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# MCQ Question
Is the use of research findings in practice to improve care .
B-[ Research utilization ]
All of this are the value to the Health Care Agency except :
Cost-effective nursing care .
B-High-quality care .
C-Improved client outcomes .
D-[ Positive professional image ]
All of this are the Value to the Profession except :
A-Enhanced autonomy of practice
B- Positive professional image
C-[ Retention and recruitment tools]
D-Strengthen professional status.
The primary purpose for reviewing literature is to:
Organize materials related to the problem of interest
Select topics related to the problem of interest
Unanswered questions about a subject
American Journal of Nursing was first published in
Which of the following is Not a method of quantitative research?
Grounded Theory Research
how do nurses use theory in everyday practice?
Organize patient data
Understand patient data
Analyze patient data
All the above
Identified 4 phases of the Nurse – Patient relationship except?
In any research study where individual persons are involved, it is important that an informed consent of the study is obtained. The following are essential information about the consent that you should disclose to the prospective subject except:
Consent to incomplete
Description of benefits risks and discomforts.
Explaining of procedure
Assurance of anonymity and confidentiality
individual/family has a “felt need” and seeks professional assistance from a nurse (who is a stranger). This is the problem identification phase
Who is defining Nursing as “The act of assisting others in the provision and management of self-care to maintain/improve human functioning at home level of effectiveness?”
activities an Individual performs independently throughout life to promote and maintain personal well-being.
None the above
nurse provides entire self-care for the client.
All of the following is RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN NURSING except
From the perspective of nursing as a profession
NEED OF RESEARCH IN NURSING is
To develop new technique of nursing intervention.
To evaluate the effectiveness of new nursing techniques.
To develop a scientific body of knowledge
All of above
The research mean:
Finding answers to the questions .
It is a systematic search for truth .
Through research, new and original information, ideas about the world we live in, are obtained.
All of the above
Nurse needs to review relevant literature and studies. The following processes are undertaken in reviewing literature EXCEPT:
Locating and identifying resources
Reading and recording notes
Clarifying a research topic
Using the library
All of the following is a function of research except:
Answer questions, solve problems & make decisions
Enables us to see and understand how and why a situation or a problem exists
Study to protect their privacy
Helps us discover new things and ideas.
Which of the following are purposes of the research funding?
Can build collaboration, increase exposure
Measure of quality
Can help in promotion
The objectives need for research are:
Exploration , Conclusion , Description , Diagnose
Exploration , Conclusion , evaluate
Description , Diagnose , evaluate
Description , Diagnose , evaluate , diagnose
The use another person,s ideas or wordings giving appropriate credit results from inaccurate attribution of materials to its sources. Which of the following is referred to when another person's idea is inappropriate credited as one, s own?
Myrna, a researcher, proposes a study on the relationship between health values and the health promotion activities of staff nurses in a selected college of nursing. In formulating the research question, researcher Myrna should state the research question as:
What is the response of the staff nurses to the health values?
How is variable"health value" perceived in a population?
Is there a significant relation between health values and health promotion activities of the staff nurses?
How do health values affect health promotion activities of the staff nursrs?
……………… is the use of a question format to state the research problem.
Interrogative sentence form.
Ethics of research.
Feasibility of research
Three factors are important regarding the rights of the participants include all except:
Which of the following is moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories "bottom up" approach
In data processing cycle, the term retrieval means:-
The generated output can be converted into different forms. For example, it can be represented into graphical form
Output stored on the storage media can be retrieved at any time. For example, result of students is prepared and stored on the disk
The generated output is sent to different places
The data is processed to represent it in a summarized form
A scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice :
Review of literature
Ethnographic research is focusing on:
The researcher went into a clinic where the personally knowns several diabetic clients having problem with insulin pump. The type of sampling done by the investigator is called:
After the identification of the researcher problem, which of the following the researcher must do?
Review of related literature
All of the following are How research impacts nursing practice except :
Safe and quality care is based upon evidence
Used to improve patient outcomes
Identifier of researchable problems
Provides validation of methods and practices
The device or techniques an investigator employs to collect data is called?
Arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedures. What is the previous statement mean?
a) Data collection
b) Research Question
d) Research design
Are the finding clearly described? , what this statement reflects?
a)Critique of methodology of research
b) Critique of results of research
c) Critique of problem of the research
d) Critique of literature review of research
one of the following is the Importance of Nursing Research :
Nurses ask questions aimed at gaining new knowledge to improve pt. care
Member of research team
Patient client advocate during studies
Subject participant in studies
The principle of ethics in nursing research include:
Respect for human dignity
………..is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or solution to a problem, or to validate or test an existing theory
Moving from Specific observations to broader generalizations and theories is called:
Who is the first nurse researcher?
Gender and blood group are measured on:
Nominal scale of measurement
Ordinal scale of measurement
Interval scale of measurement
Ratio scale of measurement
If the researcher implemented a new structured counseling program with a randomized group of subject and a routine counseling program with another randomized group of subject, what is the study design was used?
The information that an investigator collects from the subjects or participants in a research study is usually called?
Which of the following represents the concept order of defining research problem?
Identify a broad topic, Raise questions and Formulate objectives and Identify a narrow topic within the broad topic.
narrow topic within the broad topic, identify a broad topic, Formulate objectives and Raise questions.
Raise questions, a narrow topic within the broad topic, Identify a broad topic and Formulate objectives
Identify a broad topic, a narrow topic within the broad topic, Raise questions and Formulate objectives.
The researcher is interested to study the effects of medication on instead of and tactile stimulation on the pain experienced by the cancer patients. What type of variable is pain?
As a professional, a nurse can do research for varied reason Except:
Professional advancement through research participation
To validate results of new nursing modalities
For financial gains
To improve nursing care
What are the Specific Research Roles for Nurses :
User of research findings
Which scale of measurement has an absolute Zero?
What are the Skills Required of a Research Nurse :
The ability to develop, assess and direct research protocols.
Accountability for care-related decisions
Reinforce identity of nursing as a profession
A Nurse researcher perform a study about how nurses perform surgical asepsis during World War II. A design for this study is:
…………is a combination of machines and people that for a set of inputs produces a defined set of outputs
Data processing system
Data Processing Cycle
Types of data processing systems is:
Commercial data processing
Scientific data processing
-………Once data is collected, it is processed to convert it into useful information. The data is processed again and again until the accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle .
………..is generated. The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. Mostly, the output is stored on the storage media for later user
Computer Processing Operations :
Calculation and text manipulation Operations
All of the above
The process of identifying scales that correspond to variance in a concept
Levels of Scale Measurement is
all of the above
The process in which each participant has an equal and known probability of being assigned to either the control or the experimental group is:
Inadequate facilities for implementation of research are barrier to:
Presentation and accessibility of research
Characteristics of innovation
-…………………is the predication about the relationship between two or more variables;
All the following are from the characteristics of bad research Except:-
Plagiarism other people’s work.
Falsifying data to prove a point
Misrepresenting information and misleading participants
Findings presented unambiguously
The first step of research process is :
Selection of the problem
Extensive literature survey
Preparing the research design
Which of the following is Not true about a pure Experimental Research?
There is a control group
There is an experimental group
Selection of subjects in the control group is randomized
There is a careful selection of subjects in the experimental group
a scale that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitude in an ordered relationship
The degree to which a measure is free from random error and therefore gives consistent results. What type of criteria
not all of the above
The accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a score truthfully represents a concept . what type of criteria
concrete things such as oxygen saturation, temperature, weight
abstract concepts such as pain, depression, coping, self-care, and self-esteem
the difference is without pattern
Example of Nominal Data :
both a & b
Example of Ratio Data :
Lowest third percentile
middle third percentile
top third percentile
-…………. It is Used to study qualitative issues
Anything that varies or changes from one instance to another; can exhibit differences in value, usually in magnitude or strength, or in direction?
To test hypotheses, look at cause & effect, & make predictions (Purpose)?
Non of the above
-which represents subjects under study on which no experiment is conducted?
All of the above
Four aspects of lived experience that are of interest to phenomenologist are:
Lived space or spatiality
Lived body or corporeality
Lived time or temporality
all the above
what members of the culture make and use?
