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Nursing Management and leadership/Theory NURS 427 Level 8
Prepared by dr.hidaia amer
After completing this chapter, you will be able to understand :
Channels of communication in the organization
Organizational communication strategies
Variables affecting organizational communication
Written communication within communication
Prepared by Dr.Hidaia Amer
Measures to improve communication
What is Communication?
Communication can be defined as the process by which people share ideas, experience, knowledge and feelings through the transmission of symbolic messages.
The means of communication are usually spoken or written words, pictures or symbols. But we also give information through body language, gestures, and looks, facial expressions can show how we feel and what we think about an issue or another person.
What are the most common ways we communicate?
Types of Communication
Downwards Communication : Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, to assign duties, give instructions, to inform to offer feed back, approval to highlight problems etc.
Upwards Communications : It is non directive in nature from down below, to give feedback, to inform about progress/problems, seeking approvals.
Lateral or Horizontal Communication: Among colleagues, peers at same level for information level for information sharing for coordination, to save time.
Communication Key Elements
The Communication Process
Characteristics of effective communications
Effective communication requires the message to be:
Clear and concise
Relevant to the needs of the receiver
Applicable to the situation
Effective communication requires the sender to:
Know the subject well
Be interested in the subject
Know the audience members and establish a rapport with them
Speak at the level of the receiver
Choose an appropriate communication channel
The channel should be:
The receiver should:
Be aware, interested, and willing to accept the message
Understand the value of the message
An effective verbal communicator:
An effective nonverbal communicator:
Leans toward the other person
Establishes eye contact
Shows appropriate facial expressions
Effective Written Communication
Does not convey nonverbal cues
Same as verbal
Appropriate language and terminology
Correct grammar, spelling, punctuation
Appropriate use and citation of resources
Interpersonal Communication (IPC)
Interpersonal communication is a person to person, two-way, verbal and non verbal interaction that includes the sharing of information and feelings between individuals or in small groups that establish trusting relationships.
IPC in health care settings takes place between service providers and their clients and members of the community and is a key element in maximizing access to quality care.
IPC includes the process of education, motivation and counseling and starts with understanding the critical role of good client service.
Education is the process of providing factual information and clarification about a topic to an individual or group.
Counseling is the act of helping a client to make her or his own decision, by providing unbiased information and asking questions about what the client wants and what the client thinks that he or she can do.
Counseling is a special process. It is a confidential dialogue between a medical provider and a client that helps a client to define his or her feelings and to cope with stress. Usually people need training to be a good counselor.
Counseling is different from education, although education can be an important part of counseling.
Counseling is NOT solving the client’s problem for him or her or giving advice. In the counseling process, the medical provider avoids taking on the client’s problem or telling him or her how to solve the problem or what decision or action to take.
Knowledge and skills needed for effective interpersonal communication
Adequate knowledge of subject area
An understanding of one's own values and willingness to withhold judgment about the other people’s values.
Skills in verbal and nonverbal communication.
Ability to show empathy and encourage others.
Skills in asking questions and listening.
Tolerance and patience
Knowledge and skills needed for effective interpersonal communication
Ability to paraphrase and summarize the concerns of individuals and the community.
Ability to observe and interpret behavior of other people.
Ability to use language that other people understand.
Skills to effectively use support materials.
Characteristics of effective counseling
Private and confident
Barriers to communication
Values and beliefs
Sex/gender and age
Understanding of message
Tools for effective counseling
Understanding the stages of the counseling process.
Good interpersonal communication skills include treating clients with respect, asking clear questions, and helping them feel more comfortable talking about their needs.
A provider needs to have technical knowledge about their area of expertise. A provider needs to understand the steps involved in counseling.
Application of IPC in health care
1- History taking: Each intervention begins with a thorough analysis of the existing situation in a given field.
2- Channeling: The objective of channeling is to motivate community to utilize the preventive and curative health services offered.
This is carried out through one-to-one communication and group education sessions.
3- Counseling: The objectives of counseling are:
To share information about the disease and treatment options
To promote compliance through negotiation with the client over positive treatment and behavior changes.
To help clients make informed decisions
4- Dialogue with Patients/clients:
the objective of dialogue is to:
Determine what services are needed by the clients and what the best way to provide those services is.
Management of diseases, conditions and rehabilitation of patients and clients when they go to health institutions.
5- Overall Socio-Emotional Communication:
The objectives of effective socio-emotional communication are:
To establish and maintain a positive rapport with the patient throughout the encounter.
To enhance patients to open up and comply. Socio-emotional skills include the ability to use statements to show empathy, concern, positive regards, and to give reassurance.
Methods and Approaches to IPC
Identify trained personnel
Training of service providers in different departments
Advocacy and community mobilization
Interpersonal communication can be in the form of lecture, role play, group discussion, drama, meetings, counseling.
In addition, visual aids, such as posters, charts, flyers, pamphlets, and audio visual aids such as, video, films, radio, taped messages. These can be used to reinforce IPC.
Success for YOU…
…in the new global and diverse workplace requires excellent communication skills!
Questions to Challenge You
1- A nurse manager who tells the staff to "come to me with any problem" but then keeps the office door closed is using what type of communication?
2- The nurse manager can use several strategies to improve communication when giving directions. Asking the subordinate to repeat the instructions would be which of the following strategies?
Getting positive attention
Knowing the context of the instruction
Verifying through feedback
What are the communication channels in your workplace or clinical site? Are they congruent with the published organizational chart? How well does communication flow both upward and downward?
- Are messages received in a timely fashion?
- Is the medium (in person, phone, e-mail, etc.) appropriate to the message?
References & Suggested Reading
Sullivan EJ. Effective leadership and management in nursing (7th ed.). Prentice Hall, 2008
Kelly DL. Applying quality managing in health care. Health Administration Press, 2006
Tomey AM. Guide to nursing management and leadership. Mosby, 2008
Article Source: Study Notes, Semester I, 2009-2010
Prepared by Dr.Hidaia Amer Sheet3
Process Rejection Report
mfortable talking about their needs.
…in the new global and diverse work