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Embed code for: CHAPTER 4 learning needs (1)
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Learning Needs , Motivations
• Need assessment is the basis from which all instruction and learning activities take place.
• Need analysis involves identifying gaps or deficiencies.
• Learning needs can be described as internal forces that motivate the learner to pursue a goal that bridges the gap between one’s present level of competence and the desired level of performance.
• Teaching and instructing involves meeting the needs of students and trainees.
• Learning need is defined as gap in knowledge that exist between desired level of performance and the actual level of performance
– (HEALTHCARE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, 1985).
• A learning need is the gap between what someone knows and what someone needs or wants to know. Such gaps exist because of a lack of knowledge, attitude or skill
• Learning needs must be identified first so that an instructional plan can be designed to address any deficits in the cognitive, affective, or psychomotor domains.
• Once it is discovered, what needs to be taught, a determination can be made about when and how learning can most optimally occur.
• Not every individual perceives a need for education. Often learners are not aware of what they don’t know or what they know. It is up to the education to assist them in identifying, clarifying and prioritizing their needs and interests.
• Once the needs are identified, it helps the educator to set objectives and plan appropriate and effective teaching and learning approaches for education to begin at a point suitable to the learner rather than from an unknown or inappropriate place.
ASSESSING THE LEARNING
Identify the group (Need) : first identify the number of students, whether it is a group or one. If it is a group, find out if it is the felt need of the majority.
Choose the right setting: establishing a trusting environment will help learners feel of a sense of security in confiding information.
Collect data about the learner
Collect data from the learner: learners are usually the most important source of needs assessment data about themselves.
Involve members of the healthcare team: nurses are not the sole teachers and they must remember to collaborate with other members of the healthcare team for a richer assessment of learning needs.
6. Prioritize needs:
Identified needs can become endless and impossible to accomplish. Maslow’s hierarchy (1970) of human needs may help the educator with prioritizing.
Criteria for Prioritizing learning Needs
7. Determine availability of educational resources: A need may be identified, but it may be useless to proceed with interventions if the proper educational resources are not available, are unrealistic to obtain, or do not match the learner’s needs. Educator would work immediately on obtaining the necessary equipment for future encounter.
8. Assess demands of the organization:
The educator should be familiar with standards of performance required in various employee categories, curriculum objective in case of academic learning.
9. Take “time” management into account: Time is an important factor in learning. Learning is time bound.
ASSESS LEARNING NEEDS
The following are various methods that can be used to assess learner needs and should be used in conjunction with one another to yield the most reliable information (Bastable, 2003 & Haggard, 1989)
• Informal Conversation
• Structured Interview
• Focus Groups
• Self-Administered Questionnaires
• Patient Charts
• Informal Conversations: –
– ) Often learning needs will be discovered during important of conversations that take place with other health care team members involved in the care of the client, and between the nurse and the patient or his or her family.
– The nurse educator must rely on active listening.
– Nursing staff can provide valuable input about what they perceive to be their learning.
–Using open-ended questions will encourage learners to reveal information about what they perceive their learning needs to be.
• Structured Interviews:
– The structured interview is perhaps the most common form of needs assessment to solicit the learner’s point of view.
– The nurse asks the learner direct and often predetermined questions to gather information about learning needs.
As with the gathering of any information from a learner in the assessment phase, the nurse should strive to establish a trusting environment, use open-ended questions, choose a setting that is free of distractions, and allow the learner to state what are believed to be the learning needs.
• Focus Groups:
– Focus groups involve getting together a small number (4 to 12) of potential learners (Breitrose, 1988) to determine areas of educational need by using group discussion to identify points of view or knowledge about a certain topic.
– A facilitator leads the discussion by asking questions that are open ended to encourage detailed discussion. These groups of potential learners in most cases should be homogeneous with similar characteristics such as age, gender, and past experience with the topic under discussion.
– Focus groups are ideal during the initial stage of information gathering to provide qualitative data for a complete assessment of learning needs.
• Self- Administered Questionnaires:
– The learner’s written responses to questions about learning needs can be obtained by survey instruments. Checklists are one of the most common forms of questionnaires.