Focus on the study of contributions of individuals to development?
what is the Sources of Research problem?exept 1-
what is Problem Statement Format:
WHAT IS A RESEARCH & research problem ?
This is a critical and first step in research process.
Resource persons – professors
situation or circumstance that requires a solution to be described, explained, or predicted.
Criteria for developing a good research problem: FINER?
what is bad research exept?
Looking for something when it simply is not to be found.
Plagiarizing other people’s work.
Falsifying data to prove a point.
determine the relationship between the number of hours that baccalaureate nursing students.
CAUSES FOR NON-SAMPLING ERRORS
Inadequate of response
Misunderstanding the concept
all of the above.
METHODS OF REDUCING SSystematic documentation of related research.
Effective pre testing.
Advantages of Stratified sampling:
Can be difficult to identify strata
Loss of precision if small numbers in individual strata
resolve by sampling proportionate to stratum population
Can acquire information about whole population and individual strata
Advantages of random sampling:
Sampling error easily measured
Need complete list of units
Does not always achieve best representativeness
Units may be scattered and poorly accessible
it is the List of all the sampling units from which sample is drawn:
Sampling unit (element)
A sample should accurately reflect distribution of relevant variable in population:
One of the following is a general reason for using secondary source :
primary sources is literally unavailable
Review doesn’t argue a point
Recent references are omitted
Retrieve relevant sources
All of the following is a common error made in literature review except :
Review isn’t logically organized
Review focused on most important facets of the study
Organize the review so so that it moves from the problem to the solution :
Writing the literature review using Plagiarism include :
Using another writer’s words without proper citation
Using another writer’s ideas without proper citation
Review isn’t written in author’s own words
Literature Review Synonymous Data based literature include :
Literature Review Synonymous Conceptual literature all of the following except :
Scholarly non research literature
Review of the literature article
Try to make discuss specific research studies so conclusions can be drawn :
organize the literature by the dates the research was published :
None of above
All the following Steps of Searching the Literature except :
Conduct computer search
The Use of Literature Review in Quantitative Research include :
Problem statement and hypotheses
Design and method
All of above
2- falls and true Question .
Lack of time is one of the barriers to the research utilization ( F ).
Characteristics of the Setting is one of the barriers to the research utilization(T).
The firsts Steps in the Research Utilization Process is Review the literature (F).
Nursing System – nursing interventions needed when Individual is unable to perform the necessary self-care activities(T)
Identification– individual/family has a “felt need” and seeks professional assistance from a nurse (who is a stranger). This is the problem identification phase(F)
National Red Cross established in 1864 ( T )
Exploitation – the nurse uses communication tools to offer services to the patient, who is expected to take advantage of all services(T)
Nursing research help the nurses in a variety of settings answer question about patient care(T)
- Researchers have difficulty in developing a study on a topic that is totally new and unfamiliar (T )
NEED OF RESEARCH IN NURSING To develop critical thinking, creativity , and problem solving technique(T)
Specific Research Roles for Nurses Identifier of researchable problems and Evaluator of research findings(T)
Specific Research Roles for Nurses develop new technique of nursing intervention(F) NEED OF RESEARCH IN NURSING
Research in nursing began with Florence Nightingale(T)
Research in nursing began with Florence Nightingale in 1988 (F) 1836
THE FACILITATORS OF NURSING RESEARCH to Increased administrative support and encouragement are needed (T)
The purpose of research is to discover answers through the application of scientific procedures (T).
Limitations frankly revealed is a criteria and quality of good research (T).
