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* Students collect information from different sources (e.g.,refernce books, articles from medical/nursing journal, and individualized learning sessions) Students then work with faculty members to develop alternatives for solving medical or nursing problems * This technique also facilitates learning of public health problems rather than concentrating on rare diseases In problem-based teaching, the role of the trainer can very widely and be quite diverse The trainer may be an advisor, facilitator, mentor or teacher * This Approach emphasizes the Following:- Data-gathering methods Diagnosis and differential diagnosis Decision making in terms of improving clinical judgment Proper methods management * Advantages of The Problem-Based Approach Students learn diagnostic, managerial and interpersonal skills Students learn how to research medical problems, allowing them to increase their knowledge and keep current in their fields * Students learn medical concepts in a real life context, eliminating the need for transferring knowledge Students find learning rewarding and exciting as they solve medical problems through their own efforts * Disadvantages of The problem-Based Approach Students learn clinical skills to the exclusion of some basic science Students must take the initiative and learn the different skills/knowledge needed to solve problems or their education will be deficient * Variation in learning styles leads to variations in students‛ ability to cover the material in a reasonable amount of time Anxiety and resentment on the part of some faculty members who may not support this approach of learning References & Suggested Reading -Bastable SB . Nurse as educator: Principle and learning of teaching for nursing practice (3re ed) . Jones & Bartlet Publisher ; 2007 . .ISBN 0763746436. -Young SD. Teaching strategies for nurse educators ( 2nd ed) . Prentice Hall; 2008 . ISBN-13 978131790261 - Jackson M. Pocket guide for patient education .Jones and Bartlett Publisher 2008 . ISBN10 0.078 07637411556 * * * * * Nursing Department Level 7 Teaching Methods Chapter 6 * Objectives By the end of this chapter the student will be able to: Identify the various types of teaching methods. Differentiate between the types of teaching methods. Discus advantage and disadvantage of each type. * Before one discusses the various types of teaching methods, the concepts associated with the interactive model of teaching must be introduced. This module deals only with the methodology of teaching rather than the content of what is being taught. Teaching Strategies Objective oriented activities and flow of information between teachers and . students * * Selection appropriate teaching methods Select a variety of teaching methods to increase student's interest. The key success is to show, tell and do ‘’ in your class. * The interactive teaching model consists of a two-way process. Students Faculty Educational Message Questions, Comments * Types of teaching methods Lecture. Coaching. Role-playing. Discussion. Games. * Types of teaching methods (cont.) Field trip. Lab demonstration. Individual training. Collaborative exercises. Case study. Brainstorming. * Criteria for selection a teaching method Appropriate for the topic to be taught. The instructor is skilled in using the method. Class size is appropriate for the use of the method. Enthusiasm of the instructor about using the method. * A lecture is: A talk with or without illustrations or demonstrations in which the trainees listen and watch an instructor presentation. It is controlled by the teacher. * Lecturing / Presentations Advantages :- 1- Saves time 2- Covers more students 3- Good for explaining the concepts 4-Provides the lecturer with an opportunity to show their skills * lecturing/presentations (cont.) Disadvantages: Could be boring Requires long attention span Students are passive Does not facilitate the learning or problem- solving communication or manual skills * Guidelines for Effective Presentations (cont.) Move in the class Maintain eye-to-eye contact Ask questions and keep the students interested Summarize the presentation at the end of each segment of the presentation * Using Role-Playing in Teaching Role – playing is an effective teaching methods that can be used with small groups to give students opportunities to practice the knowledge and skill they learned in the classroom. * Communication skill are enhanced through practice session Students play roles they may or may not have experiences with in real life. * Description Give an example Decide what should be learnt from the role- play (the objectives) Devise a simple situation Explain what the participants should do and observe * Discuss important features of the role- play by asking questions of both the players and observers Summarize the session, what was learned and how it applies to the clinical skill or activity being learned * Advantages:- Improves communication skills. Experience a real- life situation without having to talk real – life risks. Create a sense of humor. Give participants an understanding of the client’s situation. Create a highly motivational climate. * Disadvantages Time consuming. Requires skill. Could be taken lightly and not seriously. Provides few interactive opportunities. Not effective with visual learners. * Conduction Brainstorming Sessions Brainstorming:- Is an instructional strategy that stimulates thought and creativity, often used in conjunction with group discussion. * Advantages: Interaction. Team working (synergism). Exchange of knowledge and experience between students. Self – confidence Creativity. Disadvantages : Time consuming * Coaching Coaching is important and effective training technique. An educator explains procedures or routines and demonstrate tasks, models that exact desire performance skills. * Coaching involves observations of and interactions with the participants to monitor and overcome problems. * The Effective Coach Focuses on the practical. Fosters team spirit. Works to reduce stress. Faster two – way communication. Views himself/herself as a facilitator of learning. * Characteristic of a Good Coach Patience Modest. Good listener. Likes to teach and explain. Provides positive encouraging remarks. * Case Study A case study is learning activity that uses realistic scenarios focusing on a specific issue, topic, or problem. Students typically read , study, and react to the case study individually or in small groups. * Advantages :- Focus on real – life problems or situations that relate directly to work or future work. Develop problem-solving and decision-making skills. Provide different perspectives and different solutions to a problem * Strengthen students‛ ability to apply information Clarify and expand students‛ knowledge Explore and change attitudes Activity involves students and encourages interaction * Facilitating a Case Study Provide clear directions, including how to complete the case study, how to present the answers, and the time limit If the students are working in groups, suggest that each group select someone to act as the recorder * Problem-Based Teaching Problem-based teaching is an educational method which has been gaining popularity in many U.S medical schools This approach allows participants to work on patient or research problems and identify proper solution methods * * the method. Enthusiasm of the instructor about using the method. * A lecture is: A talk with or without illustrations or demonstrations in which the trainees listen and watch an instructor presentation. It is controlled by the teacher. * Lecturing / Presentations Advantages :- 1- Saves time 2- Covers more students 3- Good for explaining the concepts 4-Provides the lecturer with an opportunity to show their skills * lecturing/presentations (cont.) Disadvantages: Could be boring Requires long attention span Students are passive Does not facilitate the learning or problem- solving communication or manual skills * Guidelines for Effective Presentations (cont.) Mo