– The educator’s role is to encourage learners to make as honest a self- assessment as possible. Because checklists usually reflect what the nurse educator perceives as needs, there should also be a space for the learner to add any other items of interest or concern
– Giving written pretests before teaching is planned can help identify the knowledge levels of potential learners regarding a particular subjects and assist in identifying their specific learning needs.
– Also, this approach prevents the educator from repeating already known material in the teaching plan. Furthermore, pretest results are useful to the educator after the completion of teaching to determine whether learning has taken place by comparing pretest scores to posttest scores
– Actually watching the learner perform a skill more than once is an excellent way of assessing a psychomotor need. Are all steps performed correctly? Is there any difficulty with manipulating various equipment? Does the learner require prompting? Learners may believe they can accurately perform a skill or task (e.g., walking with crutches, changing a dressing, giving an injection), but the educator can best determine if additional learning may be needed by observing the skill performance.
– Learners who observe themselves performing a skill that is videotaped can more easily identify their learning needs. This process is known as reflection on action (Grant, 2002).
• Patient Charts:
– Physicians’ progress notes, nursing care plans, nurses’ notes, and discharge planning forms can provide information on the learning needs of clients.
– The nurse educator needs to follow a consistent format from chart to chart so that each chart is reviewed in the same manner to identify learning needs based on the same information also, documentation by other members of the healthcare team
MOTIVATION To LEARN
What is motivation?
Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
How does motivation help in learning?
How can a teacher build intrinsic motivation?
Motivation is an internal state or condition (sometimes described as a need, desire, or want) that serves to activate or energize behavior and give it direction.
Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as
Intensity of desire or need
Incentive or reward value of the goal
Expectations of the individual and of his or her peers
Educational psychology has identified two basic classifications of motivation
Extrinsic (external )
Intrinsic (internal )
Extrinsic motivation is motivation to perform and succeed for the sake of accomplishing a specific result or outcome
External motivation comes from influences outside of the individual
Common extrinsic motivators are rewards and the threat of punishment
Thus extrinsically motivated learners may have to be enticed or prodded, may process information only superficially, and are often interested in performing only easy tasks and meeting minimal classroom requirements
However extrinsic motivation is equally necessary
Intrinsic motivation arises from a desire to learn a topic due to its inherent interests, for self-fulfilment, enjoyment and to achieve a mastery of the subject.
It exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or desire for reward .
Thus intrinsically motivated learners tackle assigned tasks willingly and are eager to learn classroom material, more likely to process information in effective ways (e.g., by engaging in meaningful learning), and more likely to achieve at high levels.
Performance Goals: student is motivated by the desire to gain recognition from others and earn good grades. A performance goal is, "I want to get an A in this subject."
Learning Goals: student is motivated by desire for knowledge acquisition and self-improvement. A learning goal is, "I want to master this subject."
How Motivation Affects Learning and Behavior
Motivation directs behavior toward particular goals.
Social cognitive theorists propose that individuals set goals for themselves and direct their behavior accordingly.
Motivation determines the specific goals toward which learners strives.
Thus, it affects the choices students make.
Motivation leads to increased effort and energy.
Motivation increases the amount of effort and energy that learners expend in activities directly related to their needs and goals.
It determines whether they pursue a task enthusiastically and wholeheartedly or apathetically and lackadaisically.
Motivation increases initiation of and persistence in activities.
Learners are more likely to begin a task they actually want to do.
They are also more likely to continue working at it until they’ve completed it, even if they are occasionally interrupted or frustrated in the process
In general, then, motivation increases students’ time on task, an important factor affecting their learning and achievement
Motivation affects cognitive processes.
Motivation affects what learners pay attention to and how effectively they process it
For instance, motivated learners often make a concerted effort to truly understand classroom material—to learn it meaningfully—and consider how they might use it in future.
Motivation determines which consequences are reinforcing and punishing.
The more learners are motivated to achieve academic success, the more they will be proud of an A and upset by a low grade.
The more learners want to be accepted and respected by peers, the more they will value membership in the “in” group and be distressed by the ridicule of classmates.