The purposes of conclusion is to satisfy the researcher’s curiosity (F)
If the sample includes children or mentally incompetent people not necessary to secure the permission of parents or guardians ( F )
Research design must contain a clear statement of research of research problem ( T )
Research articles are the best source of tested, evidence-based information ( T )
Selection of the problems is the last steps in research process ( F )
Readers can't incorporate the evidence into their practice or resource materials ( f )
The research nurse is also involved in the informed consent process ( T )
Cultural behavior is what members of the culture do (T)
Experimentalgroup – which represents the subjects or groups in which one variable is altered (T)
Quali: Smaller & not randomly selected (T)
-Environmental theory related to Virginia Henderson's ( F )
-In 1959 Nightingale published Notes on nursing: What it is and what it is not ( F )
Assessing internal consistency by using two scales designed it is Equivalent forms ( T)
-Measurement Error is Difference between the error measure and what is actually measured ( F )
Stability is the Type of Reliability ( T)
-Unstructured observations it containsCategory systems,Checklists, Rating scales ( F )
-All sources cited in the literature review should be listed in the references ( T )
Interval-Scale Measurement Absence of a zero point ( T )
-In Closed-Ended Interview Questions be Response alternatives fixed ( T)
Sampling is Procedure by which some members of a given population are selected as representatives of the entire population to provide an adequate description and inferences of the population. (T)
we use sampling to Get information from large populations with : Reduced costs,Reduced field time, Increased accuracy, Enhanced methods. (T)
-Sampling unit (element) it is Ratio between sample size and population size, Example: 100 out of 2000 (5%) (F) (Sampling fraction)
- Survey errors it is Systematic error (or bias) Sample not typical of population. (T) "HI" means that there is no actual relationship between variables( f )
A sample should accurately reflect distribution of relevant variable in population. (T)
-Advantages of Cluster sampling is Simple as complete list of sampling units
The role of secondary source should be overused (f)
-The purpose of literature review is to discover knowledge (t)
-Non research purpose of literature review is to discover unanswered questions about a subject, concept or problem (t)
-The literature review helps to determine what is only known (f)
-Scholarly literature allows for refinement of research problem and question (F)
The of literature review is used to discuss the result or finding of study (T)
-International Honor Society of Nursing found in 1922 ( T )
3-Scientific term :
is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or solution to a problem, or to validate or test an existing theory.
Or Study of all aspects, components, activities and phenomena relating to health and of interest to nurses
Nursing research: a scientific investigation of a issues of importance to the field of nursing (conehealth.com, n.d.) or
A scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice (Pinoy, 2009).
– Every mammal has lungs. All rabbits are mammals. Therefore, every rabbit has lungs.
– Every rabbit that has been observed has lungs. Therefore, every rabbit has lungs.
4-A data processing system:
is a combination of machines and people that for a set of inputs produces a defined set of outputs. The inputs and outputs are interpreted as data, facts, information, ... depending on the interpreter's relation to the system.
5-String Data String data consists of the sequence of characters.
may be English alphabets, numbers or space. The space, which separates two words, is also a character. The string data is further divided into two types. a. Alphabetic Data , b. Alphanumeric Data
Character data falls into two groups.
7-Retrieval of data
Output stored on the storage media can be retrieved at any time. For example, result of students is prepared and stored on the disk. This result can be retrieved when required for different purposes.
8-Control group :
which represents subjects under study on which no experiment is conducted
9-Experimental group :
which represents the subjects or groups in which one variable is altered.
10-Quasi Experimental Design:
Involves manipulation of the independent variable by the researcher, but it may lack one or two properties of the true experiment often randomization
It describes and interprets what is It involves the description, recording, analysis and interpretation of the present nature, composition or processes of phenomena
It involves also some type of comparison or contrast
Does not use manipulation and control of the independent variable and conducted mostly in natural settings under natural conditions.
The subjects are neither randomly assigned nor randomly selected
Is elastic and flexible and is concerned with the subjective meaning of one’s experience
13-Phenomenological Research: (Focusing on Lived Experiences)
An approach to discover the meaning of people’s life experiences, giving perception of a particular phenomenon
14:Ethnographic Research: (Focusing on Culture)
-A labor-intensive endeavor requiring long periods of stay in the field to describe and interpret cultural behavior, with the researcher seeking to learn from members of a cultural group to understand the view of the world
15-GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH:
(Focusing on development and evolution of a social experience)
An approach to the study of social processes, social structures, and the evolution of a social experience and psychological stages and phases that characterize a particular event or episode
16- HISTORICAL RESEARCH:
Focusing on the past) )
Attempts to answer questions about causes, effects or trends related to past events, issues, or conditions that may explain current behavioral practices
Is a prediction about the relationship between two or more variables. ( independent and dependent variables.
