
Voltage-gated – respond to voltage, found on axon hillock, nodes of Ranvier of axon, axon terminal
Ligand-gated – respond to a binding chemical (ligand), found on dendrites, receives neurotransmitters
Leak channels – constantly open, found on entire neuron, helps set resting potential
In the CNS, 4 acetylcholine binds to the dendrites of a neuron, the EPSPs from acetylcholine are 5mV each. One GABA also binds, causing an IPSP of 5mV. What will happen at the axon hillock first?
V-gated sodium channels open, sodium influx
V-gated potassium channels open, potassium influx
V-gated sodium channels open, sodium efflux
V-gated potassium channels open, potassium efflux
Graded potentials – from neurotransmitters acting on receptors on dendrites
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) bring to threshold
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP) bring further from threshold
Threshold – -55mV, when V-gated sodium channels open, making action potentials “all or nothing”
Depolarization – sodium channels open, Na+ influx, membrane becomes more positive
Repolarization – potassium channels open, K+ efflux, membrane becomes more negative
Hyperpolarization – K+ channels still closing, returns to baseline with Na/K pump and leaky K+ channels
Sodium higher outside cell
Potassium higher inside cell
How is FSH released from the anterior pituitary gland into the bloodstream?
Primary Active Transport
Secondary Active Transport
Steroid Based hormones
Released from adrenal cortex, testes, ovaries, and placenta
Move through simple diffusion across membranes, carried by plasma proteins in blood because of insolubility, intracellular receptors
Protein Based Hormones
Released from all other glands
Released by exocytosis, soluable in blood, bind to extracellular receptors
T3 and T4 exceptions – nonpolar and act as steroid hormones
Primary Active - Direct use of ATP to transport across the cell membrane (includes endocytosis and exocytosis)
Secondary Active – Indirect use of ATP, two solutes move using the concentration gradient of one of the solutes (Symport and Antiport)
Red arrow – against concentration gradient
Blue arrow – with concentration gradient
Active Transport (cont.)
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Both require ATP (primary active transport)
Used to uptake or secrete large molecules, that cannot fit through channels
Such as… protein hormones and antibodies
What equation will give you the amount of blood pumped from the heart in a single beat?
EDV (end diastolic volume) – amount of blood in the heart at the end of the relaxation phase (diastole).
ESV (end systolic volume) – amount of blood left in the heart after the end of the contraction phase (systole).
Stroke Volume – the amount of blood ejected from the heart in a single cardiac cycle
What mechanism extends the absolute refractory period of the cardiac action potential?
Leaky K+ channels
Absolute Refractory Period – period of time where another action potential cannot be activated, cell needs to repolarize to reset channels before they can open again
Calcium plateau - prolongs action potential and absolute refractory period, preventing tetanus of the heart
Cardiac Action potential – Depolarize with Na+ influx, Plateau with Ca2+ influx, repolarize with K+ efflux
A cell is metabolically active. What would you expect to see as conditions in the blood as well as in the unloading of O2 at this area?
High CO2 and H+, Increased unloading, left shift (Haldane effect)
High CO2 and H+, Increased unloading, right shift (Bohr’s effect)
High CO2 and H+, Decreased unloading, left shift (Bohr’s effect)
Low CO2 and H+, Decreased unloading, left shift (Haldane effect)
Low CO2 and H+, Decreased unloading, right shift (Bohr’s effect)
Low CO2 and H+, Decreased unloading, left shift (Bohr’s effect)
O2 Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Shows the tendency for O2 to bind to hemoglobin (left shift), or leave hemoglobin (right shift) when placed in certain conditions.
Bohr’s effect – the unloading of Oxygen when there is an increase in CO2 and H+
Found higher where there is metabolic activity- produces more waste, needs more oxygen
Temperature, and DPG also affect O2 unloading
Haldane effect – deoxygenated blood more easily creates carbaminohemoglobin
You are going to be late to your Phys final. In a rush you fall and scrape your knee, you are now in need of a blood transfusion – good thing you figured out you have B- blood in phys lab. What blood could you receive?
Universal Donor – O-
Universal Recipient – AB+
Consider the Antibodies of the Recipient, and the antigens of the donor
Antibodies of donor are too dilute to make a difference (O has A and B antibodies, however can be given to A and B blood; Rh+ blood can receive Rh- blood with Rh antibodies because they are in dilute amounts)
If an antibody exists for the donor in the recipient’s blood, EVERY donor cell will be attacked upon introduction to the recipient’s body
Which hormone/organ pairing is incorrect
Corticotropin releasing hormone; hypothalamus
Follicle Stimulating hormone; Anterior Pituitary Gland
Secretin; Small Intestine
Epinephrine; Adrenal Medulla
What is the hormone released from ?
Such as... Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, etc.
What its stimulus for its release
Neural stimuli, hormonal stimuli, humoral stimuli
What is the target organ and what it does there
Tropic (affects another hormone), direct effect
What kind of feedback regulates it
Negative or Positive
Polycythemia vera is a condition of increased RBC’s, making blood thicker than usual. What would happen to the ability of a molecule to diffuse in the blood given this disease making the blood twice as thick?
Ability to diffuse is decreased by half
Ability to diffuse increases two-fold
Ability to diffuse decreases by a factor of four
Ability to diffuse increases four-fold
Variables in numerator – direct relationship
Variables in denominator – inverse relationship
D = diffusion coefficient (how easily it will diffuse)
T = temperature of solution
η = Viscosity (thickness) of solution
R = radius of molecule
Contraction of the diaphragm will do what to the intrapleural pressure, intrapulmonary pressure?
Boyles law – pressure and volume inversely related
Intrapulmonary pressure - inside of the lungs
Pressure lower than atmosphere = inhale
Pressure higher than atmosphere = exhale
Intrapleural pressure - in pleural cavity
Always negative, needed to keep lung’s expanded (see transpulmonary pressure)
Transpulmonary pressure – pressure difference between intrapulmonary pressure and Intrapleural (Intrapulmonary – intrapleural) keeping lungs open
Quadzilla is doing squats at the Swellness Center. What is happening to the arterioles in quadzilla’s quadriceps femoris?
Vasoconstriction due to increased O2, decreased CO2, and increased pH
Vasodilation due to decreased O2, increased CO2, and decreased pH
Vasoconstriction due to increased O2, decreased CO2, and decreased pH
Vasodilation due to decreased O2, increased CO2, and increased pH
Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
Local regulation – based on requirement (local chemoreceptors)
Vasodilation – increase blood flow to get rid of wastes (CO2 and H+) and increase delivery of nutrients (O2 and glucose)
Caused by ↓O2, ↑CO2, ↑H+ (↓pH), ↑K+, ↑Adenosine, ↑Nitric oxide
Vasoconstriction – decrease blood flow to tissues that aren’t in need of increased waste removal or oxygen delivery
Caused by ↑O2, ↓CO2, ↓H+ (↑pH), ↑Endothelins
Systemic regulation – based on pressure regulation (aortic and carotid chemoreceptors)
Vasodilation – low CO2, counter local vasoconstriction to equalize blood pressure
Vasoconstriction – high CO2, counter local vasodilation to equalize blood pressure
Good luck – Remember what you’re working for
gen when there is an increase in CO2 and H+
Good luck – Remember wha