Motivation often enhances performance.
Because of the other effects just identified—goal-directed behavior, effort and energy, initiation and persistence, cognitive processing, and the impact of consequences—motivation often leads to improved performance.
Therefore students who are most motivated to learn and excel in classroom activities tend to be our highest achievers.
How to motivate ؟students
Building student motivation requires commitment on the part of teachers
Make it real
In order to foster intrinsic motivation, try to create learning activities based on topics to be taught
Learning should be practical
Help students find personal meaning and value in the material.
Strategies include using live models, videos, simulators.
Students can have increased motivation when they feel some sense of autonomy in the learning process, and motivation declines when students have no voice in the class structure.
Options can be as simple as letting them pick their lab partners or select from alternate assignments, or as complex as "contract teaching" wherein students can determine their own grading scale, due dates and assignments.
Let student write review questions for the lesson
Have them write an action plan before beginning a project
Fine-tune the challenge.
We’re most motivated to learn when the task before us is matched to our level of skill: not so easy as to be boring, and not so hard as to be frustrating and unattainable.
Deliberately fashion the learning exercise so that students are working at the very edge of their abilities.
Scaffolding is one instructional technique where the challenge level is gradually raised as students are capable of more complex tasks.
Encourage students to beat their personal best.
Help students set achievable goals for themselves
Generate motivation by encouraging students to compete against themselves: run through the material once to establish a baseline, then keep track of how much they improve (in speed, in accuracy) each time.
Avoid creating intense competition among students
Seek role models
If students can identify with role models they may be more likely to see the relevance in the subject matter.
There can be many sources of role models, such as invited guest speakers, fellow students or other peers
Students can learn by watching a peer succeed at a task.
Establish a sense of belonging
People have a fundamental need to feel connected or related to other people
Students learn when they are engaged
Direct instruction of socialization procedures like group activity and building appropriate classroom climate
Motivating every student to participate and making them believe that their input is valued
Modeling followed by guided practice and then independent practice
Avoid long lectures and focus on direct instructions
Using specific short term goals in learning
Teaching students how to approach and cope with different learning situations
Use your students as teachers; give them strict guidelines and have groups teach a lesson
Group activity leads to shared responsibility of performance
Adopt a supportive style
A supportive teaching style that allows for student autonomy can foster increased student interest, enjoyment, engagement and performance.
Supportive teacher behaviors include listening, giving hints and encouragement, being responsive to student questions and showing empathy for students, nurturing self worth, a sense of competence and autonomy
The Role of Expectations
This is HUGE! Students will only give you what you expect from them.
If you expect little, that’s exactly what you’re going to get! Don’t be afraid to raise the bar
Instilling the belief in students that they can learn coupled with high teacher expectations and you are confident in their ability to be successful
Strategize with struggling students
When students are struggling with poor academic performance, low self-efficacy or low motivation, one strategy that may help is to teach them how to learn.
Outline specific strategies for completing an assignment, note-taking or reviewing for an exam.
Dealing with failure
Teach students to concentrate on the task, rather than be distracted by fear of failure
Failure is a result of lack of information or not using the appropriate problem solving skill, not lack of ability
Assist students to retrace their steps to solve problems so they wont be distracted by frustration
The ARCS Model
ARCS Model: This model really captures the teacher’s role in motivation
Attention: capturing students’ interests and curiosity
Relevance: meeting students’ personal needs and goals
Confidence: helping students believe that they will succeed
Satisfaction: reinforcing students’ accomplishments through extrinsic or intrinsic rewards
References & Suggested Reading
-Bastable SB . Nurse as educator: Principle and learning of teaching for nursing practice (3re ed) . Jones & Bartlet Publisher ; 2007 . .ISBN 0763746436.
-Young SD. Teaching strategies for nurse educators ( 2nd ed) . Prentice Hall; 2008 . ISBN-13 978131790261
- Jackson M. Pocket guide for patient education .Jones and Bartlett Publisher 2008 . ISBN10 0.078 07637411556
Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.
Introduce each of the major topics.
To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.arning exercise so that students are working at the very edge of their abilities.
References & Sugges