Or Research hypotheses are the specific testable predictions made about the independent and dependent variables in the study Independent V.: is the cause , Dependent V.: is the effect
or In scientific research, hypotheses are intellectual guesses that assist the researcher in seeking a solution to a problem
18-Simple hypothesis :
The relationship between one independent and one dependent variable
19-Complex hypothesis :
Two or more independent variables, two or more dependent variables, or both
20-Null hypothesis :
is a statement that there is no actual relationship between variables. (HO or HN)
21-Case study : (Focusing on a single case or entity)
Attempts to have an in-depth investigation, for analysis and understanding, of a single entity or social unit- the individual, family, group, institution, organization, or community – in which the core of inquiry in the case itself, and the dynamics of why it thinks, behaves, or develops in a particular way
22-Narrative analysis : (Focusing on a story in studies)
Focuses on a narrative or a story to determine how individual make sense of events in their lives
23-Research Utilization :
The use of research findings in practice to improve care
24-Research Critique :
is an analysis of a research undertaking that focuses on its strengths and limitations. Or
Critiquing is a systematic process for evaluating research studies and the results reported
25-What is a theory?
A set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that project a systematic view of a phenomena
It may consist of one or more relatively specific and concrete concepts and propositions that purport to account for, or organize some phenomenon (Barnum, 1988)
First nursing doctoral program established
First nurse practice acts were passed
NEED OF RESEARCH IN NURSING
Specific Research Roles for Nurses
RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN NURSING
the first volume of the Annual Review of Nursing Research was published in
Patient client advocate during studies and Subject participant in studies
-evaluate the effectiveness of new nursing techniques.
National Red Cross established.
-atraining school was opened in Germany where Florence Nightingale, “The Founder of Modern Nursing”, received her training.
-From the perspective of nursing as a profession
5- list :
Summary of Nuremburg Code
Good study design
Avoid unnecessary suffering
Be able to stop the study at any time
Subject must be free to withdraw at any time
2.Basic Principles of Human Research Ethics
3.Non maleficence means the duty to do no harm
Duty: NOT TO CAUSE harm
Duty: PREVENT harm
Duty: REMOVE harm
4.The Right to Full Disclosure
Respect for Persons
The Right to Privacy
5.There are three ways to encourage participation ethically (Senese 1997):
6.Types of informed consent: Express and Implied
7.Building ethics into the Design of the Study
8. Value of Research Utilization
To facilitate an innovative change that leads to improved client outcomes
to validate existing nursing knowledge re procedures or interventions
Promotes critical thinking and reflective practice
enhances professional self-concept
9. Value to the Health Care Agency
Cost-effective nursing care
Improved client outcomes
Retention and recruitment tools
10. Value to the Profession
Enhanced autonomy of practice
Positive professional image
Strengthen professional status
Expand the field of nursing’s scientific knowledge base
11. Utilization Criteria
12. Barriers to Research Utilization
Characteristics of the Nurse
Characteristics of the Setting
Characteristics of the Research
Characteristics of the Innovation
13. Barriers: Nurse
Lack of time
14. Strategies to facilitate research utilization
Writing to clinician audience in an understandable meaningful way
Motivate practitioners to read journal articles
Announcing through board and newsletter
In-service education department
Encourage participation in scientific panels and conferences
15. Barriers: Innovation
Must offer a relative advantage over the status quo
Compatibility with current practice
Complexity of innovation is inversely related to success
Trialability or pilot testing
Observability of benefits and limitations
16. Barriers: Research
Communicate results clearly and comprehensively
Publish widely in user-friendly journals
Focus on problems of importance to nursing practice
Increase the number of replicated studies
17. Barriers: Setting
Ethos of openness to new ideas
Interpersonal and information linkages
Freedom from organizational constraints
18. Steps in the Research Utilization Process
1. Select a relevant problem area that requires evidence to bring about change
2. Review the literature
3. Determine if the literature findings are appropriate to apply in your setting
4. Develop a written research-based protocol and/or procedure to communicate the innovation and ensure consistency in approach and show research base for it
5. Implementation of the planned innovation
6. Evaluation of the success of the innovation
7. Dissemination of the findingsf concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions that project a systematic view of a phenomena
-atraining school was opened in Germany where Florence Nightingale, “Th