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Embed code for: FORMAL RELATIONS (1)
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. FORMAL RELATIONS :Formal structure, through departmentalization and work division, provides a framework for defining managerial authority, responsibility and accountability
. INFORMAL RELATIONS :Informal structure is generally social, with blurred or shifting lines of authority and accountability.
It also has its own channels of communication, which may distribute information more broadly and rapidly than the formal communication system.
. AUTHORITY is defined as the official power to act. It is power given by the organization to direct the work of others.
. A RESPONSIBILITY is a duty or an assignment. It is the implementation of a job.
.DELEGATION: is the process of assigning duties or responsibilities along with corresponding authority to another person. Authority must be delegated with the responsibility.
. ACCOUNTABILITY: means that individuals agree to be morally responsible for the consequences of their actions.
It shows high-level management at the top with formal lines of authority down the hierarchy, are most common.
. A left-to-right (horizontal) charts:
It shows the high-level management at the left with lower positions to the right. Shows relative length of formal lines of authority, helps simplify understanding the lines of authority and responsibility.
. Circular charts
It shows the high-level management in the center with successive positions in circles. It shows the outward flow of formal authority from the high-level management. It reduces status implications
Position : Work consisting of responsibilities and duties assignable to one employee. (There are as many positions as there are employees - sometime even more).
Job: Work consisting of responsibilities and duties that are sufficiently alike to justify being covered by a single job analysis / job description. Assignable to one or more employees.
Class: A group of jobs sufficiently similar as to kinds of subject matter; education and experience requirements; levels of difficulty, complexity, and responsibility; and qualification requirements of the work.
Class-Series:: A grouping of job classes having similar job content but differing in degree of difficulty, complexity , and responsibility; level of skill; knowledge; and qualification requirements. The jobs within a class-series can form a career ladder.
Family.: Two or more class-series within an organization that have related or common work content.
Occupation A grouping of jobs or job classes within a number of different organizations that have similar skill, effort, and responsibility requirements.
Staffing is the process of ascertaining that adequate numbers and an appropriate mix of personnel are available to meet daily unit needs and organizational goals.
Goal: To provide appropriate numbers and mix of nursing staff to match actual or projected patient care needs to provide effective and efficient nursing care
Managers: Examine workload pattern for the designated unit, department, or clinic
Joint Commission :Provide the right number of competent staff to meet patient’s needs based on organization-selected criteria
American Nurses Association (ANA) Focus on the level of nursing competency required to provide quality nursing care
Individual state boards of nursing
quality National Association of Quality Assurance Professionals described quality as “The level of excellence produced and documented in the process of patient care, based on the best knowledge available and achievable at a particular facility.”
Effectiveness. Relates to providing care processes and achieving outcomes as supported by scientific evidence.
Efficiency. Relates to maximizing the quality of a comparable unit of health care delivered or unit of health benefit achieved for a given unit of health care resources used.
Equity. Relates to providing health care of equal quality to those who may differ in personal characteristics other than their clinical condition or preferences for care.
Patient centeredness. Relates to meeting patients' needs and preferences and providing education and support.
Safety. Relates to actual or potential bodily harm.
Timeliness. Relates to obtaining needed care while minimizing delays.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
.A way to continuously improve performance at every level of operation in every functional area of on organization using all available human and capital resources.
.Aim to reduce the waste and cost of poor quality.
Quality Assurance “the process for objectively and systematically monitoring and evaluating the quality and appropriateness of patient care, for pursuing opportunities to improve patient care for resolving identified problem”.
Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) CQI is a cyclical process.
It involves identifying an area where there is an opportunity for improvement then outline the sequence of activities that should occur in order to solve that problem, and implementing them.
Evaluating & Discpline of Personal: Systematic evaluation of individual with respect of their performance on the job and their potential for development
* giving and receiving feedback that occurs within most organizations
Anecdotal note: Are objective descriptions behavior recorded on paper or a form
*The notations should include who was observed, by whom, when, and where.
Checklists:- Assess the presence or absence of desired characteristics or behavior
Rating scales: The most widely used - Method of rating an individual against a set standard.
( job description, desired behaviors or personal traits).
. Management by objectives (MBO) :
Tool for effective planning and appraisal
Peer review: (collegial review)
group of registered nurses evaluate the quality of another registered nurse’s professional performance
Appraisal interview: (several kinds)
- Tell and sell = works best with new employee
Tell and listen = superior speaks half the time and the subordinate speak for the remainder time. (good relationship)
- manager’s duty is to maintain a positive attitude by expecting the best from her staff, and preventing or correcting undesirable behavior
- Investigate carefully:
- Manager must check allegations ادعاءات , talk to witnesses.
- Manager should accept the staff nurses account until and unless the allegations are proven The supervisor may wish to consult other supervisors.
Be prompt: If the discipline is delayed, the relationship between the punishment and the offense may become less clear.
- Protect privacy:
Disciplinary action affects the ego and it is better to discuss the situation in private.
Helping the nurse save face, but public reprimand may be necessary for a nurse who does not take private criticism seriously
Focus on the act:
- When disciplining a staff nurse, the supervisor should focus on unacceptable behaviors not on personality.
- Enforce rules consistently:
-Offending employees should be treated equally.
Consistency reduces the possibility of favoritism.
A penalty should be determined only after the entire record of the employee is reviewed, and should also be taken into consideration.
Advise the employee:
- Employer must be informed that his conduct is not acceptable.
9- Take corrective, constructive action:
-The staff nurse should be counseled as to what behavior is required and how she can avoid future disciplinary action
10- Follow up:
- Manager should quietly investigate to determine if the staff nurse's behavior has changed. And reevaluate the situation to try to determine the reason for the nurse's attitude
Leniency Error “I want my nurses to like me.” “It’s difficult to justify giving someone a low rating.
” Recency Error Evaluator recalls recent performance and tends to forget more distant events
Halo Error Manager assigns ratings based on overall impression
Some staff rated above averageacrossdimensions,othersrated average, others rated below average on all dimensionsnal characteristics other than their clinical condition or preferences for care.
Patient centeredness. Relates to meeting patients' needs and preferences and